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    ABSTRACT: Background Older adults who have received inpatient rehabilitation often have significant mobility disability at discharge. Physical activity levels in rehabilitation are also low. It is hypothesized that providing increased physical activity to older people receiving hospital-based rehabilitation will lead to better mobility outcomes at discharge.Methods/DesignA single blind, parallel-group, multisite randomized controlled trial with blinded assessment of outcome and intention-to-treat analysis. The cost effectiveness of the intervention will also be examined. Older people (age >60 years) undergoing inpatient rehabilitation to improve mobility will be recruited from geriatric rehabilitation units at two Australian hospitals. A computer-generated blocked stratified randomization sequence will be used to assign 198 participants in a 1:1 ratio to either an `enhanced physical activity¿ (intervention) group or a `usual care plus¿ (control) group for the duration of their inpatient stay. Participants will receive usual care and either spend time each week performing additional physical activities such as standing or walking (intervention group) or performing an equal amount of social activities that have minimal impact on mobility such as card and board games (control group). Self-selected gait speed will be measured using a 6-meter walk test at discharge (primary outcome) and 6 months follow-up (secondary outcome). The study is powered to detect a 0.1 m/sec increase in self-selected gait speed in the intervention group at discharge. Additional measures of mobility (Timed Up and Go, De Morton Mobility Index), function (Functional Independence Measure) and quality of life will be obtained as secondary outcomes at discharge and tertiary outcomes at 6 months follow-up. The trial commenced recruitment on 28 January 2014.DiscussionThis study will evaluate the efficacy and cost effectiveness of increasing physical activity in older people during inpatient rehabilitation. These results will assist in the development of evidenced-based rehabilitation programs for this population.Trial registrationAustralian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613000884707 (Date of registration 08 August 2013); ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01910740 (Date of registration 22 July 2013).
    Trials. 01/2015; 16(1):13.
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    ABSTRACT: Assessment of risk and early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a key to its prevention or slowing the progression of the disease. Previous research on risk factors for AD typically utilizes statistical comparison tests or stepwise selection with regression models. Outcomes of these methods tend to emphasize single risk factors rather than a combination of risk factors. However, a combination of factors, rather than any one alone, is likely to affect disease development. Genetic algorithms (GA) can be useful and efficient for searching a combination of variables for the best achievement (eg. accuracy of diagnosis), especially when the search space is large, complex or poorly understood, as in the case in prediction of AD development. Multiple sets of neuropsychological tests were identified by GA to best predict conversions between clinical categories, with a cross validated AUC (area under the ROC curve) of 0.90 for prediction of HC conversion to MCI/AD and 0.86 for MCI conversion to AD within 36 months. This study showed the potential of GA application in the neural science area. It demonstrated that the combination of a small set of variables is superior in performance than the use of all the single significant variables in the model for prediction of progression of disease. Variables more frequently selected by GA might be more important as part of the algorithm for prediction of disease development.
    BMC Bioinformatics 12/2014; 15(Suppl 16):S11. · 2.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background High β-amyloid (Aβ) is associated with faster memory decline in healthy individuals and adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, longer prospective studies are required to determine if Aβ-related memory decline continues and whether it is associated with increased rate of disease progression. Methods Healthy controls (HCs; n = 177) and adults with MCI (n = 48) underwent neuroimaging for Aβ and cognitive assessment at baseline. Cognition was reassessed 18 and 36 months later. Results Compared with low-Aβ HCs, high-Aβ HC and MCI groups showed moderate decline in episodic and working memory over 36 months. Those with MCI with low Aβ did not show any cognitive decline. Rates of disease progression were increased in the high-Aβ HC and MCI groups. Conclusions In healthy individuals, high Aβ likely indicates that Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related neurodegeneration has begun. Once commenced, the rate of decline in cognitive function remains constant across the preclinical and prodromal stages of AD.
    Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association 11/2014; · 14.48 Impact Factor
  • Katherine Burn, Cassandra Szoeke
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    ABSTRACT: Grandparents are an increasingly popular form of childcare globally.•Grandparenting provides a form of daily activity that can stimulate cognitive mechanisms and optimise cognitive ageing.•Highly frequent grandparenting has been associated with lower cognitive abilities, which may be due to the demands of the role.•Many support services available to grandparents are aimed at those who are the primary caregivers for their grandchildren; supplementary caregivers are generally ineligible.
    Maturitas 11/2014; · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper was to investigate the association of three well-recognised dietary patterns with cognitive change over a 3-year period. Five hundred and twenty-seven healthy participants from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle study of ageing completed the Cancer Council of Victoria food frequency questionnaire at baseline and underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment at baseline, 18 and 36 months follow-up. Individual neuropsychological test scores were used to construct composite scores for six cognitive domains and a global cognitive score. Based on self-reported consumption, scores for three dietary patterns, (1) Australian-style Mediterranean diet (AusMeDi), (2) western diet and (3) prudent diet were generated for each individual. Linear mixed model analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between diet scores and cognitive change in each cognitive domain and for the global score. Higher baseline adherence to the AusMeDi was associated with better performance in the executive function cognitive domain after 36 months in apolipoprotein E (APOE) ɛ4 allele carriers (P<0.01). Higher baseline western diet adherence was associated with greater cognitive decline after 36 months in the visuospatial cognitive domain in APOE ɛ4 allele non-carriers (P<0.01). All other results were not significant. Our findings in this well-characterised Australian cohort indicate that adherence to a healthy diet is important to reduce risk for cognitive decline, with the converse being true for the western diet. Executive function and visuospatial functioning appear to be particularly susceptible to the influence of diet.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 29 July 2014; doi:10.1038/mp.2014.79.
    Molecular Psychiatry 07/2014; · 15.15 Impact Factor
  • Alzheimer's and Dementia 07/2014; 10(4):P139. · 17.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Background: Autobiographical memory (ABM), personal semantic memory (PSM), and autonoetic consciousness are affected in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) but their relationship with Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers are unclear. Methods: Forty-five participants (healthy controls (HC) = 31, MCI = 14) completed the Episodic ABM Interview and a battery of memory tests. Thirty-one (HC = 22, MCI = 9) underwent β-amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Fourteen participants (HC = 9, MCI = 5) underwent one imaging modality. Results: Unlike PSM, ABM differentiated between diagnostic categories but did not relate to AD biomarkers. Personal semantic memory was related to neocortical β-amyloid burden after adjusting for age and apolipoprotein E (APOE) ɛ4. Autonoetic consciousness was not associated with AD biomarkers, and was not impaired in MCI. Conclusions: Autobiographical memory was impaired in MCI participants but was not related to neocortical amyloid burden, suggesting that personal memory systems are impacted by differing disease mechanisms, rather than being uniformly underpinned by β-amyloid. Episodic and semantic ABM impairment represent an important AD prodrome.
    International Psychogeriatrics 06/2014; · 1.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionThere is a paucity of longitudinal studies assessing sexual function of women in the late postmenopause.AimThis study aims to describe sexual function of women in the late postmenopause and to investigate change from early postmenopause.Methods Cross-sectional analysis of 2012/13 and longitudinal analysis from 2002/04 of the population based, Australian cohort of the Women's Healthy Ageing Project, applying validated instruments: Short Personal Experience Questionnaire (SPEQ), Female Sexual Distress Scale (FSDS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale, and California Verbal Learning Test.Main Outcome MeasuresSexual activity, SPEQ, and FSDS.ResultsTwo hundred thirty women responded in 2012/13 (follow-up rate 53%), 49.8% were sexually active. FSDS scores showed more distress for sexually active women (8.3 vs. 3.2, P < 0.001). For 23 (23%) sexually active and for five (7%) inactive women, the diagnosis of female sexual dysfunction could be made. After adjustment, available partner (odds ratio [OR] 4.31, P < 0.001), no history of depression (OR 0.49, P = 0.036), moderate compared with no alcohol consumption (OR 2.43, P = 0.019), and better cognitive function score (OR1.09, P = 0.050) were significantly predictive for sexual activity. Compared with early postmenopause, 18% more women had ceased sexual activity. For women maintaining their sexual activity through to late postmenopause (n = 82), SPEQ and FSDS scores had not changed significantly, but frequency of sexual activity had decreased (P = 0.003) and partner difficulties had increased (P = 0.043).Conclusions In late postmenopause, half of the women were sexually active. Most important predictors were partner availability and no history of depression. However, being sexually active or having a partner were associated with higher levels of sexual distress. Compared with early postmenopause, sexual function scores had declined overall but were stable for women maintaining sexual activity. Further research into causes of sexual distress and reasons for sexual inactivity at this reproductive stage is warranted. Lonnèe-Hoffmann RAM, Dennerstein L, Lehert P, and Szoeke C. Sexual function in the late postmenopause: A decade of follow-up in a population-based cohort of Australian women. J Sex Med **;**:**–**.
    Journal of Sexual Medicine 06/2014; · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Preserving aging cognition improves quality of life and delays dementia onset. Previous studies have shown that social engagement can maintain cognition; however, none has examined the effects of grandparenting, an important role among postmenopausal women. This study aims to examine the role of grandparenting in cognition among postmenopausal women. Participants were 186 Australian women from the longitudinal prospective Women's Healthy Aging Project. Cognition was assessed using the Symbol-Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), California Verbal Learning Test, and Tower of London. Amount of time spent minding grandchildren predicted differences in SDMT performance (P < 0.01). The highest cognitive scores for most tests were seen in participants who minded grandchildren for 1 day/week. Minding grandchildren for 1 day/week was also a significant positive predictor of California Verbal Learning Test immediate recall performance (P < 0.05). However, minding grandchildren for 5 days or more per week predicted lower SDMT performance (P < 0.05). The data suggest that the highest cognitive performance is demonstrated by postmenopausal women who spend 1 day/week minding grandchildren; however, minding grandchildren for 5 days or more per week predicts lower working memory performance and processing speed. These results indicate that highly frequent grandparenting predicts lower cognitive performance.
    Menopause (New York, N.Y.) 04/2014; · 3.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: We sought to determine the incidence and associations of lobar microbleeds (LMBs) in a longitudinal cohort with 11C–Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) PET imaging.Methods: One hundred seventy-four participants from the observational Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Study of Ageing (97 with normal cognition [NC], 37 with mild cognitive impairment [MCI], and 40 with Alzheimer disease [AD] dementia) were assessed at 3 time points over 3 years with 3-tesla susceptibility-weighted MRI and 11C-PiB PET. MRIs were inspected for microbleeds, siderosis, infarction, and white matter hyperintensity severity, blind to clinical and PiB findings. Neocortical PiB standardized uptake value ratio, normalized to cerebellar cortex, was dichotomized as positive or negative (PiB+/−, standardized uptake value ratio >1.5). Annualized LMB incidence was calculated, and logistic regression was used to determine the association of incident LMBs with PiB, APOE ε4+ status, and cerebrovascular disease.Results: L
    Neurology 03/2014; · 8.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although beta-amyloid, anxiety and depression have been linked cross-sectionally to reduced memory function in healthy older adults without dementia, prospective data evaluating these associations are lacking. Using data from an observational cohort study of 178 healthy older adults without dementia followed for 3 years, we found that anxiety symptoms significantly moderated the relationship between beta-amyloid level and decline in verbal (Cohen's d = 0.65) and episodic (Cohen's d = 0.38) memory. Anxiety symptoms were additionally linked to greater decline in executive function, irrespective of beta-amyloid and other risk factors. These findings suggest that interventions to mitigate anxiety symptoms may help delay memory decline in otherwise healthy older adults with elevated beta-amyloid.
    The British journal of psychiatry: the journal of mental science 02/2014; · 6.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Autobiographical memory (ABM) refers to the recollection of individual experiences, while personal semantic memory (PSM) refers to personally relevant, but shared, facts. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is routinely diagnosed with the aid of neuropsychological tests, which do not tap the ABM and PSM domains. Objective: We aimed to characterize the nature of ABM and PSM retrieval in cognitively healthy (HC) memory complainers, non-memory complainers, and MCI participants, and to investigate the relationship between neuropsychological tests and personal memory. Methods: Gender- and education-matched participants (HC = 80 and MCI = 43) completed the Episodic ABM Interview (EAMI) and a battery of neuropsychological tests. Results: ABM and PSM did not differ between complainers and non-complainers, but were poorer in MCI participants, after accounting for age and depressive symptomatology. There were significant associations between personal memory and objective memory measures were found in MCI participants, but standard cognitive measures were more sensitive to MCI. Conclusion: Personal memorywas compromised in MCI, reflected by lower scores on the EAMI. Memory complaining, assessed by current approaches, did not have an impact on personal memory. Standard subjective questionnaires might not reflect the sorts of concerns that bring individuals to clinical attention. Understanding personal memory function in the elderly may aid in the development of a more sensitive measure of subjective memory concerns.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 02/2014; · 3.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The association between serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and cognition was assessed in 218 healthy, midlife, post-menopausal women, aged 55-65 years. In cross-sectional analyses, DHEAS level was not significantly associated with a standardized score of global cognition or with individual test scores from a comprehensive neuropsychological battery (all p-values >0.05). In longitudinal analyses of 176 women, DHEAS level was unassociated with cognition 2 years later or with 2-year change in cognition. These findings fail to support the view that DHEAS is substantially related to cognitive function in midlife, post-menopausal women.
    Neurobiology of aging 01/2014; · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High amyloid has been associated with substantial episodic memory decline over 18 and 36 months in healthy older adults and individuals with mild cognitive impairment. However, the nature and magnitude of amyloid-related memory and non-memory change from the preclinical to the clinical stages of Alzheimer's disease has not been evaluated over the same time interval. Healthy older adults (n = 320), individuals with mild cognitive impairment (n = 57) and individuals with Alzheimer's disease (n = 36) enrolled in the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle study underwent at least one positron emission tomography neuroimaging scan for amyloid. Cognitive assessments were conducted at baseline, and 18- and 36-month follow-up assessments. Compared with amyloid-negative healthy older adults, amyloid-positive healthy older adults, and amyloid-positive individuals with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease showed moderate and equivalent decline in verbal and visual episodic memory over 36 months (d's = 0.47-0.51). Relative to amyloid-negative healthy older adults, amyloid-positive healthy older adults showed no decline in non-memory functions, but amyloid-positive individuals with mild cognitive impairment showed additional moderate decline in language, attention and visuospatial function (d's = 0.47-1.12), and amyloid-positive individuals with Alzheimer's disease showed large decline in all aspects of memory and non-memory function (d's = 0.73-2.28). Amyloid negative individuals with mild cognitive impairment did not show any cognitive decline over 36 months. When non-demented individuals (i.e. healthy older adults and adults with mild cognitive impairment) were further dichotomized, high amyloid-positive non-demented individuals showed a greater rate of decline in episodic memory and language when compared with low amyloid positive non-demented individuals. Memory decline does not plateau with increasing disease severity, and decline in non-memory functions increases in amyloid-positive individuals with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. The combined detection of amyloid positivity and objectively-defined decline in memory are reliable indicators of early Alzheimer's disease, and the detection of decline in non-memory functions in amyloid-positive individuals with mild cognitive impairment may assist in determining the level of disease severity in these individuals. Further, these results suggest that grouping amyloid data into at least two categories of abnormality may be useful in determining the disease risk level in non-demented individuals.
    Brain 01/2014; 137(1):221-231. · 10.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Tower of London (TOL) task is a well-known neuropsychological measure of planning ability that is widely used in clinical and research contexts. Despite its popularity and recognised validity, clinical use of the TOL task has been limited in the adult population due to lack of comprehensive normative data. As a result, this measure has principally been employed in the clinical setting as a qualitative measure of planning skills. In this study, the TOL task was administered as part of a comprehensive neuropsychological battery to 243 healthy, Australian women (M age = 60 years, range = 56–67 years) who have been participating in the Women's Healthy Ageing Project. Results showed significant correlations between age and the total TOL score but not other outcome measures; level of education and mood were unrelated to performance on the TOL. Further analyses showed significant correlations between the TOL outcome measures and other recognised measures of executive function and working memory. The current study presents previously unavailable normative data for different aspects of the TOL performance in Australian midlife women, which may serve as a reference for more accurate clinical interpretation of the TOL in the Australian context and improve its clinical utility in the adult population.
    Australian Psychologist 12/2013; 48(6). · 0.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Biomarkers for Alzheimer disease (AD) can detect the disease pathology in asymptomatic subjects and individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), but their cognitive prognosis remains uncertain. We aimed to determine the prognostic value of β-amyloid imaging, alone and in combination with memory performance, hippocampal atrophy, and apolipoprotein E ε4 status in nondemented, older individuals. A total of 183 healthy individuals (age = 72.0 ± 7.26 years) and 87 participants with MCI (age = 73.7 ± 8.27) in the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers, and Lifestyle study of ageing were studied. Clinical reclassification was performed after 3 years, blind to biomarker findings. β-Amyloid imaging was considered positive if the (11) C-Pittsburgh compound B cortical to reference ratio was ≥1.5. Thirteen percent of healthy persons progressed (15 to MCI, 8 to dementia), and 59% of the MCI cohort progressed to probable AD. Multivariate analysis showed β-amyloid imaging as the single variable most strongly associated with progression. Of combinations, subtle memory impairment (Z score = -0.5 to -1.5) with a positive amyloid scan was most strongly associated with progression in healthy individuals (odds ratio [OR] = 16, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.7-68; positive predictive value [PPV] = 50%, 95% CI = 19-81; negative predictive value [NPV] = 94%, 95% CI = 88-98). Almost all amnestic MCI subjects (Z score ≤ -1.5) with a positive amyloid scan developed AD (OR = ∞; PPV = 86%, 95% CI = 72-95; NPV = 100%, 95% CI = 80-100). Hippocampal atrophy and ε4 status did not add further predictive value. Subtle memory impairment with a positive β-amyloid scan identifies healthy individuals at high risk for MCI or AD. Clearly amnestic patients with a positive amyloid scan have prodromal AD and a poor prognosis for dementia within 3 years. Ann Neurol 2013;74:905-913.
    Annals of Neurology 12/2013; 74(6):905-13. · 11.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Alzheimer's disease neuropathology (amyloid, tauopathies) and brain atrophy are present decades prior to manifestation of clinical symptoms. With the failure of treatment trials it is becoming clearer that the window for prevention and therapeutic intervention is before significant neuronal loss and clinical deterioration of cognition has occurred. Early identification of those at risk of disease and optimizing their management to prevent disease in later life are crucial to delaying disease onset and improving people's quality of life. The Women's Healthy Aging Project (WHAP) is a longitudinal study of over 400 Australian-born women, epidemiologically randomly sampled in 1990. The WHAP aims to identify modifiable mid-life risk factors for the development of late-life cognitive decline, improve the understanding of the pathogenesis of dementia, and target early disease identification utilizing clinical, biomarker and health risk profiles. These aims are fortified by the ability to leverage the considerable database on health, lifestyle and socio-demographics collected prospectively from 1990 to date. This is the first study with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery, over a decade of cognitive follow-up, with all participants being offered amyloid imaging from 2012, and prospective longitudinal data including clinical and physical measures and bio-bank samples from over 20 years prior.
    International Review of Psychiatry 12/2013; 25(6):726-37. · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Folate fortification of food aims to reduce the number of babies born with neural tube defects, but has been associated with cognitive impairment when vitamin B12 levels are deficient. Given the prevalence of low vitamin B12 levels among the elderly, and the global deployment of food fortification programs, investigation of the associations between cognitive impairment, vitamin B12, and folate are needed. Objective: To investigate the associations of serum vitamin B12, red cell folate, and cognitive impairment. Methods: Data were collected on 1,354 subjects in two studies investigating cognitive impairment, and from patients attending for assessment or management of memory problems in the Barwon region of south eastern Australia between 2001 and 2011. Eligible subjects who had blood measurements of vitamin B12 and red cell folate taken within six months of cognitive testing were included. Subjects with stroke or neurodegenerative diseases other than Alzheimer's disease were excluded. A Mini-Mental State Examination score of <24 was used to define impaired cognitive function. Results: Participants with low serum vitamin B12 (<250 pmol/L) and high red cell folate (>1,594 nmol/L) levels were more likely to have impaired cognitive performance (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.45, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.60-7.43, p = 0.002) when compared to participants with biochemical measurements that were within the normal ranges. Participants with high folate levels, but normal serum vitamin B12, were also more likely to have impaired cognitive performance (AOR 1.74, 95% CI: 1.03-2.95, p = 0.04). Conclusions: High folate or folic acid supplements may be detrimental to cognition in older people with low vitamin B12 levels. This topic is of global significance due to the wide distribution of food fortification programs, so prospective studies should be a high priority.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 11/2013; · 3.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE To investigate the associations of metformin, serum vitamin B12, calcium supplements, and cognitive impairment in patients with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants were recruited from the Primary Research in Memory (PRIME) clinics study, the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) study of aging, and the Barwon region of southeastern Australia. Patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) (n = 480) or mild cognitive impairment (n = 187) and those who were cognitively intact (n = 687) were included; patients with stroke or with neurodegenerative diseases other than AD were excluded. Subgroup analyses were performed for participants who had either type 2 diabetes (n = 104) or impaired glucose tolerance (n = 22). RESULTS Participants with diabetes (n = 126) had worse cognitive performance than participants who did not have diabetes (n = 1,228; adjusted odds ratio 1.51 [95% CI 1.03–2.21]). Among participants with diabetes, worse cognitive performance was associated with metformin use (2.23 [1.05–4.75]). After adjusting for age, sex, level of education, history of depression, serum vitamin B12, and metformin use, participants with diabetes who were taking calcium supplements had better cognitive performance (0.41 [0.19–0.92]). CONCLUSIONS Metformin use was associated with impaired cognitive performance. Vitamin B12 and calcium supplements may alleviate metformin-induced vitamin B12 deficiency and were associated with better cognitive outcomes. Prospective trials are warranted to assess the beneficial effects of vitamin B12 and calcium use on cognition in older people with diabetes who are taking metformin.
    Diabetes care 09/2013; · 7.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The prognostic value of subjective memory complaints (SMCs) in the diagnosis of dementia of the Alzheimer's type is unclear. While some studies have found an association between SMCs and cognitive decline, many have found a stronger association with depression, which raises questions about their diagnostic utility.Methods: We examined the cross-sectional association between SMC severity (as measured using the MAC-Q, a brief SMC questionnaire) and affect, memory, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers (β-amyloid deposition and the apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOEε4) allele) in healthy elderly controls (HC; M = 78.74 years, SD = 6.7) and individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; M = 72.74 years, SD = 8.8). We analyzed a subset of individuals drawn from the Australian Imaging Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) Study of Aging.Results: SMCs were more severe in MCI patients than in HCs. SMC severity was related to affective variables and the interaction between age and group membership (HC/MCI). Within the HC group, SMC severity was related to affective variables only, while severity correlated only with age in the MCI group. SMCs were not related to cognitive variables or AD biomarkers.Conclusion: SMCs were related to solely by poorer mood (greater depressive and anxious symptomatology) in the cognitively healthy elderly however mean levels were subclinical. This finding argues for the assessment of affective symptomatology in conjunction with cognitive assessment in elderly memory complainers. Future AIBL research will focus on assessing other AD biomarkers, such as brain atrophy and Aβ plasma markers, in relation to complaint severity. Once our 36-month follow-up data are collected, we propose to assess whether SMCs can predict future cognitive decline.
    International Psychogeriatrics 08/2013; 25(08). · 1.89 Impact Factor

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