Publications

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    ABSTRACT: The current inclination towards exploiting bacterial pigments for various coloring functions, like food, cloth, painting, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, plastics etc. is a well-recognized aspect. Nevertheless, the current bacterial pigment productions are not effective to meet their industrial needs. Current researches going on world over on bacterial pigments signify that genetic engineering for strain improvement, optimization of bioprocess modelling and utilizing cheap agro-industrial residues as substrates are key developmental strategies to maximize pigment production from bacteria. Incidentally the superior performance characteristics of the bacteria for producing differing colouring compounds and the environmental acceptability of bacterial pigments are very encouraging factors to promote higher pigment production taking advantage of the current developmental strategies. This paper evaluates the current advances in bacterial pigment production, its recovery and wide-ranging scope of its industrial applications and commercial viability.
    RSC Advances 08/2014; 4(74):39523 - 39529. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    Chidambaram Kulandaisamy Venil, Zainul Akmar Zakaria, Rajamanickam Usha, Wan Azlina Ahmad
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    ABSTRACT: The pigment from Chryseobacterium sp. UTM-3T was isolated and characterized with the aim to develop a natural colorant for application in bio-pigment production. The pigment was characterized by UV-VIS, FTIR, NMR and LC-MS which confirms that it belongs to flexirubin type of pigment. The physical and chemical properties revealed that the pigment has similar properties as most of natural pigment. It was insoluble in water and most organic solvents, but soluble only in acetone and alkaline aqueous and DMSO. The pigment was stable in UV, sunlight and in dark conditions, stable in the range of 25–100 °C. L⁎, a⁎ and b⁎ values of the CIELAB color system for the pigments were measured and hue, chroma were then calculated. The color of the pigment was in the range of yellow. This is the first report on the characterization of pigment from Chryseobacterium sp.
    Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology. 01/2014;
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    Chidambaram Kulandaisamy VENIL, Nordin N, Zakaria ZA, Ahmad WA
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    ABSTRACT: A bacterial strain, designated UTM-3(T), isolated from the rhizosphere soil of Artocarpus integer (cempedak) in Malaysia was studied to determine its taxonomic position. Cells were Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming rods, devoid of flagella and gliding motility, that formed yellow-pigmented colonies on nutrient agar and contained MK-6 as the predominant menaquinone. Comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain UTM-3(T) with those of the most closely related species showed that the strain constituted a distinct phyletic line within the genus Chryseobacterium with the highest sequence similarities to Chryseobacterium lactis NCTC 11390(T), Chryseobacterium viscerum 687B-08(T), Chryseobacterium tructae 1084-08(T), Chryseobacterium arthrosphaerae CC-VM-7(T), Chryseobacterium oncorhynchi 701B-08(T), Chryseobacterium vietnamense GIMN1.005(T), Chryseobacterium bernardetii NCTC 13530(T), Chryseobacterium nakagawai NCTC 13529(T), Chryseobacterium gallinarum LMG 27808(T), Chryseobacterium culicis R4-1A(T), Chryseobacterium flavum CW-E2(T), Chryseobacterium aquifrigidense CW9(T), Chryseobacterium ureilyticum CCUG 52546(T), Chryseobacterium indologenes NBRC 14944(T), Chryseobacterium gleum CCUG 14555(T), Chryseobacterium jejuense JS17-8(T), Chryseobacterium oranimense H8(T) and Chryseobacterium joostei LMG 18212(T). The major whole-cell fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 1ω9c, followed by summed feature 4 (iso-C15 : 0 2-OH and/or C16 : 1ω7t) and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, and the polar lipid profile consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine and several unknown lipids. The DNA G+C content strain UTM-3(T) was 34.8 mol%. On the basis of the phenotypic and phylogenetic evidence, it is concluded that the isolate represents a novel species of the genus Chryseobacterium, for which the name Chryseobacterium artocarpi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is UTM-3(T) ( = CECT 8497(T) = KCTC 32509(T)).
    International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology 01/2014; 64:3153. · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    Claira Arul Aruldass, Chidambaran Kulandaisamy Venil, Zainul Akmar Zakaria, Wan Azlina Ahmad
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    ABSTRACT: Interest in bacterial pigments such as prodigiosin is growing among researchers due to their antibacterial, antifungal, antiproliferative and immunosuppressive properties. However, commercial application of bacterial-based pigments such as prodigiosin is limited due to the high production cost, which is partly caused by the expensive growth medium. This study reports on the use of brown sugar for the growth of a locally isolated, red-pigment (prodigiosin)-producing bacterium, i.e. Serratia marcescens UTM1. Factors affecting prodigiosin production – notably culture conditions and the effect of lactose and L- tryptophan supplementation – were evaluated in both shake-flask and 5-l bioreactor conditions. The use of optimized conditions resulted in a high prodigiosin yield of ∼8000 mg l−1. The TLC and column chromatography-purified fraction was confirmed as prodigiosin using FTIR, LC-MS and NMR. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using brown sugar as a potential cheap growth medium for large-scale cultivation of prodigiosin using locally isolated S. marcescens UTM1.
    International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 01/2014; · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    Chidambaram Kulandaisamy Venil, Palanivel Velmurugan, Perumalsamy Lakshmanaperumalsamy
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    ABSTRACT: Serratia strains produce prodigiosin, which are a red linear tripyrrole antibiotic and a member of prodiginines. Prodigiosin is of potent clinical interest because it is reported to have anti fungal, anti bacterial, anti protozoal, anti malarial, immunosuppressive and anti cancer activities. The prodigiosin biosynthesis gene cluster (pig cluster) from Serratia marcescens SB08 has been sequenced and expressed in heterologous hosts. The gene responsible for prodigiosin production by Serratia marcescens SB08 was identified by PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis. The regions between cueR and pigA and pigN and copA were amplified by PCR using the primers cueR, PE1, ab77 and PE2 which resulted in product size of 488 bp and 183 bp respectively. These findings could suggest that the pigment gene cluster might be under cueR-mediated control and / or that one or more of the pigment enzymes required copper, or a related metal, as a cofactor.
    07/2013; 14:4812-4819.
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    Chidambaram Kulandaisamy Venil, Perumalsamy Lakshmanaperumalsamy
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    ABSTRACT: The toxicity problems caused by those of synthetic origin pigments to the environment have created a mounting interest towards natural pigments. Among natural pigments, pigments from microbial sources are potentially good alternative ones to synthetic pigments. Prodigiosin, the bright red pigment produced by organisms of the genus Serratia, is among the more conspicuous pigments extant in the microbial world. The chemical nature of prodigiosin continues to be the subject of extensive study and it has been defined as a tri-pyrrylmethene. The rather rapid production of a flashy red pigment, which did not escape the observation of men before they had any inkling of the nature of microbial growth, can now is understood in terms of prodigiosin production. The prodigiosin pigments have intrigued organic chemists and pharmacologists and may yet play roles in the treatment of infectious diseases such as malaria and as immunosuppressant agents. However, a major reason for much of the continuing curiosity in the prodigiosin / Serratia story is the theory that these viscous, crimson bacterial colonies provide a naturalistic explanation. This review article highlights the characteristics and potential of prodigiosin pigment from Serratia.
    electronic journal of biology. 07/2013; 5:49-61.
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    ABSTRACT: The optimization of the fermentation medium and conditions for maximum lipase production was carried out using a new strain, Serratia marcescens SB08. The results of factorial design showed that CaCl 2 , incubation time, pH and yeast extract were the key factors affecting lipase production. The optimal cultural conditions for lipase production obtained with central composite design was pH 7.0, incubation time 51 h, yeast extract 3.0 g/L and CaCl 2 0.13 g/L. The model was also validated by repeating the experiments under the optimized conditions, which resulted in the lipase production of 243.91 U/mL (Predicted response 251.83 U/mL), thus proving the validity of the model. Lipase enzyme was purified and the molecular weight was found to be 52 kDa. In this work the use of a central composite design by determining the conditions leading to the high yield of enzyme production has been demonstrated. Thus, smaller and less time consuming experimental designs could generally suffice for the optimization of many fermentation processes.
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    Chidambaram Kulandaisamy Venil, Zainul Akmar Zakaria, Wan Azlina Ahmad
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    ABSTRACT: Natural pigments sourced from ores, insects, plants and animals were the colorants used since prehistoric period. Synthetic dyes which took the place of natural pigments in the middle of 19th century still rule the field to the maximum extent in spite of its hazardous effect to humans, animals and environment. As an alternative to synthetic pigments, bacterial pigments due to their better biodegradability and higher compatibility with the environment, offer promising avenues for various applications. The industry is now able to produce some bacterial pigments for applications in food, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and textiles. Extraction of bacterial pigments in relatively pure and concentrated forms is the main technological challenge. Optimization of fermentation process and the medium components are reported as key strategies for economic recovery of pigments. Research work needs to be carried out to formulate the fermentation media for each bacterial pigment on large scale by using economical and easily available sources for commercial process. Recent advances in synthetic biology, metabolic engineering efforts of bacteria will greatly expand the pigments that could be produced economically in sufficient amounts for industrial application. This review summarizes the current technology status and challenges, economics, novel strategies for production of bacterial pigments and metabolic engineering of bacteria with a focus on applications of bacterial pigments in food industry, pharmaceutical industry, dyeing as well as on other applications.
    Process Biochemistry 06/2013; · 2.44 Impact Factor
  • Padmapriya, Rajeswari, Noushida, Sethupalan, Chidambaram Kulandaisamy Venil
    World Applied Sciences Journal 01/2011; 12(10):1798. · 0.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Marine actinomycetes were isolated from sediment samples collected from Pitchavaram mangrove ecosystem situated along the southeast coast of India. Maximum actinomycete population was noted in rhizosphere region. About 38% of the isolates produced L-asparaginase. One potential strain KUA106 produced higher level of enzyme using tryptone glucose yeast extract medium. Based on the studied phenotypic characteristics, strain KUA106 was identified as Streptomyces parvulus KUA106. The optimization method that combines the Plackett-Burman design, a factorial design and the response surface method, which were used to optimize the medium for the production of L-asparaginase by Streptomycetes parvulus. Four medium factors were screened from eleven medium factors by Plackett-Burman design experiments and subsequent optimization process to find out the optimum values of the selected parameters using central composite design was performed. Asparagine, tryptone, d) extrose and NaCl components were found to be the best medium for the L-asparaginase production. The combined optimization method described here is the effective method for screening medium factors as well as determining their optimum level for the production of L-asparaginase by Streptomycetes parvulus KUAP106.
    Polish journal of microbiology / Polskie Towarzystwo Mikrobiologów = The Polish Society of Microbiologists 01/2011; 60(3):213-21. · 0.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An indigenous bacterium, Bacillus REP02, was isolated from locally sourced chromium electroplating industrial effluents. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the five critical medium parameters responsible for higher % Cr(2+) removal by the bacterium Bacillus REP02. A three-level Box-Behnken factorial design was used to optimize K2HPO4, yeast extract, MgSO4, NH4NO3, and dextrose for Cr(2+) removal. A coefficient of determination (R (2)) value (0.93), model F-value (3.92) and its low P-value (F < 0.0008) along with lower value of coefficient of variation (5.39) indicated the fitness of response surface quadratic model during the present study. At optimum parameters of K2HPO4 (0.6 g L(-1)), yeast extract (5.5 g L(-1)), MgSO4 (0.04 g L(-1)), NH4NO3 (0.20 g L(-1)), and dextrose (12.50 g L(-1)), the model predicted 98.86% Cr(2+) removal, and experimentally, 99.08% Cr(2+) removal was found.
    ISRN microbiology. 01/2011; 2011:951694.
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    Chidambaram Kulandaisamy Venil, Perumalsamy Lakshmanaperumalsamy
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    ABSTRACT: The potential of the white rot fungus, Coriolus versicolor ML04 to decolorize the widely used textile dye Blue BB was tested by employing statistical optimization. Response surface methodology (RSM) involving a central composite design (CCD) was applied to evaluate the interactive effects of four significant factors in different ranges i.e., glucose (0.5 – 2.5 g/L), yeast extract (0.4 –1.2 g/L), dye concentration (100 – 500 ppm) and inoculum size (5 – 20 % v/v) to decolorize the Blue BB. The results demonstrated the effectiveness of the statistical experimental design and the ability of C. versicolor ML04 for maximum dye decolorization (>96%) at the optimum conditions of the significant factors.
    Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology 12/2010; 53(6):1503-1510. · 0.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The competence of the living creatures to sense and respond to light is well known. The effect of darkness and different color light quality on biomass, extracellular and intracellular pigment yield of five potent pigment producers Monascus purpureus, Isaria farinosa, Emericella nidulans, Fusarium verticillioides and Penicillium purpurogenum, with different color shades such as red, pink, reddish brown and yellow, were investigated. Incubation in total darkness increased the biomass, extracellular and intracellular pigment production in all the fungi. Extracellular red pigment produced by M. purpureus resulted maximum in darkness 36.75 + or - 2.1 OD and minimum in white unscreened light 5.90 + or - 1.1 OD. Similarly, intracellular red pigment produced by M. purpureus resulted maximum in darkness 18.27 + or - 0.9 OD/g and minimum in yellow light 8.03 + or - 0.6 OD/g of substrate. The maximum biomass production was also noticed in darkness 2.51 g/L and minimum in yellow light 0.5 g/L of dry weight. In contrast, growth of fungi in green and yellow wavelengths resulted in low biomass and pigment yield. It was found that darkness, (red 780-622 nm, blue 492-455 nm) and white light influenced pigment and biomass yield.
    Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 04/2010; 109(4):346-50. · 1.74 Impact Factor
  • Usha, Ananthaselvi, Chidambaram Kulandaisamy Venil, Palaniswamy
    European Journal of biological sciences. 01/2010; 2(4):77.
  • Usha, Prabu, Palaniswamy, Chidambaram Kulandaisamy Venil, Rajendran
    Global journal of biotechnology and biochemistry. 01/2010; 5(3):153.
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    ABSTRACT: Fungi isolated from oil contaminated soils were screened for exogenous lipolytic activity. Optimization of fermentation conditions such as substrate, temperature, pH, moisture content, incubation period, carbon source, nitrogen source and metal ions for maximum lipase production was examined under solid state fermentation by the local isolate of Aspergillus flavus KUF108. Purification of crude enzyme was carried out by ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis and DEAE cellulose column chromatography. The lipase was found to be active at pH 5 and 50 °C, and stable between pH 5-6 and 40-60 °C. The apparent molecular weight of purified enzyme was 44 kDa.
    Pakistan Journal of Science and Industrial Research. 01/2010; 53:258-264.
  • Usha, Mala, Chidambaram Kulandaisamy Venil, Palaniswamy
    Pharmacology online. 01/2010; 1:583.
  • Rajeswari, Chidambaram Kulandaisamy Venil, Sathya, Sunitha, Umavisalakshi
    Pharmacology online. 01/2010; 3:297.
  • Pharmacology online. 01/2010; 1:537.
  • Chidambaram Kulandaisamy Venil, Rajkokila, Lakshmanaperumalsamy
    International Journal of biosciences and technology. 01/2010; 3(3):36.

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