Chrispinus Mulambalah

Associate Professor of Medical Parasitology
· Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology


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    A W Wekesa, C S Mulambalah, C I Muleke, R Odhiambo
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    ABSTRACT: Intestinal helminth infections during pregnancy are associated with adverse outcomes including low birth weight and prenatal mortality. The infections are a major public health problem in developing countries. A hospital based survey was undertaken for six months to determine the infection prevalence, intensity, and risk factors. The study involved expectant women attending antenatal clinic. Stool samples were screened microscopically for helminth ova using Kato Katz technique. Information on risk factors was collected using semistructured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS. Epidemiological data was analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis. The overall prevalence of infection was 21 (13.8%). Ascariasis was the most prevalent 10 (6.5%), hookworm infection was 6 (3.9%), and trichuriasis was 2 (1.3%). Pregnant women aged below 29 years (OR = 3.63, CI = 0.87-11.75) and those with primary level of education (OR = 3.21, CI = 0.88-11.75) were at a higher risk of infection compared to those aged ≥ 29 years with secondary level of education. Hand washing was significantly associated with reduced likelihood of infection (OR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.06-0.57). It was concluded that intestinal helminth infections were prevalent among pregnant women. We recommended that all expectant women visiting antenatal clinics be screened for intestinal helminth infections and positive cases be advised to seek treatment.
    Journal of Parasitology Research 01/2014; 2014:823923.
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    Mulambalah Chrispinus, Donald N Siamba, Moses M Ngeiywa
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    ABSTRACT: The study investigated the use of targeted indoor residual spraying (IRS) as a single malaria intervention in the western highlands, Kenya. Houses were randomly selected in study sites and IRS targeted 30% of houses at focal sites 'hotspots' at valley bottoms. Indoor resting densities of adult Anopheles gambiae s.s were monitored biweekly by pyrethrum spray capture in sprayed and control houses. Microscopic examination of blood smears were used to confirm malaria infection and records on malaria cases from health centers were analyzed and used to determine changes in malaria prevalence. The indoor A. gambiae s.s declined after IRS. Low vector densities were also recorded in the control houses with no malaria cases. Malaria cases reported at health centers dramatically declined after the targeted IRS. Low coverage targeted IRS was effective as a single intervention strategy as it led to decline in annual disease prevalence from 12 to 1% in the study sites. The effectiveness of targeted IRS appeared to be dependent on anthropophily of the local vector, its susceptibility to the insecticide and seasonal nature of malaria transmission.
    Journal of Infectious Diseases and Immunity. 04/2011; 3:50-58.

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