Publications

  • Basanti Majumdar, Dale Guenter, Gina Browne
    The Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC 03/2010; 21(5):449-54. · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    Basanti Majumdar, Nomathemba Mazaleni
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    ABSTRACT: HIV/AIDS is a critical concern in South Africa, where extreme poverty and gender issues are major determinants of health. A comprehensive home-based care programme is needed to lessen the burden placed on the caregivers of those suffering from HIV/AIDS. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the challenges faced by people who are living with HIV/AIDS and by their caregivers in resource-poor, remote South African villages. In-depth interviews were conducted with nine persons living with HIV/AIDS and their nine direct informal caregivers. Interviews explored the themes of physical, emotional and social wellbeing. Two focus groups, one involving community leaders and one with local health care providers, were conducted to build on themes emerging from the in-depth interviews. A thematic analysis of the transcripts was performed. This study sheds light on the needs of persons living with HIV/AIDS and the needs of their direct informal caregivers in a rural area of the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. These needs include: physical/medical, social, material, financial, physiological/emotional, gender issues, and instrumental. In developing home-based care programmes, it is vital to consider the perceived needs of persons living with HIV/AIDS and their direct informal caregivers. The results from this study serve as a basis for the development of a home-based care programme in one resource-poor setting of South Africa and could provide a model for such programmes in similar areas.
    Journal of the International AIDS Society 01/2010; 13:20. · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    The Canadian journal of nursing research = Revue canadienne de recherche en sciences infirmières 04/2009; 41(1):193-203.
  • L R Uys, B R Bhengu, B Majumdar
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    ABSTRACT: The article is based on a four-year project during which Primary Health Care (PHC) nurses worked with women's groups in their areas. The aim of the study was to explore the involvement of PHC nurses in economic empowerment, both in terms of health promotion and in terms of the PHC approach. In particular the objectives were to establish whether nurses could lead economic empowerment groups, whether such groups could establish adequate external links and become financially viable. Eleven groups were used as case studies, and a cross-case analysis was done in terms of the three objectives. It was found that between the women and the nurses, adequate leadership existed for the groups to function well. Very limited external linkages were established, notwithstanding efforts in this regard. Nine out of 11 groups contributed to financial welfare of their members after 18 months, but a range of problems with regard to financial viability are identified.
    Curationis 04/2006; 29(1):25-31.
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    Angela Cooper Brathwaite, Basanti Majumdar
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    ABSTRACT: This paper reports a study, which evaluated the effectiveness of a cultural competence educational programme to increase Public Health Nurses' cultural knowledge. Cultural competence has great significance for practising nurses and has become a priority and commitment of the Nursing profession. Public Health Nurses interact regularly with clients from a variety of culturally diverse backgrounds. Thus, there is a need for an integrated programme with theoretical and experiential knowledge related to cultural competence for PHNs to enhance their knowledge and skills to better meet the needs of the population. This study used a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods for data collection. A one-group Repeated Measures design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the educational programme. The sample consisted of 76 Public Health Nurses who attended a cultural competence educational programme, which was offered over five consecutive weeks, of 2 hours duration and reinforced by a booster session at 1 month postimplementation of the programme. Cultural knowledge was measured on the Cultural Knowledge Scale, which was a valid, reliable, 25-item Likert scale. Data were collected at four points in time and were analysed with repeated measures analysis of variance. Qualitative data were content analysed. Findings revealed that the intervention was effective [Wilks' Lambda was F(3,69) = 142.02, P < 0.01] in increasing the nurses' cultural knowledge. Qualitative results complemented the quantitative findings. Participants reported that the programme was effective in increasing their cultural knowledge. Although Public Health Nurses, who attended the educational programme increased their cultural knowledge, these findings are not generalizable to nurses working in other settings. However, the programme has clinical utility and could be adapted and given to nurses in other settings.
    Journal of Advanced Nursing 02/2006; 53(4):470-9. · 1.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to understand the culture, values, skills and activities of staff involved in education and prevention activities in community-based AIDS Service Organizations (ASOs) in Ontario, Canada, and to understand the role of evaluation research in their prevention programming. In this qualitative study, 33 staff members from 11 ASOs participated in semi-structured interviews that were analyzed using the grounded theory approach. ASO staff experience tension between a historical grassroots organizational culture characterized by responsiveness and relevance and a more recent culture of professionalization. Target populations have changed from being primarily gay men to an almost unlimited variety of communities. Program emphasis has shifted from education and knowledge dissemination to a broadly based mandate of health promotion, community development, and harm reduction. Integration of evidence of effectiveness, social-behavioral theory, or systematic evaluation is uncommon. Understanding these points of tension is important for the nursing profession when it is engaged with ASOs in programming or evaluation research.
    Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care 01/2005; 16(1):29-36. · 1.09 Impact Factor
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    Basanti Majumdar
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to explore the knowledge and attitudes towards violence against women among fourth (final) year baccalaureate nursing students and fifth (final) year medical students from two distinct educational institutions in India. Data were collected from 440 students using two questionnaires: the Student Exposure to Woman Abuse Questionnaire (SEWAQ), and the Inventory of Beliefs about Wife Beating (IBWB). Results were analysed based on gender, profession, and educational institution. Nursing students believed that they had received more classroom preparation and practical skills to better prepare them to assist abused clients than male and female medical students. Only 38% of the participants believed that they had acquired classroom knowledge on woman abuse through their respective educational programs, whereas 43% thought they had practical skills to care for victims. All participants were sympathetic toward abuse victims, but demonstrated varying attitudes about the justification for abuse against women, help given to victims, punishment of the offender and the effect of woman abuse. Female medical students believed more strongly than males and nursing students that wives do not gain from being beaten. Congruent with existing literature, the study demonstrated that health care students in India do not receive sufficient training, practical skills and classroom knowledge to effectively manage abuse against women.
    Education for Health 12/2004; 17(3):354-64.
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of mental health problems, some of which seem to be occurring among younger cohorts, leads researchers and policy-makers to search for practical solutions to reduce the burden of suffering on children and their families, and the costs to society both immediate and long term. Numerous programs are in place to reduce or alleviate problem behaviour or disorders and/or assist positive youth development. Evaluated results are dispersed throughout the literature. To assess findings and determine common elements of effective children's services, a literature search was undertaken for evidence-based evaluations of non-clinical programs for school-age children. Prescriptive comments aim to inform service-providers, policy-makers and families about best practices for effective services such as: early, long-term intervention including reinforcement, follow-up and an ecological focus with family and community sector involvement; consistent adult staffing; and interactive, non-didactic programming adapted to gender, age and cultural needs. Gaps are identified in our understanding of efficiencies that result from effective programs. Policy implications include the need to develop strategies for intersectoral interventions, including: new financing arrangements to encourage (not penalize) interagency cooperation and, to ensure services reach appropriate segments of the population; replication of best practices; and publicizing information about benefits and cost savings. In many jurisdictions legislative changes could create incentives for services to collaborate on service delivery. Joint decision-making would require intersectoral governance, pooling of some funding, and policy changes to retain savings at the local level. Savings could finance expansion of services for additional youth.
    Social Science [?] Medicine 05/2004; 58(7):1367-84. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    Basanti B Majumdar, Tracey L Chambers, Jacqueline Roberts
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    ABSTRACT: Research is an essential component of effective, evidence-based nursing practice. Limited scientific data have been published on Canadian Aboriginals, and even less information is available on HIV prevention efforts aimed at Aboriginal youth. The need for more research on HIV and AIDS among Aboriginals, and especially Aboriginal youth, is highlighted throughout the article as a means to improving prevention interventions for this vulnerable population. At the same time, insights gained from a culture-sensitive, HIV/AIDS educational program that targeted a group of Aboriginal adolescents from a local First Nations community in Ontario are discussed. Implications for future HIV/AIDS peer-based prevention efforts using the train-the-trainer technique are also considered.
    Journal of Transcultural Nursing 02/2004; 15(1):69-73. · 0.51 Impact Factor
  • Leana R Uys, Basanti Majumdar, Nomthandaso S Gwele
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    ABSTRACT: To describe a health promotion model aimed at assisting primary health care nurses to incorporate health promotion into their practice. ORGANIZING STRUCTURE: The model is based on empowering people through a systematic, planned, needs-driven curriculum with comprehensive content, using interactive teaching in small groups, and linking the groups with external resources. The process involves identifying and engaging partners, planning the project, implementing it, and then disengaging. The implementation of this model in a province of South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal, in a collaborative project involving two universities and the state health services, changed the practice of the primary health care nurses involved. They worked with women's groups over 3 years and changed both their own perspectives and the lives of the women. Unless nurses have an implementation model available to them, they frequently focus only on illness needs of people and do not participate in health promotion.
    Journal of Nursing Scholarship 02/2004; 36(3):192-6. · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the effectiveness of cultural sensitivity training on the knowledge and attitudes of health care providers, and to assess the satisfaction and health outcomes of patients from different minority groups with health care providers who received training. In this randomised controlled trial, 114 health care providers (nurses and homecare workers) and 133 patients (from two community agencies and one hospital) were randomly assigned to experimental (training) and control groups, and were followed for 18 months. Providers completed the Cultural Awareness Questionnaire and the Dogmatism Scale. Patients completed the Off-Axis-Ratio (OAR) Multidimensional Measure of Functional Capacity, the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire, the Physical and Mental Health Assessment Questionnaire, and the Health and Social Services Utilization Questionnaire. A qualitative analysis was conducted to identify and analyse themes from personal journals kept by participating nurses. Cultural sensitivity training resulted in increased open-mindedness and cultural awareness, improved understanding of multiculturalism, and ability to communicate with minority people. After 1 year patients of mostly European and British origin, who received care from trained providers, showed improvement in utilizing social resources and overall functional capacity without an increase in health care expenditures. The results of this study indicate that a cultural sensitivity training program not only improved knowledge and attitudes among health care providers, but it also yielded positive health outcomes for their patients.
    Journal of Nursing Scholarship 02/2004; 36(2):161-6. · 1.61 Impact Factor
  • Basanti Majumdar
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    ABSTRACT: Through in-depth, tape-recorded interviews, this qualitative pilot study explored the feelings and concerns of 10 HIV-positive women, aged 18 to 70 years, and the socioeconomic, spiritual, and family support available to them in Kolkata, India. A qualitative approach of continuous comparative analysis of themes revealed that although heterosexual contact was the main source of infection, poverty and sexual violence were indirect social factors. These women experienced markedly less socioeconomic, spiritual, and family support after contracting the disease. In addition to worsening physical symptoms, emotional and mental anguish forced them into isolation, negatively affecting their mental health. Social isolation infiltrated their spiritual lives, producing feelings of helplessness about the future of their children. The identification of this process is important to nursing practice, as it highlights key areas of concern in the implementation of prevention programs and future research.
    Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care 01/2004; 15(3):37-46. · 1.09 Impact Factor
  • The Canadian journal of nursing research = Revue canadienne de recherche en sciences infirmières 07/2001; 33(1):65-76.
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    ABSTRACT: A series of 12 studies (five historic cohort and seven randomized trials) examined clients in community settings in Southern Ontario suffering from a variety of chronic physical and mental health conditions. These studies are appraised using a framework for evaluating possible outcomes of economic evaluation. In the 12 studies, sample composition and size varied. Each study was designed to quantify the well-being outcomes and expenditures associated with different community-based approaches to care provided in the context of a system of national health insurance. As a collective, these studies represent increasing methodological rigour. Multiple-perspective client well-being outcome measures were used. In two studies, caregiver burden also was analysed. A common approach to quantification and evaluation of expenditures for service consumption was used in all 12 studies. The nature of community-based health services (health vs. disease care orientation) was found to have direct and measurable impact on total expenditures for health service utilization and client well-being outcomes. In most cases, a recurring pattern of equal or better client outcomes, yet lower expenditures for use of community based health services, was associated with well-integrated health oriented services. Integrated services aimed at factors which determine health are superior when compared to individual, fragmented, disease oriented, and focused approaches to care. The main lessons from the 12 studies are that it is as or more effective and as or less expensive to offer complete, proactive, community health services to persons living with chronic circumstance than to provide focused, on-demand, piecemeal services. Complete services would have a psychosocial and mental health focus included with the physical care approach. Furthermore, people with coexisting risk factors (age, living arrangements, mental distress and problem-solving ability) are the ones who most benefit at lower expense from health oriented, proactive interventions.
    Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 12/1999; 5(4):367-85. · 1.51 Impact Factor
  • B Majumdar
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    ABSTRACT: In the 1970s, McMaster University, Hamilton, introduced self-directed learning (SDL) to its undergraduate nursing program. This innovation was prompted by a fundamental belief in the importance of nurse empowerment and the link between empowerment and SDL. The empowerment of nurses, it was believed, was critical to the improved health and welfare of patients. In the 1990s, faculty and alumni have perceived another benefit to SDL: the ability of McMaster graduates to persevere and excel in the face of health care system change.
    The Canadian nurse 07/1999; 95(6):37-40.
  • B Majumdar, J S Keystone, L A Cuttress
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the effectiveness of culture sensitivity training for foreign-trained medical graduates licensed to practice in Ontario, Canada. A study of pretest-post-test design was conducted to determine the effect of cultural sensitivity training on newly immigrated physicians licensed in Canada. Twenty-four physicians, those who had passed the medical licensing exam in 1996 and had not yet started their residency program, were given 15 hours of cultural sensitivity training and were considered the experimental group. This group was compared with a control group of 24 physicians who had passed the licensing exam and were in the process of completing residency. University of Toronto. Foreign-trained medical graduates. Both groups completed the Cross-Cultural Adaptability Inventory both before and after the training of the experimental group. Statistical significance in three subscales of the Open-Mindedness/Flexibility, Emotional Resilience and Perceptual Acuity dimensions were demonstrated in the experimental group as compared with the control group. In order for Canada to mould professional and effective physicians great care must be taken in the design and process of cultural sensitivity programmes to enhance both knowledge and skills. Follow-up should be undertaken to compare their effectiveness with the control group.
    Medical Education 04/1999; 33(3):177-84. · 3.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This randomized controlled trial compared the effectiveness of self-directed learning (SDL) and faculty directed, demonstration-return-demonstration learning (DRD) for psychomotor clinical nursing skills and level of knowledge of second year baccalaureate nursing students. The self-directed learning approach of a university was compared to a community college's approach of tutor demonstration-student return demonstration for students from the University. Data were collected using questionnaires measuring academic outcomes after the students were exposed to the different learning approaches. The data were compared for differences in grades in an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Findings indicated that students perceived there were differences in the learning process, however there were no differences of interest in most of the academic outcomes. While students did not differ on the total OSCE grade, students using the SDL method received higher grades in only one of the marker stations and students using the DRD method received higher grades in only one marker and one observer station. The group of students receiving the DRD method indicated that they were given enough help from faculty, were allowed sufficient practice time and expected that the SDL method would be more stressful. 30.8% of the students in the SDL group recommended their learning method to future second year students, while 100% of the DRD group recommended the DRD method. Although the outcome appeared not to differ, more students indicated satisfaction with the faculty-directed (DRD) approach.
    Advances in Health Sciences Education 02/1998; 3(1):15-28. · 2.06 Impact Factor
  • B Majumdar, J Roberts
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    ABSTRACT: AIDS affects everyone, regardless of race, age, or religion; hence, information must be accessible to everyone. This descriptive study identified the need to generate culturally sensitive educational programs and evaluated their effect. Culturally sensitive AIDS educational training was offered to culturally diverse women. Training was conducted by women of the same ethnicity as the women in the group. The facilitators were specially trained on the role of a facilitator and the participatory method of learning. To assess any change in attitude, knowledge, and beliefs regarding AIDS, the questionnaire was administered before and after the training programs. Educational training had a positive effect (p < .05) on participants' attitude and knowledge regarding AIDS; they felt comfortable discussing their concerns in their own language, and with their friends from the same community, and they viewed the resources used as culturally sensitive.
    Health Care For Women International 01/1998; 19(2):141-53. · 0.63 Impact Factor
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    B Majumdar, S Ladak
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    ABSTRACT: Minority women identify finances and maintaining cultural values as their most commonly experienced stressors at home and in the work-place. A before and after study of ethnic minority women in focus group sessions led by a trained ethnic minority facilitator examined how social and workplace supports, or lack thereof, impact on the individuals' ability to manage daily life. Creative, effective solutions to stressors were identified by the participants. Outcomes were evaluated in terms of the impact of changes on the participants' coping styles in family and work life. Results indicate that a large percentage of women in this study felt discriminated against based on their culture/race, however, this perceived discrimination decreased after the focus groups. The predominant stress management techniques were prayer and music. Family support was the most influential factor in decreasing stress. The family is a major source of support for the working women, acting as a buffer to workplace pressures.
    Canadian journal of public health. Revue canadienne de santé publique 01/1998; 89(1):48-52. · 1.02 Impact Factor
  • B Majumdar, Y Amarsi, B Carpio
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    ABSTRACT: Pakistan's health characteristics are worse than those of other Asian countries at similar stages of development. Its mortality rate for children under five is 139 per 1,000, and its maternal mortality is 60 per 10,000. Malnutrition in women and children is widespread; 50 per cent of children under five are stunted. Pakistan's population growth rate of 3.1 per cent per year is among the highest in Asia. The high population growth rate and poor health status of many people call for extensive health care services, but, unfortunately, health services do not reach most of the people of Pakistan. Partly because the training of doctors and nurses is lengthy and expensive, there is an acute shortage of health care providers, especially women. Although female health professionals are preferred for caring for women, cultural constraints inhibit women from seeking education. Such is the multifaceted dilemma in the provision of primary health care in Pakistan.
    The Canadian nurse 06/1997; 93(5):32-4.

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