Publications

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    ABSTRACT: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide managerial insights into how consumer goods companies adopt the traditional mini-sized retail modalities and adjust their strategies to market sachets successfully in the Philippines. Design/methodology/approach – The study uses case studies through semi-structured in-depth interviews with marketing managers from major multinational and regional companies that have used sachets as part of their marketing strategy. Findings – The findings suggest that companies use sachet marketing to facilitate trials of new products and to deliver value across the market by making products more affordable and accessible. The extensive network of corner stores provides the distribution system needed to reach the farthest and remotest markets. To be successful, the brands must be popular and priced in a manner compatible with the coinage system in a market. Originality/value – There has been little analysis of consumer goods companies' strategies that cause quick acceptance of sachets. This study fills this gap in research and shows how companies have adopted the piecemeal retailing and adapted their strategies to create a burgeoning sachet market.
    Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics 11/2011; 23(5):755-772.
  • Chanthika Pornpitakpan
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of option choice reversibility on the number of options chosen, total spending, and upset/regret from actions/inaction, using 124 Singaporean adults. Design/methodology/approach – The experiment employs two levels of option choice reversibility: fully reversible without a penalty vs strictly irreversible. Participants add options to a base model or delete options from a full model and are either allowed or not allowed to change options in a condominium purchase scenario. Findings – Compared to participants in the irreversible choice condition, those in the reversible choice select more options and end up with higher total spending. In the irreversible option choice condition, participants anticipate more upset (one aspect of regret) when they take actions than inaction, but in the reversible option choice condition, the reverse is true. Research limitations/implications – The study uses only one decision stimulus, which is a condominium purchase, and the purchase scenario might not be as realistic as an actual purchase decision. Practical implications – Refunds and option change permission policies make consumers feel they can reverse their buying decisions, making them feel the decisions are less risky and thus inducing them to buy more than when no refunds or option change is allowed after purchase. To drive consumers to take actions, marketers should allow consumers to change their mind after making decisions and assure them of such policy. Originality/value – The paper shows the effect of decision reversibility on the total spending (i.e. the total costs of choices made) and extends the theory about omission biases by demonstrating that regrets from actions/inaction depend on decision reversibility.
    Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics 10/2010; 22(4):545-553.
  • Chanthika Pornpitakpan
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    ABSTRACT: This study examines the effect of package sizes, unit costs, and fill amounts on product usage amounts with 343 Thai undergraduates. Participants read scenarios and scooped/poured the products into containers. The results show that the effects of package sizes, unit costs, and fill amounts on usage vary by product types. H1 (consumers use a greater product amount when the package size is larger versus smaller) receives clear support in the case of cooking oil and partial support in the case of detergent, floor cleaner, and fish food. H2 (consumers use a greater product amount when the product unit cost is lower versus higher) receives full support in the case of detergent, no support in the case of cooking oil, and partial support in the case of floor cleaner and fish food. H3 (consumers use a greater product amount when the fill is visibly greater versus lesser) does not receive support.
    Journal of Global Marketing 09/2010; 23(4):275-287.
  • Chanthika Pornpitakpan, Robert T. Green
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to extend a 2007 study by investigating which types of message appeals are more effective in reducing unrealistic optimism (a tendency for people to believe that they are less prone than are others to encounter negative outcomes) and inducing purchase intentions of a life-threatening hazard prevention product in collectivist and individualist cultures. Design/methodology/approach – An experiment was conducted with 133 American, 145 Singaporean, and 200 Thai undergraduates, totaling 478 participants. Findings – The findings confirm the existence of unrealistic optimism in the marketing setting and show that first, lower levels of optimism are associated with higher purchase intentions for the product; second, hazard-related behavior priming advertisement appeals lead to lower purchase intentions than do advertisements without priming, contradicting some earlier findings; and third, participants from collectivist cultures (Singaporeans and Thais) show higher purchase intentions than do those from individualist cultures (Americans) for both the risk-priming and the expert advertisement appeals. Research limitations/implications – The samples, while well matched, consist of undergraduate students who are not necessarily representative of the populations as a whole. The samples also come from only three countries. In addition, the study uses a single message. Practical implications – The study suggests that: external-control/collectivist cultures may be more influenced by advertising, regardless of the appeal employed; different types of cultures may require different amounts of advertising to achieve equal levels of effectiveness; unrealistic optimism needs to be addressed by marketers of preemptive products; and for products that are health-related and difficult to evaluate, advertisements using expert appeals may be more effective than those attempting to counter unrealistic optimism by priming the risk-related behaviors. Originality/value – The paper has re-affirmed the existence of unrealistic optimism, and that this phenomenon exists internationally with respect to a high-involvement risk product category. It has unveiled relationships between optimism and purchase intentions. Finally, the paper has identified both similarities and differences in terms of the existence of unrealistic optimism and the relative effectiveness of different message types across cultures.
    Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics 07/2010; 22(3):372-396.
  • Chanthika Pornpitakpan
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    ABSTRACT: This experiment examines the effect of option choice framing on short-term regret from actions and inactions, using 124 Singaporean and 96 Thai working adults who add options to a base model (additive framing) or delete options from a full model (subtractive framing) in a condominium purchase scenario. The results qualify past findings, showing that in both cultures, in additive framing, participants anticipate more regret from taking actions (adding options) than inactions, whereas in subtractive framing, they anticipate more regret from taking inactions (not deleting options) than actions. The implications for marketers are as follows. First, in the additive framing condition, to avoid regret consumers may prefer not adding options and hence lower revenues for marketers. Second, in the subtractive framing condition, to avoid regret consumers may prefer deleting options, hence lower revenues for marketers. Third, marketers can minimize consumers’ anticipated regret by, for example, allowing consumers to change their mind without any penalty after they have added/deleted options, accelerating them to make decisions so that they have less time or no time to anticipate regret, providing them with a lot of information to process so that they have little cognitive capacity left to anticipate regret, and putting them in a distracting environment (playing loud music, playing movies, and providing snacks/foods).
    Australasian Marketing Journal (AMJ) 01/2010; 18(3):132-137.
  • Chanthika Pornpitakpan
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the cross-cultural generalization of the effect of option choice framing on product option choices and other managerial and psychological variables. Design/methodology/approach – The experiment employs 124 Singaporean and 96 Thai working adults, who add options to a base model or delete options from a full model in a condominium purchase scenario. Hypotheses are derived from the different weights for monetary losses and utility gains from adding options vs utility losses and monetary gains from deleting options. Findings – For both Singaporeans and Thais, compared to additive framing, subtractive framing results in a higher number of options chosen, higher total option prices, higher expected product prices and higher perceived product prestige. For Thais, compared to additive framing, subtractive framing also results in lower perceived decision difficulty and shorter decision time. For Singaporeans, compared to additive framing, subtractive framing results in shorter decision time and higher perceived value. Research limitations/implications – The option choice task is a scenario, not a real-life choice task in which participants have to spend real money. Practical implications – Subtractive option choice framing should be used rather than additive option choice framing. However, in recession time, the use of subtractive framing may backfire because consumers perceive the product as more expensive than its counterpart presented under additive framing, thus lowering their purchase intention of the product. In addition, whenever marketers want consumers to perceive the starting price as low, the price of a base model should be emphasized as opposed to the price of a full model. Originality/value – This study examines an important issue – whether the superiority of subtractive framing over additive framing reported in past research is valid in other cultures that are very different from American and whether it is valid in another product category. The results qualify past findings that people give more weight to utility losses than monetary losses.
    Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics 07/2009; 21(3):342-354.
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    ABSTRACT: The nature, antecedents, and consequences of consumer animosity during the 1997 Asian economic crisis are investigated, based on a large-scale survey of 2000 adult consumers representative of five affected nations (Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand). An animosity model was developed and tested with the US and Japan as target countries. As predicted, stable and situational animosity reduced willingness to buy products from a perceived hostile national entity. Affective evaluations and cognitive judgments were negatively influenced by situational animosity but not by stable animosity. As expected, situational animosity was increased by external attribution, perceived external control, and stable animosity. Implications of these findings are discussed, and directions for future research suggested. Journal of International Business Studies (2008) 39, 996–1009. doi:10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400392
    Journal of International Business Studies 01/2008; 39(6):996-1009. · 3.56 Impact Factor
  • Chanthika Pornpitakpan, Robert T. Green
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose – This study seeks to examine which types of message appeals are more effective in reducing unrealistic optimism (a tendency for people to believe that they are less susceptible than others to encounter negative outcomes) and inducing purchase intentions of preemptive products in collectivist and individualist cultures. Design/methodology/approach – An experiment is conducted with 131 US, 111 Singaporean, and 127 Thai undergraduates. Findings – The findings confirm the existence of unrealistic optimism in the marketing setting and show that: lower levels of optimism are associated with higher purchase intentions for the product; hazard-related behavior-priming ad appeals lead to higher purchase intentions than ads without priming; Singaporeans show higher purchase intentions than Americans for both the risk-priming and the expert ad appeals, and they also show higher purchase intentions than Thais for expert ad appeals. Research limitations/implications – The samples, while well matched, consist of undergraduate students who are not necessarily representative of the populations as a whole. The samples also come from only three countries. Finally, only one product is employed. Practical implications – The study suggests that: external-control/collectivist cultures may be more influenced by advertising, regardless of the appeal employed; different types of cultures may require different amounts of advertising to achieve equal levels of effectiveness; unrealistic optimism needs to be addressed by marketers of preemptive products; marketers should use ads that prime risky behaviors when promoting products for reducing/preventing undesirable outcomes/hazards. Originality/value – The study has re-affirmed that unrealistic optimism exists, and that this phenomenon exists internationally with respect to a relatively lower-involvement risk product category than had previously been studied. It has unveiled relationships between optimism and purchase intentions. Finally, the study has identified both similarities and differences in terms of the existence of unrealistic optimism and the relative effectiveness of different message types across cultures.
    Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics 01/2007; 19(3):207-226.
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    ABSTRACT: Morningness scales have been translated into several languages, but a lack of normative data and methodological differences make cross-cultural comparisons difficult. This study examines the psychometric properties and factor structure of the Composite Scale of Morningness (CSM) in samples from five countries: France (n = 627), Italy (n = 702), Spain (n = 391), Thailand (n = 503), and Australia (n = 654). Strong national differences are identified. A quadratic relationship between age and CSM total score was apparent in the Australian data with a downward trend after age 35 yrs. There was no age effect in any sample in the range from 18 to 29 yrs. Factor analysis identified a three-factor solution in all groups for both men and women. Tucker's congruence coefficients indicate that: (1) this solution is highly congruent between sexes in each culture, and (2) a morning affect factor is highly congruent between cultures. These results indicate there are national differences in factorial structure and that cut-off scores used to categorize participants as morning- and evening-types should be established for different cultural and age groups.
    Chronobiology International 02/2005; 22(3):523-40. · 4.35 Impact Factor
  • Chanthika Pornpitakpan
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    ABSTRACT: This experiment investigates the effect of cultural adaptation by American business people on their trustworthiness as perceived by Chinese Indonesians. The sample consists of 140 Indonesian professionals born and raised in Indonesia, who read one of the four stories that differ in degrees of Americans’ cultural adaptation: none, moderate, high using English, and high using the native (i.e., Indonesian) language. The results show that there is no difference among the four adaptation levels on disconfirmation of the adaptor’s stereo types. The high adaptation using English condition is perceived to be more situationally caused than is the high adaptation using the native language condition, which in turn is perceived to be more situationally caused than is the moderate adaptation condition, and the high adaptation using English condition is perceived to be more situationally caused than is the no adaptation condition. The high adaptation using the native language and the high adaptation using English conditions are perceived to be trustworthier than is the moderate adaptation condition, which in turn is perceived to be trustworthier than is the no adaptation condition; these results contradict the findings of some earlier studies but are consistent with those in the cases of Americans adapting to Thais and Japanese in Pornpitakpan (1998), to People’s Republic of China Chinese in Pornpitakpan (2002b), and to Malaysians in Pornpitakpan (2004). Marketing implications are discussed.
    Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics 01/2005; 17(1):70-88.
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    ABSTRACT: Respondents from five Asian countries were surveyed in terms of their consumer ethnocentrism, animosity, and attribution towards the USA and Japan in the context of the Asian economic crisis. The results indicated that the more severely hit a country was, the more ethnocentric respondents were. In general, animosity towards the USA was higher than towards Japan with regard to the Asian crisis. Koreans held the greatest stable animosity towards the Japanese because of the atrocities experienced during the Second World War. Respondents attributed the blame of the Asian crisis more to themselves. They also felt that they and the Japanese could have controlled the turn of events during the crisis. Implications arising from the findings are discussed.
    Journal of Consumer Marketing 04/2004; 21(3):190-207.
  • Chanthika Pornpitakpan
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    ABSTRACT: This paper reviews the empirical evidence of the effect of credibility of the message source on persuasion over a span of 5 decades, primarily to come up with recommendations for practitioners as to when to use a high- or a low-credibility source and secondarily to identify areas for future research. The main effect studies of source credibility on persuasion seem to indicate the superiority of a high-credibility source over a low-credibility one. Interaction effect studies, however, show source credibility to be a liability under certain conditions. The variables found to interact with source credibility are categorized into 5 categories: source, message, channel, receiver, and destination variables. The most heavily researched variables have been the message and receiver variables. Implications for marketers/advertisers and suggestions for future research are discussed.
    Journal of Applied Social Psychology 01/2004; 34(2):243 - 281. · 0.83 Impact Factor
  • Dr. Chanthika Pornpitakpan
    Journal of Eeromarketing. 01/2004; 13(2-3):49-83.
  • Chanthika Pornpitakpan
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    ABSTRACT: This experiment investigates the effect of cultural adaptation by American business people on their trustworthiness, as perceived by Malaysians. The sample consists of 140 Malaysian professionals in Malaysia, who read one of the four stories that differ in degrees of Americans' cultural adaptation: none, moderate, high using the English language, and high using the native language (i.e., Malay language). The results show that the high adaptation using the native language condition results in higher disconfirmation of stereotypic behavior than does the high adaptation using English and the moderate adaptation conditions, both of which in turn result in higher disconfirmation than does the no adaptation condition. The high adaptation using the native language condition is perceived to be more situationally caused than is the moderate adaptation condition, which in turn is perceived to be more situationally caused than is the no adaptation condition. Despite the support for situational attribution made for the high adaptation conditions, the high adaptation using the native language condition is perceived to be more trustworthy than is the moderate adaptation condition, which, in turn, is perceived to be more trustworthy than is the no adaptation condition; these results contradict the findings of some earlier studies but replicate the results in the cases of Americans adapting to Thais and Japanese in Pornpitakpan (1998) and to People's Republic of China Chinese in Pornpitakpan (2002b). Explanations for the discrepancies in the findings and managerial implications are discussed.
    Journal of International Consumer Marketing 01/2004; 16(3):7-23.
  • Chanthika Pornpitakpan PhD
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    ABSTRACT: This research investigates the influence of circadian arousal, endorser expertise, and argument strength of a message on attitudes toward the brand and purchase intention. The quasi-experimental design is a 2 (high versus low endorser expertise) × 2 (strong versus weak arguments) × 2 (morning-type versus evening-type persons) × 3 (advertisement viewing time: 10 a.m., 3 p.m., or 8 p.m.) between-subjects factorial design with 602 Thai female adults. The results are not in complete accordance with predictions from the Elaboration Likelihood Model. For both types of persons, higher argument strength leads to better attitudes toward the brand and higher purchase intention, regardless of endorser expertise and advertisement viewing time. When morning-type persons view the advertisements in the morning and evening, the high- and the low-expertise endorsers have no different effect on attitudes toward the brand, regardless of argument strength. When they view the advertisements in the afternoon, the high expertise endorser creates better attitudes toward the brand than does the low expertise endorser, regardless of argument strength. For evening-type persons, endorser expertise does not affect either of the dependent variables. Theoretical and managerial implications of the study are discussed.
    Journal of Global Marketing 01/2004; 17(2-3):141-172.
  • Pornpitakpan C
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    ABSTRACT: Using four Chinese celebrities as stimuli and 880 Singaporean undergraduates as respondents, this research verifies the factor structure of the celebrity endorsers' credibility scale, which Ohanian (1990) developed from American samples. The results show that the original scale's factor structure fits the Singaporean data well. All indicators are significantly related to their specified factor, and the inter-factor correlation coefficients are moderate and significant. The composite factor reliability, the Cronbach's , and the variance extracted measures are satisfactory.
    Journal of Marketing Management 01/2003; 19(1-2):179-195.
  • Chanthika Pornpitakpan
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    ABSTRACT: An experiment on 145 Thai professionals is used to investigate the effect of personality traits of the perceiver and perceived cultural similarity on attraction and business outcomes when Americans adapt to Thais. The results support the similarity-attraction theory. The traits empathic tendency and sensation seeking interact with perceived cultural similarity; however, the patterns differ from those of past studies. No types of participants are attracted to persons of extremely low perceived cultural similarity. The effectiveness of perceived cultural similarity in inducing attraction reaches a plateau beyond moderate levels. The individualist-collectivist cultural orientation is proposed to explain the discrepancies between past and current findings.
    Journal of International Consumer Marketing 01/2003; 15(3):5-30.
  • Dr. Chanthika Pornpitakpan
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    ABSTRACT: This research examines the effect of three celebrity credibility dimensions (attractiveness, trustworthiness, and expertise) on purchase intention with 880 Singaporean undergraduates, using four Asian celebrities as stimuli. In contrast to the results in Ohanian (1991), which indicate that the dimensions attractiveness and trustworthiness do not affect product purchase intention, the results in this study show that all of the three credibility dimensions positively relate to purchase intention. Explanations for the different findings and managerial implications are discussed.
    Journal of International Consumer Marketing 01/2003; 16(2):55-74.
  • Chanthika Pornpitakpan
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    ABSTRACT: A 3 × 4 (culture of participants × degrees of cultural adaptation) experimental design with 124 People's Republic of China Chinese, 140 Indonesian, and 140 Malaysian professionals is used to investigate the effect of cultural adaptation on attraction and outcomes when Americans adapt to PRC/Indonesian/Malaysian people. This study extends the research of Francis (1991) and Pornpitakpan (1999). The inverted-U relationship between adaptation and attraction in Francis's study is not replicated. Instead, the results are consistent with those of Pornpitakpan's study. For Indonesians, the relationship appears monotonic positive on both attraction and outcomes. For PRC and Malaysian people, the relationship appears monotonic positive on attraction and reaches a plateau beyond moderate adaptation on outcomes. Participants do not feel their social identity is threatened when Americans adapt to their culture.
    Journal of Global Marketing 01/2003; 16(3):75-103.
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    ABSTRACT: Four types of animosity, the emotional antagonism felt towards a specific entity, were identified as a function of their sources (situational versus stable) and locus (personal versus national) of manifestation. A five-country survey was conducted in Asia to validate the typology, using the U.S. and Japan as target entities. Results affirmed the four-factor structure of the proposed typology. Several cross-national differences in animosity were also uncovered. Indonesians, Malaysians, and Thais tended to have greater situational animosity towards the U.S. than Japan except for Koreans and Singaporeans. Not surprising, Koreans showed greater stable animosity towards Japan than the U.S. Asians also demonstrated a higher level of animosity at the national than personal level. Implications arising from the findings are discussed and directions for future research suggested.
    SSRN Electronic Journal 01/2003;

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