Badr Mabrouk

Prof. - Head of water Risk Cen
· Department of HydroGeology

Publications

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    ABSTRACT: CLImate-induced changes on WAter and SECurity (CLIWASEC) was a cluster of three complementary EC-FP7 projects assessing climate-change impacts throughout the Mediterranean on: hydrological cycles (CLIMB — CLimate-Induced changes on the hydrology of Mediterranean Basins); water security (WASSERMed — Water Availability and Security in Southern EuRope and the Mediterranean) and human security connected with possible hydro-climatic conflicts (CLICO — CLImate change hydro-COnflicts and human security). The Nile delta case study was common between the projects. CLIWASEC created an integrated forum for modelling and monitoring to understand potential impacts across sectors. This paper summarises key results froman integrated assessment of potential challenges to water-related security issues, focusing on expected sea-level rise impacts by the middle of the century.We use this common focus to illustrate the added value of project clustering. CLIWASEC pursued multidisciplinary research by adopting a single research objective: sea-level rise related water security threats, resulting in a more holistic view of problems and potential solutions. In fragmenting research, policy-makers can fail to understand how multiple issues can materialize from one driver. By combining efforts, an integrated assessment ofwater security threats in the lower Nile is formulated, offering policy-makers a clearer picture of inter-related issues to society and environment. The main issues identified by each project (land subsidence, saline intrusion — CLIMB; water supply overexploitation, land loss — WASSERMed; employment and housing security — CLICO), are in fact related. Water overexploitation is exacerbating land subsidence and saline intrusion, impacting on employment and placing additional pressure on remaining agricultural land and the underdeveloped housingmarket. All these have wider implications for regional development. This richer understanding could be critical in making better policy decisionswhen attempting tomitigate climate and social change impacts. The CLIWASEC clustering offers an encouraging path for the newEuropean Commission Horizon 2020 programme to follow.
    Science of The Total Environment 07/2014; 503-504:279-288. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.06.111 · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology (CEST2013). Lekkas D (ed.). 5-7 September 2013, Athens, Greece.; 09/2013
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    ABSTRACT: The Nile-Delta is subjected to continuous changes; including shoreline changes either erosion or accretion, subsidence of the delta, as well as sea level rise due to climate change. The impacts of climate change on the Nile Delta have been addressed on local and international level as the Nile Delta coastal zones are vulnerable to sea level rise. The poster presents recent research activities and findings from the CLIMB project in the Nile Delta and costal zones of Egypt. Lots of field data have been collected such as aquifer geometry data, soil properties data, well data and contamination sources. All of these data support a coupled modeling approach of the land surface hydrological model WASIM-ETH and the hydrological model MOD-Flow to simulate and project the future impact translation of climate projections into hydrological impacts. Results confirm intensified threads to water security. Increasing potential evaporation (in response to increasing temperature) in combination with decreasing water levels in the Nile river, reduced precipitation and groundwater recharge and deteriorating groundwater quality, imposes great challenges to ensure the supply of drinking water and irrigation. Current irrigation strategies are highly inefficient and must be replaced by new and adapted systems. Based on the results of the coupled modeling approach, various scenarios can be evaluated. The vision is to develop a road map for climate change and green economy that maximizes wellbeing of the Egyptian citizens, operates with environmental limits, and is capable of adapting to global environmental change.
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    ABSTRACT: Northeastern Delta is one of the most promising developmental areas in Egypt. This area is characterized by a prominent watershed having abundant water resources (especially groundwater). Currently, this area undergoes a rapid environmental degradation, such as land subsidence, water and soil salinaization. It accommodates about 60% of the total arable lands of the Delta, and inhabited by about 45 % of its total population. In addition, the northern part of this area comprises about 25% of the total Mediterranean wetlands. In this area a number of desalination plants were installed to desalinate brackish water and inject the brine to the aquifer using deep wells. This work aims to evaluate the environmental impact of injecting brine water on groundwater quality. Also, the impact of climate change and sea level rise are considered. The work is a combination of field work and simulation processes of groundwater flow and seawater intrusion using numerical models. The field work was used to collect and analyze data, information pertaining to the groundwater resources, interpretation of aerial photos and satellite images and preparation of ground water potential maps has. This was followed by detailed test boring wells as chemical analysis of seawater intrusion detection and pollution flow mapping were done. Numerical models (MODFLOW and MT3D) were used to evaluate both current and future situation of the groundwater flow and seawater intrusion in the Nile Delta aquifer in the studied area. The aquifer in the studied area is divided into five barrier beds according to its hydrological characteristics. The increase in extraction rates of brackish water and increasing the salinity of groundwater were experienced in details. Different scenarios to mitigate the severe salinity effect of injected brine water of high salinity rejected from desalination process. The brine water is assumed to be injected into deep wells to different depths and observation of changes in salinity and flow directions through 30 years period were carried out. A merged model combines extraction rates from brackish water, brine water injection into the aquifer, seawater intrusion considering sea level rise, will give finally an integrated simulated view of the aquifer in the vulnerable area and set a strategically plane for a sustainable management of the aquifer in order to mitigate the impact of climate change, sea level rise and water resources scarcity in this vital area.
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    ABSTRACT: The presented project initiative CLIMB (‘Climate Induced Changes on the Hydrology of Mediterranean Basins – Reducing Uncertainty and Quantifying Risk’) has recently signed a Grant Agreement in EC’s 7th Framework Program (FP7-ENV.2009.1.1.5.2). In its 4-year design, starting from January 2010, the collaborative project for specific cooperation actions (SICA) dedicated to international partner countries shall analyze ongoing and future climate-induced changes in hydrological budgets and extremes across the Mediterranean and neighboring regions.This is undertaken in study sites located in Sardinia, Northern Italy, Southern France, Tunisia, Turkey, Egypt and the Palestinian-administered area Gaza. The work plan is targeted to selected river or aquifer catchments, where theconsortium will employ a combination of novel field monitoring and remote sensing concepts, data assimilation, integrated hydrologic modeling and socioeconomic factor analyses to reduce existing uncertainties in climate change impact analysis. Advanced climate scenario analysis will be employed and available ensembles of regional climate model simulations will be downscaled. This process will provide the drivers for an ensemble of hydro(-geo)logical models with different degrees of complexity in terms of process description and level of integration. The results of hydrological modeling and socio-economic factor analysis will enable the development of a GIS-based Vulnerability and Risk Assessment Tool. This tool will serve as a platform for the dissemination of project results, including communication with and planning for local and regional stakeholders. An important output of the research in the individual study sites will be the development of a set of recommendations for an improved monitoring and modeling strategy for climate change impact assessment. CLIMB is forming a cluster of independent projects with WASSERMed from the Environment and CLICO from Socio-Economic Sciences and Humanities Call of FP7 in 2009 (see Fig. 2). The intention of this clustering is to foster scientific synergy and cooperation between the partner projects to achieve improvements in policy outreach on different spatial scales.
    Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 01/2010; 19(10):2379. · 0.53 Impact Factor
  • Samir El-Sadek, Badr Mabrouk
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    ABSTRACT: Several areas along the Egyptian coasts of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aqaba have been identified as priority zones for tourism development, as they possess exceptionally beautiful beaches, coral reefs and marine life. These zones however, suffer deficiencies in infrastructure, particularly the lack of adequate quantities of potable water. Therefore, water desalination plays a major role in infrastructure planning.The Red Sea coastal aquifer extends into Sinai and comprises two main components. The Quaternary Aquifer has developed at the deltaic areas of the main Wadis which cross the coastal plains. The water exists under phreatic conditions nearly at sea level, and its salinity is about 700–2000 ppm. The Tertiary Aquifer has developed at great depths, and its salinity reaches up to 20,000 ppm.The available quantity of ground water, however, is not adequate to supply the promising touristic areas. Sea water desalination, with salinity up to 47,000 ppm, cannot be avoided at least as a temporary solution. Choosing from available technology options should be based not only on comparisons of benefits and costs, but also on due consideration of the environmental impact of the chosen technology on the highly sensitive and fragile ecological system of the area. Viability would also naturally be based on studying the cost of producing water including consideration of required energy, capital investment, chemical consumption, operation, maintenance and labour.This paper will present an overview of available technology options relative to the needs and conditions of the areas under consideration, and detailed analyses of their suitability. Analysis of various factors peculiar to these areas have lead to the conclusion that thermal systems are viable to produce quantities up to 10,000 cubic meters of potable water per day. For smaller quantities of up to 500 cubic meters per day, the Reverse Osmosis system is the viable alternative. In all cases, environmental considerations must be strictly observed.
    Desalination 10/1992; DOI:10.1016/0011-9164(92)80111-L · 3.96 Impact Factor

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