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    ABSTRACT: Objectives. We identified barriers to care seeking for pneumonia and diarrhea among rural Guatemalan children. Methods. A population-based survey was conducted twice from 2008 to 2009 among 1605 households with children younger than 5 years. A 14-day calendar recorded episodes of carer-reported pneumonia (n = 364) and diarrhea (n = 481), and formal (health services, public, private) and informal (neighbors, traditional, local shops, pharmacies) care seeking. Results. Formal care was sought for nearly half of severe pneumonias but only for 27% within 2 days of onset, with 31% and 18%, respectively, for severe diarrhea. In multivariable analysis, factors independently associated with formal care seeking were knowing the Community Emergency Plan, mother's perception of illness severity, recognition of World Health Organization danger signs, distance from the health center, and having someone to care for family in an emergency. Conclusions. Proximal factors associated with recognizing need for care were important in determining formal care, and were strongly linked to social determinants. In addition to specific action by the health system with an enhanced community health worker role, a systems approach can help ensure barriers are addressed among poorer and more remote homes. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print February 13, 2014: e1-e11. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301658).
    American Journal of Public Health 02/2014; · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. For the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in Bangladesh, single dose liposomal amphotericin B (ambisome) is supposed to be the safest and most effective treatment. Specific needs for application and storage raise questions about feasibility of its implementation and acceptance by patients and health staff. Methods. The study was carried out in the most endemic district of Bangladesh. Study population includes patients treated with ambisome or miltefosine, hospital staff, and a director of the national visceral leishmaniasis program. Study methods include direct observation (subdistrict hospitals), open interviews (heath staff and program personnel), structured questionnaires, and focus group discussions (patients). Results. Politicalcommitment for ambisome is strong; the general hospital infrastructure favours implementation but further strengthening is required, particularly for drug storage below 25°C (refrigerators), back-up energy (fuel for generators), and supplies for ambisome administration (like 5% dextrose solution). Ambisome created high satisfaction in patients and hospital staff, less adverse events, and less income loss for patients compared to miltefosine. Conclusions. High political commitment, general capacities of subdistrict hospitals, and high acceptability favour the implementation of ambisome treatment in Bangladesh. However, strengthening of the infrastructure and uninterrupted supplies of essential accessories is mandatory before introducing sLAB in Bangladesh.
    Journal of Tropical Medicine 01/2014; 2014:676817.
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Active case detection (ACD) significantly contributes to early detection and treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) cases and is cost effective. This paper evaluates the performance and feasibility of adapting ACD strategies into national programs for VL elimination in Bangladesh, India and Nepal. METHODS: The camp search and index case search strategies were piloted in 2010-11 by national programs in high and moderate endemic districts respectively. Researchers independently assessed the performance and feasibility of these strategies through direct observation of activities and review of records. Program costs were estimated using an ingredients costing method. RESULTS: Altogether 48 camps (Bangladesh-27, India-19, Nepal-2) and 81 index case searches (India-36, Nepal-45) were conducted by the health services across 47 health center areas (Bangladesh-4 Upazillas, India-5 PHCs, Nepal-38 VDCs). The mean number of new case detected per camp was 1.3 and it varied from 0.32 in India to 2.0 in Bangladesh. The cost (excluding training costs) of detecting one new VL case per camp varied from USD 22 in Bangladesh, USD 199 in Nepal to USD 320 in India. The camp search strategy detected a substantive number of new PKDL cases. The major challenges faced by the programs were inadequate preparation, time and resources spent on promoting camp awareness through IEC activities in the community. Incorrectly diagnosed splenic enlargement at camps probably due to poor clinical examination skills resulted in a high proportion of patients being subjected to rK39 testing. CONCLUSION: National programs can adapt ACD strategies for detection of new VL/PKDL cases. However adequate time and resources are required for training, planning and strengthening referral services to overcome challenges faced by the programs in conducting ACD.
    BMC Public Health 11/2012; 12(1):1001. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Standard treatment of Indian post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is unsatisfactory because to achieve therapeutic effectiveness, heroic courses of parenteral and toxic agents have to be administered. Our objective was to evaluate oral miltefosine for its potential to provide effective as well as tolerable treatment for this disease. METHOD: Open-label, randomised, parallel-group multicentric trial. Miltefosine, 100 mg/day to all but one patient, was administered for 12 weeks or 8 weeks, with a target of 18 patients in each treatment group. Key endpoints were tolerance during treatment and efficacy at 12 months of follow-up. RESULTS: The ITT and per-protocol cure rates after 12 months of follow-up for patients receiving 12 weeks of therapy were 78% (14 of 18 patients: 95% CI = 61-88%) and 93% (14 of 15 patients: 95% CI = 71-95%), respectively, after 12 months of follow-up. The ITT and per-protocol cure rates for patients receiving 8 weeks of therapy were 76% (13 of 17 patients: 95% CI = 53-90%) and 81% (13 of 16 patients: 95% CI = 57-93%), respectively. Gastrointestinal and other adverse events were rare. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that oral miltefosine for 2-3 months can be considered a treatment of choice for Indian PKDL.
    Tropical Medicine & International Health 11/2012; · 2.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In view of the epidemiological expansion of dengue worldwide and the availability of new tools and strategies particularly for controlling the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti, an intervention study was set up to test the efficacy, cost and feasibility of a combined approach of insecticide treated materials (ITMs) alone and in combination with appropriate targeted interventions of the most productive vector breeding-sites. METHODS: The study was conducted as a cluster randomized community trial using "reduction of the vector population" as the main outcome variable. The trial had two arms: 10 intervention clusters (neighborhoods) and 10 control clusters in the town of Poptun Guatemala. Activities included entomological assessments (characteristics of breeding-sites, pupal productivity, Stegomyia indices) at baseline, 6 weeks after the first intervention (coverage of window and exterior doorways made of PermaNet 2.0 netting, factory treated with deltamethrin at 55 mg/m2, and of 200 L drums with similar treated material) and 6 weeks after the second intervention (combination of treated materials and other suitable interventions targeting productive breeding-sites i.e larviciding with Temephos, elimination etc.). The second intervention took place 17 months after the first intervention. The insecticide residual activity and the insecticidal content were also studied at different intervals. Additionally, information about demographic characteristics, cost of the intervention, coverage of houses protected and satisfaction in the population with the interventions was collected. RESULTS: At baseline (during the dry season) a variety of productive container types for Aedes pupae were identified: various container types holding >20 L, 200 L drums, washbasins and buckets (producing 83.7% of all pupae). After covering 100% of windows and exterior doorways and a small number of drums (where the commercial cover could be fixed) in 970 study households, tropical rains occurred in the area and lead to an increase of the vector population, more pronounced (but statistically not significant) in the control arm than in the intervention arm. In the second intervention (17 months later and six weeks after implementing the second intervention) the combined approach of ITMs and a combination of appropriate interventions against productive containers (Temephos in >200 L water drums, elimination of small discarded tins and bottles) lead to significant differences on reductions of the total number of pupae (P = 0.04) and the House index (P = 0.01) between intervention and control clusters, and to borderline differences on reductions of the Pupae per Person and Breteau indices (P = 0.05). The insecticide residual activity on treated curtains was high until month 18 but the chemical concentration showed a high variability.. The cost per house protected with treated curtains and drum covers and targeting productive breeding-sites of the dengue vector was $ 5.31 USD. The acceptance of the measure was generally high, particularly in families who had experienced dengue. CONCLUSION: Even under difficult environmental conditions (open houses, tropical rainfall, challenging container types mainly in the peridomestic environment) the combination of insecticide treated curtains and to a less extent drum covers and interventions targeting the productive container types can reduce the dengue vector population significantly.
    BMC Public Health 10/2012; 12(1):931. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. National VL Elimination Programs in India, Nepal and Bangladesh face challenges as home-based Miltefosine treatment is introduced. Objectives. To study constraints of VL management in endemic districts within context of national elimination programs before and after intervention. Methods. Ninety-two and 41 newly diagnosed VL patients were interviewed for clinical and provider experience in 2009 before and in 2010 after intervention (district training and improved supply of diagnostics and drugs). Providers were assessed for adherence to treatment guidelines. Facilities and doctor-patient consultations were observed to assess quality of care. Results. Miltefosine use increased from 33% to 59% except in Nepal where amphotericin was better available. Incorrect dosage and treatment interruptions were rare. Advice on potential side effects was uncommon but improved significantly in 2010. Physicians did not rule out pregnancy prior to starting Miltefosine. Fever measurement or spleen palpation was infrequently done in Bangladesh but improved after intervention (from 23% to 47%). Physician awareness of renal or liver toxicity as Miltefosine side effects was lower in Bangladesh. Bio-chemical monitoring was uncommon. Patient satisfaction with services remained low for ease of access or time provider spent with patient. Health facilities were better stocked with rK39 kits and Miltefosine in 2010.
    Journal of Tropical Medicine 01/2012; 2012:126093.
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    ABSTRACT: Pneumonia causes more child deaths than does any other disease. Observational studies have indicated that smoke from household solid fuel is a significant risk factor that affects about half the world's children. We investigated whether an intervention to lower indoor wood smoke emissions would reduce pneumonia in children. We undertook a parallel randomised controlled trial in highland Guatemala, in a population using open indoor wood fires for cooking. We randomly assigned 534 households with a pregnant woman or young infant to receive a woodstove with chimney (n=269) or to remain as controls using open woodfires (n=265), by concealed permuted blocks of ten homes. Fieldworkers visited homes every week until children were aged 18 months to record the child's health status. Sick children with cough and fast breathing, or signs of severe illness were referred to study physicians, masked to intervention status, for clinical examination. The primary outcome was physician-diagnosed pneumonia, without use of a chest radiograph. Analysis was by intention to treat (ITT). Infant 48-h carbon monoxide measurements were used for exposure-response analysis after adjustment for covariates. This trial is registered, number ISRCTN29007941. During 29,125 child-weeks of surveillance of 265 intervention and 253 control children, there were 124 physician-diagnosed pneumonia cases in intervention households and 139 in control households (rate ratio [RR] 0·84, 95% CI 0·63-1·13; p=0·257). After multiple imputation, there were 149 cases in intervention households and 180 in controls (0·78, 0·59-1·06, p=0·095; reduction 22%, 95% CI -6% to 41%). ITT analysis was undertaken for secondary outcomes: all and severe fieldworker-assessed pneumonia; severe (hypoxaemic) physician-diagnosed pneumonia; and radiologically confirmed, RSV-negative, and RSV-positive pneumonia, both total and severe. We recorded significant reductions in the intervention group for three severe outcomes-fieldworker-assessed, physician-diagnosed, and RSV-negative pneumonia--but not for others. We identified no adverse effects from the intervention. The chimney stove reduced exposure by 50% on average (from 2·2 to 1·1 ppm carbon monoxide), but exposure distributions for the two groups overlapped substantially. In exposure-response analysis, a 50% exposure reduction was significantly associated with physician-diagnosed pneumonia (RR 0·82, 0·70-0·98), the greater precision resulting from less exposure misclassification compared with use of stove type alone in ITT analysis. In a population heavily exposed to wood smoke from cooking, a reduction in exposure achieved with chimney stoves did not significantly reduce physician-diagnosed pneumonia for children younger than 18 months. The significant reduction of a third in severe pneumonia, however, if confirmed, could have important implications for reduction of child mortality. The significant exposure-response associations contribute to causal inference and suggest that stove or fuel interventions producing lower average exposures than these chimney stoves might be needed to substantially reduce pneumonia in populations heavily exposed to biomass fuel air pollution. US National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and WHO.
    The Lancet 11/2011; 378(9804):1717-26. · 39.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Miltefosine (target dose of 2.5 mg/kg/day for 28 days) is the recommended treatment for visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) in Bangladesh on the basis of data from India. We evaluated miltefosine in a phase IV trial of 977 patients in Bangladesh. At the six-month final follow up, 701 were cured. 24 showed initial treatment failure, and 95 showed treatment failure at 6 months, although 73 of the 95 showed treatment failure solely by the criterion of low hemoglobin values. One hundred twenty-one patients were not assessable. With the conservative assumption that all low hemoglobin values represented treatment failure, the final per protocol cure rate was 85%. Of 13 severe adverse events, 6 led to treatment discontinuation and 7 resulted in deaths, but only 1 death (associated with diarrhea) could be attributed to drug. Nearly all non-serious adverse events were gastrointestinal: vomiting in 25% of patients and diarrhea in 8% of patients. Oral miltefosine is an attractive alternative to intramuscular antimony and intravenous amphotericin B for treatment of kala-azar in Bangladesh.
    The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 07/2011; 85(1):66-9. · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A large body of evidence suggests that fine particulate matter (PM) air pollution is a cause of cardiovascular disease, but little is known in particular about the cardiovascular effects of indoor air pollution from household use of solid fuels in developing countries. RESPIRE (Randomized Exposure Study of Pollution Indoors and Respiratory Effects) was a randomized trial of a chimney woodstove that reduces wood smoke exposure. We tested the hypotheses that the stove intervention, compared with open fire use, would reduce ST-segment depression and increase heart rate variability (HRV). We used two complementary study designs: a) between-groups comparisons based on randomized stove assignment, and b) before-and-after comparisons within control subjects who used open fires during the trial and received chimney stoves after the trial. Electrocardiogram sessions that lasted 20 hr were repeated up to three times among 49 intervention and 70 control women 38-84 years of age, and 55 control subjects were also assessed after receiving stoves. HRV and ST-segment values were assessed for each 30-min period. ST-segment depression was defined as an average value below -1.00 mm. Personal fine PM [aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM₂.₅] exposures were measured for 24 hr before each electrocardiogram. PM₂.₅ exposure means were 266 and 102 μg/m³ during the trial period in the control and intervention groups, respectively. During the trial, the stove intervention was associated with an odds ratio of 0.26 (95% confidence interval, 0.08-0.90) for ST-segment depression. We found similar associations with the before-and-after comparison. The intervention was not significantly associated with HRV. The stove intervention was associated with reduced occurrence of nonspecific ST-segment depression, suggesting that household wood smoke exposures affect ventricular repolarization and potentially cardiovascular health.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 06/2011; 119(11):1562-8. · 7.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The world's burden of infectious diseases can be substantially reduced by more-effective use of existing interventions. Advances in case detection, diagnosis, and treatment strategies have made it possible to consider the elimination of visceral leishmaniasis in the Indian subcontinent. The priority must now be to effectively implement existing interventions at the community level by actively finding cases in endemic villages and treating them with single-dose liposomal amphotericin B at primary-health-care centres. Once the elimination target of one case per 10,000 population has been reached, combination therapies involving miltefosine and paromomycin can be introduced to ensure long-term availability of several drugs for visceral leishmaniasis and to protect against resistance.
    The Lancet Infectious Diseases 04/2011; 11(4):322-5. · 19.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The combination of one intravenous administration of 5mg/kg Ambisome and oral administration of miltefosine, 2.5mg/kg/day for 14 days, was evaluated in 135 Indian patients with kala-azar. The Intent-to-Treat cure rate at 6 months was 124 of the 135 enrolled patients (91.9%: 95% CI = 86-96%), and the per protocol cure rate was 124 of 127 evaluable patients (97.6%: 95% CI = 93-100%). Side effects could be attributed to each drug separately: fevers, rigors and back pain due to Ambisome; gastrointestinal side effects due to miltefosine. This combination is attractive for reasons of efficacy, tolerance, and feasibility of administration, although the gastrointestinal side effects of miltefosine require medical vigilance. Clinical Trials.gov identification number: NCT00371995.
    Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 02/2011; 105(2):115-7. · 1.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The promotion of point-of-use water treatment and handwashing with soap has led to large reductions in child diarrhea in randomized efficacy trials. We know little about the sustainability of behavior change and health benefits after the conclusion of intervention activities. Methods: We present an extension of previously published design (propensity score matching) and analysis (targeted maximum likelihood estimation) methods to evaluate the sustainability and health impacts of a pre-existing (non-randomized) intervention (a three-year, combined point-of-use water treatment and handwashing campaign in rural Guatemala). Six months after the intervention, we conducted a cross-sectional cohort study in 30 villages (15 intervention, 15 control) that included 600 households and 929 children under five years old. Results: The design created a sample of intervention and control villages that were comparable across more than 30 potentially confounding characteristics. The intervention was associated with modest gains in confirmed water treatment behavior (risk difference=0.05, 95%CI 0.02-0.09). We found, however, no differences between the intervention and control villages in self-reported handwashing behavior, spot-check hygiene conditions, the prevalence of either child diarrhea or clinical acute lower respiratory infections, or child growth. Conclusions: To our knowledge this is the first post-intervention follow-up study of a combined point-of-use water treatment and handwashing behavior change intervention, and the first post-intervention follow-up of either intervention type to include child health measurement. Our findings highlight the difficulty of sustaining behavior-based point-of-use water treatment and handwashing outside of intensive efficacy trials.
    137st APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2009; 11/2009
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    ABSTRACT: Onchocerciasis (river blindness), which is close to being eliminated from Guatemala through semiannual administration of ivermectin, is still transmitted in one area of the country that coincidentally receives an annual influx of migrant workers to harvest coffee. Migrant workers generally are not included in semiannual ivermectin treatments, but if infected could serve as a reservoir. We report on two studies undertaken to measure the exposure to onchocerciasis (presence of IgG4 antibodies to a recombinant Onchocerca volvulus antigen, OV-16) among migrant workers. During two coffee harvest seasons, 170 migrant workers with a history of working in the disease-endemic area were tested and 1 (0.6%, 95% confidence interval = 0-3.2%) was seropositive. This low rate of exposure in migrant workers indicates that they are unlikely to play a significant role in transmission of onchocerciasis and may indicate that transmission in the last remaining disease-endemic area of Guatemala is decreasing significantly.
    The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 10/2009; 81(3):438-42. · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The promotion of household water treatment and handwashing with soap has led to large reductions in child diarrhoea in randomized efficacy trials. Currently, we know little about the health effectiveness of behaviour-based water and hygiene interventions after the conclusion of intervention activities. We present an extension of previously published design (propensity score matching) and analysis (targeted maximum likelihood estimation) methods to evaluate the behavioural and health impacts of a pre-existing but non-randomized intervention (a 3-year, combined household water treatment and handwashing campaign in rural Guatemala). Six months after the intervention, we conducted a cross-sectional cohort study in 30 villages (15 intervention and 15 control) that included 600 households, and 929 children <5 years of age. The study design created a sample of intervention and control villages that were comparable across more than 30 potentially confounding characteristics. The intervention led to modest gains in confirmed water treatment behaviour [risk difference = 0.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.02-0.09]. We found, however, no difference between the intervention and control villages in self-reported handwashing behaviour, spot-check hygiene conditions, or the prevalence of child diarrhoea, clinical acute lower respiratory infections or child growth. To our knowledge this is the first post-intervention follow-up study of a combined household water treatment and handwashing behaviour change intervention, and the first post-intervention follow-up of either intervention type to include child health measurement. The lack of child health impacts is consistent with unsustained behaviour adoption. Our findings highlight the difficulty of implementing behaviour-based household water treatment and handwashing outside of intensive efficacy trials.
    International Journal of Epidemiology 08/2009; 38(6):1651-61. · 6.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exposure to household wood smoke from cooking is a risk factor for chronic obstructive lung disease among women in developing countries. The Randomized Exposure Study of Pollution Indoors and Respiratory Effects (RESPIRE) is a randomized intervention trial evaluating the respiratory health effects of reducing indoor air pollution from open cooking fires. A total of 504 rural Mayan women in highland Guatemala aged 15-50 years, all using traditional indoor open fires, were randomized to either receive a chimney woodstove (plancha) or continue using the open fire. Assessments of chronic respiratory symptoms and lung function and individual measurements of carbon monoxide exposure were performed at baseline and every 6 months up to 18 months. Use of a plancha significantly reduced carbon monoxide exposure by 61.6%. For all respiratory symptoms, reductions in risk were observed in the plancha group during follow-up; the reduction was statistically significant for wheeze (relative risk = 0.42, 95% confidence interval: 0.25, 0.70). The number of respiratory symptoms reported by the women at each follow-up point was also significantly reduced by the plancha (odds ratio = 0.7, 95% confidence interval: 0.50, 0.97). However, no significant effects on lung function were found after 12-18 months. Reducing indoor air pollution from household biomass burning may relieve symptoms consistent with chronic respiratory tract irritation.
    American journal of epidemiology 06/2009; 170(2):211-20. · 5.59 Impact Factor
  • Epidemiology. 01/2009; 20.
  • Epidemiology 01/2009; 20. · 5.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endosymbionic Wolbachia bacteria inside adult Onchocerca volvulus worms (causing river blindness) are necessary for female worm fertility. We evaluated whether rifampin and/or azithromycin used in a five-day course could kill Wolbachia. In an open-label trial in Guatemala, 73 patients with 134 palpable onchocercal nodules were randomized into four treatment groups: rifampin, azithromycin, a combination of the two drugs, and controls (multivitamins). After five days of antibiotic treatment, all participants received a single dose of ivermectin on day 6. Nine months after treatment, the nodules were removed and the worms were examined. Skin snips to determine microfilariae were obtained at baseline and nine months. There were no significant differences between any of the treatment groups in the condition of the worms in the nodules, the presence of Wolbachia surface protein, or the number of microfilariae in skin. Short courses with these antibiotics will not clear Wolbachia from O. volvulus.
    The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 12/2007; 77(5):878-82. · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To eliminate transmission of Onchocerca volvulus, semiannual mass treatment with ivermectin (Mectizan; donated by Merck & Co) has been underway in Guatemala since 2000. We applied the 2001 World Health Organization (WHO) elimination criteria in the Santa Rosa focus of onchocerciasis transmission in Guatemala (10,923 persons at risk). No evidence of parasite DNA was found in 2,221 Simulium ochraceum vectors (one-sided 95% confidence interval [CI], 0-0.086%), and no IgG4 antibody positives to recombinant antigen OV16 were found in a sample of 3,232 school children (95% CI, 0-0.009%). We also found no evidence of microfilariae in the anterior segment of the eye in 363 area residents (95% CI, 0-0.08%). Our interpretation of these data, together with historical information, suggest that transmission of O. volvulus is permanently interrupted in Santa Rosa and that ivermectin treatments there can be halted.
    The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 09/2007; 77(2):334-41. · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Trials of environmental risk factors and acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) face a double challenge: implementing sufficiently sensitive and specific outcome assessments, and blinding. We evaluate methods used in the first randomized exposure study of pollution indoors and respiratory effects (RESPIRE): a controlled trial testing the impact of reduced indoor air pollution on ALRI, conducted among children <or= 18 months in rural Guatemala. Case-finding used weekly home visits by fieldworkers trained in integrated management of childhood illness methods to detect ALRI signs such as fast breathing. Blindness was maintained by referring cases to study physicians working from community centres. Investigations included oxygen saturation (SaO2), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) antigen test and chest X-ray (CXR). Fieldworkers referred > 90% of children meeting ALRI criteria, of whom about 70% attended a physician. Referrals for cough without respiratory signs and self-referrals contributed 19.0% and 17.9% of physician-diagnosed ALRI cases respectively. Intervention group attendance following ALRI referral was 7% higher than controls, a trend also seen in compliance with RSV tests and CXR. There was no evidence of bias by intervention status in fieldworker classification or physician diagnosis. Incidence of fieldworker ALRI (1.12 episodes/child/year) is consistent with high sensitivity and low specificity; incidence of physician-diagnosed ALRI (0.44 episodes/child/year) is consistent with comparable studies. The combination of case-finding methods achieved good sensitivity and specificity, but intervention cases had greater likelihood of reaching the physician and being investigated. There was no evidence of bias in fieldworkers classifications despite lack of concealment at home visits. Pulse oximetry offers practical, objective severity assessment for field studies of ALRI.
    Bulletin of the World Health Organisation 08/2007; 85(7):535-44. · 5.25 Impact Factor

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