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    ABSTRACT: Transplanted multipotent human fetal neural stem cells (hfNSCs) significantly improved the function of parkinsonian monkeys in a prior study primarily by neuroprotection, with only 3%-5% of cells expressing a dopamine (DA) phenotype. In this paper, we sought to determine whether further manipulation of the neural microenvironment by overexpression of a developmentally critical molecule, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), in the host striatum could enhance DA differentiation of hfNSCs injected into the substantia nigra and elicit growth of their axons to the GDNF-expressing target. hfNSCs were transplanted into the midbrain of 10 green monkeys exposed to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-pyridine. GDNF was delivered concomitantly to the striatum via an adeno-associated virus serotype 5 vector, and the fate of grafted cells was assessed after 11 months. Donor cells remained predominantly within the midbrain at the injection site and sprouted numerous neurofilament-immunoreactive fibers that appeared to course rostrally toward the striatum in parallel with tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive fibers from the host substantia nigra but did not mature into DA neurons. This work suggests that hfNSCs can generate neurons that project long fibers in the adult primate brain. However, in the absence of region-specific signals and despite GDNF overexpression, hfNSCs did not differentiate into mature DA neurons in large numbers. It is encouraging, however, that the adult primate brain appeared to retain axonal guidance cues. We believe that transplantation of stem cells, specifically instructed ex vivo to yield DA neurons, could lead to reconstruction of some portion of the nigrostriatal pathway and prove beneficial for the parkinsonian condition.
    STEM CELLS TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE 04/2014; · 3.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gonadal hormones induce significant changes in cognitive function, associated with alterations in the structure of the hippocampus. We have previously shown that androgens increase the number of spine synapses in the CA1 stratum radiatum of the monkey hippocampus. Recent evidence, however, suggests that loss of testicular hormone production may have variable effects on neuroplasticity in different regions of the hippocampus. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of orchidectomy in the dentate gyrus and CA3 subfield of the hippocampus in male St. Kitts vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus). Spine synapse density was significantly reduced (39%) after orchidectomy in the dentate gyrus, consistent with previously published reports in CA1 (40%). However, in CA3 orchidectomy induced a much smaller (22%) reduction in synapse density, which did not reach the limits of statistical significance. These results suggest that orchidectomy exerts heterogeneous effects on hippocampal spine synapse density, the CA3 subfield being relatively spared compared to CA1 and the dentate gyrus. This heterogeneity may contribute to the mixed functional responses observed in males following loss of testicular hormone secretions.
    Neuroscience Letters 11/2013; · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    Ari L Mendell, Neil J Maclusky, Csaba Leranth
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    ABSTRACT: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), the most abundant adrenal androgen in primates, is also synthesized from cholesterol in the brain. Like testosterone, DHEA induces spine synapse formation in the hippocampus. In female rats, this re-sponse is blocked by co-administration of an inhibitor of aromatase, the enzyme responsible for estrogen biosynthesis. In males, by contrast, the hippocampal synaptic response to DHEA is unaffected by treatment with an aromatase in-hibitor. We hypothesized that this sex difference might reflect differential dependence of the hippocampal responses on subcortical afferents from the basal forebrain. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of unilateral fimbria/ fornix transection (FFX) on DHEA-induced synapse formation in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) hippocampal subfield of gonadectomized female and male rats. In ovariectomized females, CA1 spine synapse density after DHEA treatment was reduced by more than 60% ipsilateral to FFX. In males, however, unilateral FFX transection had no effect on spine synapse density after DHEA treatment. These results suggest that sex differences in the dependence on local estrogen biosynthesis of the CA1 synaptic response to androgen may at least in part be the result of sex differences in the relative contributions of afferents to the hippocampus from the basal forebrain.
    Neuroscience & Medicine 09/2013; 4(3):134-139.
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    ABSTRACT: We combined viral vector delivery of human glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) with the grafting of dopamine precursor cells from fetal ventral mesencephalon to determine whether these strategies would improve the anti-Parkinson's effects in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated monkeys, an animal model for Parkinson's disease. Both strategies have been reported as individually beneficial in animal models of Parkinson's disease, leading to clinical studies. GDNF delivery has also been reported to augment ventral mesencephalic tissue implants but no combined studies have been done in monkeys. Monkeys were treated with MPTP and placed into four balanced treatment groups receiving only rAAV5/huGDNF, only fetal dopamine precursor cells, both together, or a buffered saline solution (control). The combination of fetal precursors with rAAV5/huGDNF showed significantly higher striatal dopamine concentrations compared with the other treatments, but did not lead to greater functional improvement in this study. For the first time under identical conditions in primates, we show that all three treatments lead to improvement compared with control animals.Molecular Therapy (2013); doi:10.1038/mt.2013.180.
    Molecular Therapy 08/2013; · 7.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease is usually characterized as a movement disorder; however, cognitive abilities that are dependent on the prefrontal cortex decline at an early stage of the disease in most patients. The changes that underlie cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease are not well understood. We hypothesize that reduced dopamine signalling in the prefrontal cortex in Parkinson's disease is a harbinger of detrimental synaptic changes in pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal cortex, whose function is necessary for normal cognition. Our previous data showed that monkeys exposed to the neurotoxin, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), but not exhibiting overt motor deficits (motor-asymptomatic), displayed cognitive deficits in prefrontal cortex-dependent tasks. The present results demonstrate that motor-asymptomatic MPTP-treated monkeys have a reduced dopamine concentration and a substantially lower number (50%) of asymmetric (excitatory) spine synapses in layer II/III, but not layer V, of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, compared to controls. In contrast, neither dopamine concentration nor asymmetric synapse number was altered in the entorhinal cortex of MPTP-treated monkeys. Together, these findings suggest that the number of asymmetric spine synapses on dendrites in the prefrontal cortex is dopamine-dependent and that the loss of synapses may be a morphological substrate of the cognitive deficits induced by a reduction in dopamine neurotransmission in this region.
    The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 09/2012; · 5.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have recently reported that in the learned helplessness model of depression, the less hippocampal spine synapses rats have, the more helpless they become. It remains unclear, however, whether the observed synaptic changes are associated with the loss of CA1 pyramidal cells. Cell bodies in the CA1 pyramidal layer are very densely packed, making cell counting difficult in this hippocampal subregion. To address this issue, we developed a new approach that (1) yields excellent preservation of the three-dimensional tissue structure; (2) utilizes osmium tetroxide to unambiguously label nucleoli; and (3) facilitates and accelerates unbiased, reliable counting of densely packed cell bodies. Our method provides an improved tool for studies aiming to evaluate hippocampal atrophy and cell loss, the most characteristic features in many neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, temporal lobe epilepsy and ischemia, as well as in several psychiatric disorders. Using this new method, we demonstrated no significant changes in the number of CA1 pyramidal cells in the rat learned helplessness paradigm. In addition, volumes of the CA1 pyramidal cell layer and the entire CA1 subfield remained unchanged among treatment groups. We conclude that previously observed synaptic alterations in helpless rats are not associated with CA1 pyramidal cell loss. This finding suggests that behavioral outcome in the learned helplessness paradigm is related to plastic events at the synaptic level, rather than at the level of principal cells.
    Journal of neuroscience methods 03/2012; 205(1):130-8. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia patients, long-term abusers of phencyclidine (PCP), and monkeys treated with PCP all exhibit enduring cognitive deficits. Evidence indicates that loss of prefrontal cortex spine synapses results in cognitive dysfunction, suggesting the presence of synaptic pathology in the monkey PCP model; however, there is no direct evidence of such changes. In this study we use the monkey PCP model of schizophrenia to investigate at the ultrastructural level whether remodelling of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) asymmetric spine synapses occurs following PCP. Subchronic PCP treatment resulted in a decrease in the number of asymmetric spine synapses, which was greater in layer II/III than layer V of DLPFC, compared to vehicle-treated controls. This decrease may contribute to PCP-induced cognitive dysfunction in the non-human primate model and perhaps in schizophrenia. Thus, the synapse loss in the PCP model provides a novel target for the development of potential treatments of cognitive dysfunction in this model and in schizophrenia.
    The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 06/2011; 14(10):1411-5. · 5.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Enduring cognitive deficits exist in schizophrenic patients, long-term abusers of phencyclidine (PCP), as well as in animal PCP models of schizophrenia. It has been suggested that cognitive performance and memory processes are coupled with remodeling of pyramidal dendritic spine synapses in prefrontal cortex (PFC), and that reduced spine density and number of spine synapses in the medial PFC of PCP-treated rats may potentially underlie, at least partially, the cognitive dysfunction previously observed in this animal model. The present data show that the decrease in number of asymmetric (excitatory) spine synapses in layer II/III of PFC, previously noted at 1-week post PCP treatment also occurs, to a lesser degree, in layer V. The decrease in the number of spine synapses in layer II/III was sustained and persisted for at least 4 weeks, paralleling the observed cognitive deficits. Both acute and chronic treatment with the atypical antipsychotic drug, olanzapine, starting at 1 week after PCP treatment at doses that restore cognitive function, reversed the asymmetric spine synapse loss in PFC of PCP-treated rats. Olanzapine had no significant effect on spine synapse number in saline-treated controls. These studies demonstrate that the effect of PCP on asymmetric spine synapse number in PFC lasts at least 4 weeks in this model. This spine synapse loss in PFC is reversed by acute treatment with olanzapine, and this reversal is maintained by chronic oral treatment, paralleling the time course of the restoration of the dopamine deficit, and normalization of cognitive function produced by olanzapine.
    Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 06/2011; 36(10):2054-61. · 8.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of bisphenol-A (BPA), a xenoestrogen endocrine disruptor, on endometrial P receptor (PR) expression in nonhuman primates and human cells. Controlled trial in primates. University. African green monkeys. After oophorectomy, BPA (50 μg/kg/d), E(2), both, or vehicle control were administered. Estradiol and BPA were used in Ishikawa cells. Progesterone receptor expression using immunohistochemistry and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Progesterone receptor expression was increased in E(2)-treated primates compared with controls. Exposure to the combination of E(2) and BPA resulted in decreased PR expression compared with E(2) exposure alone. In Ishikawa cells treated with E(2), PR expression increased 5.1-fold; however, when Ishikawa cells were simultaneously treated with E(2) and BPA, PR expression was decreased to 0.6-fold that of cells treated with E(2) alone. Bisphenol-A alone functions as a weak estrogen. However, when administered with E(2), BPA diminishes E(2)-induced PR expression. The estrogen-like effect of BPA reported in exposed humans may be mediated by PR blockade and a resultant decrease in the estrogen inhibition normally imparted by P. Diminished PR expression may underlie previous reports linking BPA exposure to endometrial dysfunction in humans.
    Fertility and sterility 04/2011; 96(1):175-9. · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    Tibor Hajszan, Csaba Leranth
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    ABSTRACT: The potential adverse effects of Bisphenol A (BPA), a synthetic xenoestrogen, have long been debated. Although standard toxicology tests have revealed no harmful effects, recent research highlighted what was missed so far: BPA-induced alterations in the nervous system. Since 2004, our laboratory has been investigating one of the central effects of BPA, which is interference with gonadal steroid-induced synaptogenesis and the resulting loss of spine synapses. We have shown in both rats and nonhuman primates that BPA completely negates the ∼ 70-100% increase in the number of hippocampal and prefrontal spine synapses induced by both estrogens and androgens. Synaptic loss of this magnitude may have significant consequences, potentially causing cognitive decline, depression, and schizophrenia, to mention those that our laboratory has shown to be associated with synaptic loss. Finally, we discuss why children may particularly be vulnerable to BPA, which represents future direction of research in our laboratory.
    Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology 10/2010; 31(4):519-30. · 7.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vectors derived from adeno-associated virus (AAV) are promising candidates for neural cell transduction in vivo because they are nonpathogenic and achieve long-term transduction in the central nervous system. AAV serotype 2 (AAV2) is the most widely used AAV vector in clinical trials based largely on its ability to transduce neural cells in the rodent and primate brain. Prior work in rodents suggests that other serotypes might be more efficient; however, a systematic evaluation of vector transduction efficiency has not yet been performed in the primate brain. In this study, AAV viral vectors of serotypes 1–6 with an enhanced green-fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene were generated at comparable titers, and injected in equal amounts into the brains of Chlorocebus sabaeus. Vector injections were placed in the substantia nigra (SN) and the caudate nucleus (CD). One month after injection, immunohistochemistry for GFP was performed and the total number of GFP+ cells was calculated using unbiased stereology. AAV5 was the most efficient vector, not only transducing significantly more cells than any other serotype, but also transducing both NeuN+ and glial-fibrillary-acidic protein positive (GFAP+) cells. These results suggest that AAV5 is a more effective vector than AAV2 at delivering potentially therapeutic transgenes to the nigrostriatal system of the primate brain.
    Molecular Therapy 12/2009; 18(3):588-593. · 7.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the fact that women are twice as likely to develop depression as men, our understanding of depression neurobiology in female subjects is limited. We have recently reported in male rats that development of helpless behavior is associated with a severe loss of hippocampal spine synapses, which is reversed by treatment with the antidepressant desipramine. Considering that estradiol has a hippocampal synaptogenic effect similar to those of antidepressants, the presence of estradiol during the female reproductive life might influence behavioral and synaptic responses to stress and depression. With electron microscopic stereology, we analyzed hippocampal spine synapses in association with helpless behavior in ovariectomized female rats (n = 70), under different conditions of estradiol exposure. Stress induced an acute and persistent loss of hippocampal spine synapses, whereas subchronic treatment with desipramine reversed the stress-induced synaptic loss. Estradiol supplementation given either before stress or before escape testing of nonstressed animals increased the number of hippocampal spine synapses. Correlation analysis demonstrated a statistically significant negative correlation between the severity of helpless behavior and hippocampal spine synapse numbers. These findings suggest that hippocampal spine synapse remodeling might be a critical factor underlying learned helplessness and, possibly, the neurobiology of depression.
    Biological psychiatry 10/2009; 67(2):168-74. · 8.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although it has been postulated for many years that depression is associated with loss of synapses, primarily in the hippocampus, and that antidepressants facilitate synapse growth, we still lack ultrastructural evidence that changes in depressive behavior are indeed correlated with structural synaptic modifications. We analyzed hippocampal spine synapses of male rats (n=127) with electron microscopic stereology in association with performance in the learned helplessness paradigm. Inescapable footshock (IES) caused an acute and persistent loss of spine synapses in each of CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus, which was associated with a severe escape deficit in learned helplessness. On the other hand, IES elicited no significant synaptic alterations in motor cortex. A single injection of corticosterone reproduced both the hippocampal synaptic changes and the behavioral responses induced by IES. Treatment of IES-exposed animals for 6 days with desipramine reversed both the hippocampal spine synapse loss and the escape deficit in learned helplessness. We noted, however, that desipramine failed to restore the number of CA1 spine synapses to nonstressed levels, which was associated with a minor escape deficit compared with nonstressed control rats. Shorter, 1-day or 3-day desipramine treatments, however, had neither synaptic nor behavioral effects. These results indicate that changes in depressive behavior are associated with remarkable remodeling of hippocampal spine synapses at the ultrastructural level. Because spine synapse loss contributes to hippocampal dysfunction, this cellular mechanism may be an important component in the neurobiology of stress-related disorders such as depression.
    Biological psychiatry 12/2008; 65(5):392-400. · 8.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exposure measurements from several countries indicate that humans are routinely exposed to low levels of bisphenol A (BPA), a synthetic xenoestrogen widely used in the production of polycarbonate plastics. There is considerable debate about whether this exposure represents an environmental risk, based on reports that BPA interferes with the development of many organs and that it may alter cognitive functions and mood. Consistent with these reports, we have previously demonstrated that BPA antagonizes spine synapse formation induced by estrogens and testosterone in limbic brain areas of gonadectomized female and male rats. An important limitation of these studies, however, is that they were based on rodent animal models, which may not be representative of the effects of human BPA exposure. To address this issue, we examined the influence of continuous BPA administration, at a daily dose equal to the current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's reference safe daily limit, on estradiol-induced spine synapse formation in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of a nonhuman primate model. Our data indicate that even at this relatively low exposure level, BPA completely abolishes the synaptogenic response to estradiol. Because remodeling of spine synapses may play a critical role in cognition and mood, the ability of BPA to interfere with spine synapse formation has profound implications. This study is the first to demonstrate an adverse effect of BPA on the brain in a nonhuman primate model and further amplifies concerns about the widespread use of BPA in medical equipment, and in food preparation and storage.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/2008; 105(37):14187-91. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    Tibor Hajszan, Neil J MacLusky, Csaba Leranth
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    ABSTRACT: Accumulating evidence indicate that structural synaptic plasticity in limbic areas plays a vital role not only in normal brain functions, such as cognition and mood, but also in the development of neurological and mental disorders. We have learned from studies investigating neuronal remodeling that estrogens have an exceptional synaptogenic potential that seems to be specific to limbic areas of the adult female brain. On the other hand, structural synaptic plasticity in the adult male brain and the synaptogenic effect of androgens received relatively little attention. During the last five years, the Leranth laboratory provided conclusive evidence that the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of adult male rodents and non-human primates retain considerable structural synaptic plasticity similar to the female, and that androgens are capable of inducing spine synapse growth in both the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex similar to estrogens. Our recent work also demonstrates that androgen-induced remodeling of spine synapses in the prefrontal cortex of adult male rats is dependent, at least to some extent, on functional androgen receptors, while being entirely independent of the androgen receptor in the hippocampus. Based on these findings and on their many beneficial effects, we believe that androgens hold a great and undeservingly neglected therapeutic potential that could be employed to reverse synaptic pathology in various neurocognitive and neuropsychiatric disorders.
    Hormones and Behavior 06/2008; 53(5):638-46. · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exposure measurement data from several developed countries indicate that human beings are widely exposed to low levels of the synthetic xenoestrogen, bisphenol A. We reported previously that bisphenol A, even at doses below the reference safe daily limit for human exposure, recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, impairs the synaptogenic response to 17beta-estradiol in the hippocampus of ovariectomized rats. Recent experiments revealed that bisphenol A also interferes with androgen receptor-mediated transcriptional activities. Thus, to investigate whether bisphenol A impairs synaptogenesis in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus of adult male rats, castrated and sham-operated animals were treated with different combinations of bisphenol A (300 microg/kg), testosterone propionate (1.5 mg/kg), and sesame oil vehicle. The brains were processed for electron microscopic stereology, and the number of asymmetric spine synapses in the mPFC and CA1 hippocampal area was estimated. In both regions analyzed, bisphenol A reduced the number of spine synapses in sham-operated, gonadally intact animals, which was accompanied by a compensatory increase in astroglia process density. In addition, bisphenol A prevented both the prefrontal and hippocampal synaptogenic response to testosterone supplementation in castrated males. These results demonstrate that bisphenol A interferes with the synaptogenic response to testosterone in the mPFC and hippocampus of adult male rats. Because the hippocampal synaptogenic action of androgens seems to be independent of androgen and estrogen receptors in males, the potential mechanisms that underlie these negative effects of bisphenol A remain the subject of further investigation.
    Endocrinology 04/2008; 149(3):988-94. · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/2008; · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prenatal exposure to cocaine has been associated with cognitive deficits in children and in animal models. An excess activation of pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal cortex has been proposed as a potential cause for these deficits based on previous studies. The goal of this study was to determine if prenatal exposure to cocaine was associated with an increase in the number of excitatory synapses on dendritic spines in layer II/III of the prelimbic cortex. Frontal cortex of young adult male and female rats, exposed to either saline or cocaine (3 mg/kg i.e., twice a day, embryonic day 10-20), were examined using electron microscopy and the number of asymmetric spines synapses were estimated using the physical disector method. Both male and female rats prenatally exposed to cocaine had about twice as many synapses on dendritic spines as the prenatal saline controls. The increase in number of excitatory synaptic inputs associated with prenatal cocaine exposure could contribute to the increased neuronal activation and cognitive deficits noted.
    Synapse 11/2007; 61(10):862-5. · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies suggest that, in female monkeys and rats, estrogens elicit dendritic spine synapse formation in the prefrontal cortex, an area that, similar to the hippocampus, plays a critical role in cognition. However, whether gonadal hormones induce synaptic remodeling in the male prefrontal cortex remains unknown. Here we report that gonadectomy reduced, whereas administration of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone or estradiol-benzoate to castrated male rats increased, the number of medial prefrontal cortical (mPFC) spine synapses, with estradiol-benzoate being less effective than 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone. To investigate whether the androgen receptor contributes to the mediation of these changes, we compared the response of testicular feminization mutant (Tfm) male rats to that of wild-type animals. The number of mPFC spine synapses in gonadally intact Tfm rats and 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone-treated castrated Tfm males was considerably reduced compared to intact wild-type animals, whereas the synaptogenic effect of estradiol-benzoate was surprisingly enhanced in Tfm rats. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that remodeling of spine synapses in the prefrontal cortex may contribute to the cognitive effect of gonadal steroids. Our findings in Tfm animals indicate that androgen receptors may mediate a large part of the synaptogenic action of androgens in the mPFC of adult males. However, because this effect of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone is not completely lost in Tfm rats, additional mechanisms may also be involved.
    Endocrinology 06/2007; 148(5):1963-7. · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The medial prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus serve well recognized roles in memory processing. The hippocampus projects densely to, and exerts strong excitatory actions on, the medial prefrontal cortex. Interestingly, the medial prefrontal cortex, in rats and other species, has no direct return projections to the hippocampus, and few projections to parahippocampal structures including the entorhinal cortex. It is well established that the nucleus reuniens of the midline thalamus is the major source of thalamic afferents to the hippocampus. Since the medial prefrontal cortex also distributes to nucleus reuniens, we examined medial prefrontal connections with populations of nucleus reuniens neurons projecting to hippocampus. We used a combined anterograde and retrograde tracing procedure at the light and electron microscopic levels. Specifically, we made Phaseolus vulgaris-leuccoagglutinin (PHA-L) injections into the medial prefrontal cortex and Fluorogold injections into the hippocampus (CA1/subiculum) and examined termination patterns of anterogradely PHA-L labeled fibers on retrogradely FG labeled cells of nucleus reuniens. At the light microscopic level, we showed that fibers from the medial prefrontal cortex form multiple putative synaptic contacts with dendrites of hippocampally projecting neurons throughout the extent of nucleus reuniens. At ultrastructural level, we showed that medial prefrontal cortical fibers form asymmetric contacts predominantly with dendritic shafts of hippocampally projecting reuniens cells. These findings indicate that nucleus reuniens represents a critical link between the medial prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus. We discuss the possibility that nucleus reuniens gates the flow of information between the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus dependent upon attentive/arousal states of the organism.
    Brain Research Bulletin 04/2007; 71(6):601-9. · 2.94 Impact Factor

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