Publications

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    ABSTRACT: Organizational innovativeness (OI) is a central concept in academic research and managerial practice. In many cases, OI has been operationalized as the number of innovations organizations adopt. In contrast, this paper conceptualizes OI as a five-dimensional construct (creativity, openness, future orientation, risk-taking, and proactiveness) representing the organizational climate, which refers to the organization's ability to generate ideas and innovate continually over time. The findings support the conceptualization and operationalization of the five-dimensional OI, validated in Norway, Israel, and Spain. These results shed new light on existing findings and can promote new research directions as well as guide strategic managerial decision-making.
    Journal of Product Innovation Management 12/2013; · 1.57 Impact Factor
  • Kalanit Efrat, Aviv Shoham
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    ABSTRACT: Aggressive driving is a growing problem worldwide. Previous research has provided us with some insights into the characteristics of drivers prone to aggressiveness on the road and into the external conditions triggering such behavior. Little is known, however, about the personality traits of aggressive drivers. The present study proposes planned behavior and materialism as predictors of aggressive driving behavior. Data was gathered using a questionnaire-based survey of 220 individuals from twelve large industrial organizations in Israel. Our hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling. Our results indicate that while planned behavior is a good predictor of the intention to behave aggressively, it has no impact on the tendency to behave aggressively. Materialism, however, was found to be a significant indicator of aggressive driving behavior. Our study is based on a self-reported survey, therefore might suffer from several issues concerning the willingness to answer truthfully. Furthermore, the sampling group might be seen as somewhat biased due to the relatively high income/education levels of the respondents. While both issues, aggressive driving and the theory of planned behavior, have been studied previously, the linkage between the two as well as the ability of materialism to predict aggressive behavior received little attention previously. The present study encompasses these constructs providing new insights into the linkage between them.
    Accident; analysis and prevention 07/2013; 59C:459-465. · 1.65 Impact Factor
  • Aviv Shoham, Ossi Pesämaa
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    ABSTRACT: Following the seminal work of Bruner and Kumar (2007) on gadget loving, this paper views gadget loving as the attachment individuals have toward advanced electronic items and how such an attachment relates to actual use (i.e., actual gadgets ownership). It extends existing research in two important ways. First, it provides a retest of the reliability and validity of the gadget-loving scale in two new countries (Israel and Sweden), thus adding to the generalizability of the scale across cultures. Second, it develops and tests an integrative model that includes gadget loving as a central construct as well as several antecedents and consequences proposed as important topics for future research in the extant literature. The results show that inherent novelty seeking, technological innovativeness, and technical curiosity predict the gadget-loving trait, which in turn affects technological opinion leadership and gadget ownership. These findings have theoretical and practical implications.
    Psychology and Marketing 03/2013; 30(3). · 1.13 Impact Factor
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    Ayalla Ruvio, Yossi Gavish, Aviv Shoham
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    ABSTRACT: This paper focuses on the consumer's doppelganger effect, the inclination of consumers to intentionally mimic other individuals' consumption behaviors. Taking a role model perspective, we look at the inclination of Israeli teenage girls to resonate with role models with whom they have unidirectional (study 1; N = 152) and bidirectional (study 2; N = 343) relationships. The findings demonstrate that consumers' doppelgangers have a strong inclination to intentionally emulate other individuals' consumption behavior when they perceive them as consumer role models, an assessment that is rooted in their view of these individuals as relevant. The contributions of this research relate to the study of mimicry, role modeling, and family consumption. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Journal of Consumer Behaviour 01/2013; 12(1). · 0.75 Impact Factor
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    Ruth Segev, Aviv Shoham, Ayalla Ruvio
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose ‐ Previous research on impression management explored motives, the use of impression management tactics and the influence of personality characteristics on the tendency to engage in impression management. The purposes of this research are to examine gift-giving behavior among adolescents based on the building blocks of impression management theory, the ways that personality characteristics motivate gift-givers to engage in active and defensive impression management and how the use of impression management tactics (i.e. similarity-conformity and target-enhancement) are reflected in their gift-giving behavior. Design/methodology/approach ‐ A convenience sample of 141 adolescences was used in a quantitative study. Self-report questionnaires were distributed to adolescents of different ages (13-16), with students from diverse social strata. Students were asked to recall a recent peer gift-giving experience and to refer to it when answering the questions which covered motives for gift-giving, personality characteristics, and the characteristics of the gift. Findings ‐ The authors' study shows that personality characteristics such as public self-consciousness, self-monitoring, and self-esteem are positively related with gift-giving motives. Additionally, gift-giving motives are positively related with the use of similarity-conformity and target-enhancement tactics. Finally, the use of impression management tactics reflects adolescents' special characteristics, such as their tendency towards conformism, important role of peers in their lives, and their high need to protect and nurture these social resources. Originality/value ‐ This research explored the instrumental role of gift-giving among adolescents and contributes to the existing literatures on gift-giving, impression management, and adolescents' consumer behavior.
    Journal of Consumer Marketing 01/2013; 30(5).
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    ABSTRACT: Relying on organizational innovativeness for long-term growth and profitability can be difficult, time consuming, and expensive. In the context of service delivery of 395 strategic business units (SBU) in Israel's healthcare industry, this paper examines the role of a learning-orientation as a moderator in an integrative model of organizational innovativeness. We find moderation of the impacts of risk-taking, creativity, competitor benchmarking orientation, and environmental opportunities on innovativeness. Moreover, we find the influence on performance pronounced for high learning-oriented SBUs. The paper shows that learning orientation should be considered for understanding effective innovativeness work for competitive service delivery.
    Journal of Engineering and Technology Management. 01/2013; 30(2):169–187.
  • Kalanit Efrat, Aviv Shoham
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose ‐ Entry modes are a central aspect of international business, particularly for young firms lacking organizational experience and capital, such as born global (BG) firms. Few studies on BG internationalization have addressed the antecedents to entry mode decisions in BG firms. Based on the two main groups of factors impacting entry mode decisions in general, namely environmental (external) conditions and firms' strategic characteristics, the purpose of this paper is to explore how the interaction between country and market factors and BGs' strategic orientation affects BGs' choice of low- vs high-commitment entry modes. Design/methodology/approach ‐ Data from 104 Israeli high-tech BG firms were gathered in field interviews with managers. Preliminary analyses assessed non-response bias. Findings ‐ Most BGs showed a strong Prospector orientation manifested by exploration and exploitation of opportunities. This in turn moderated the impact of several host market factors on the choice of entry mode, encouraging BGs to choose high-commitment entry modes. Practical implications ‐ Contrary to earlier research claiming that BGs minimize risk by choosing low-commitment entry modes, the findings show that BGs' choice of commitment level is affected by host market characteristics. Originality/value ‐ It is often thought that BGs' choice of entry mode is decisively affected by the host market risk profile, encouraging the choice of low-commitment entry modes in riskier markets. As the findings show, however, BGs are also sensitive to the opportunities provided by the host market, sometimes resulting in high-commitment entry modes.
    International Marketing Review 01/2013; 30(6). · 1.18 Impact Factor
  • Kalanit Efrat, Aviv Shoham
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    ABSTRACT: Globalization has triggered the emergence of a new breed of firms called “Born Globals” (BGs), firms that become international soon after inception. Unlike previous research, the present study distinguishes between BGs’ short- and long-term performance and argues that different drivers affect each type of performance. Data from 107 Israeli BGs shows that their short-term performance is impacted mostly by environmental (external) factors. In contrast, over the long run, internal factors become more crucial to BGs’ survival and success. These time-based differences have important theoretical and practical implications.
    Journal of World Business. 10/2012; 47(4):675–685.
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    ABSTRACT: Most previous within-discipline research on innovativeness as an organizational trait does not account for cross-disciplinary perspectives, leading to incomplete findings. This paper develops an integrative model of organizational innovativeness, based on research in several disciplines to identify antecedents to, characteristics of, and outcomes of organizational innovativeness. Cross-sectional, questionnaire-based data from Israeli, Lithuanian, and Slovakian public organizations were used to test the model. Market and learning orientation enhanced organizational innovativeness, whereas internal politics and centralization reduced it. Organizational innovativeness enhanced two individual-level outcomes (satisfaction and commitment), as well as innovation performance, which, in turn, improved overall organizational performance.
    Journal of Engineering and Technology Management. 04/2012; 29(2):226–240.
  • Ruthie Segev, Aviv Shoham, Ayalla Ruvio
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    ABSTRACT: This study examines adolescents’ gift giving using a qualitative methodology, based on impression management theory. Gift‐giving motives and the characteristics of the chosen gifts indicated that adolescents use gift giving instrumentally to manage and protect their impressions among their peers. The study extends the literature on adolescents’ gift giving, and provides evidence regarding different types of gifts such as joint, neutral, and twofold gifts. Additionally, some gifts are aimed at strengthening similarity and bind the extended selves of givers and receivers.
    Psychology and Marketing 01/2012; 29(10). · 1.13 Impact Factor
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    Ayalla A Ruvio, Aviv Shoham
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, the literature on aggressive driving tendencies as a con-sumption experience is reviewed. Two studies test a comprehensive model that includes personality, attitudinal, and value antecedents to such behavior. The research supports the role of most of the antecedents. However, personality and attitudinal constructs were found to be stronger predictors of aggressive driving than values. Furthermore, the paper demonstrates that aggressive driving ten-dencies increase incidences of law breaking. Suggestions for future research and practical implications are discussed. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Millions of people around the world own cars and use them on a daily basis, making driving one of the most common consumption behaviors (Martin, Schouten, & Stephens, 2006). As in other consumption behaviors, individuals' personalities, attitudes, and values affect their perceptions of the driving expe-rience. Some people view it as a pleasurable experience, others see it as a diver-sion, and for some driving is a "power trip." The meaning of the car also varies across individuals. While some regard the car as a functional tool for getting from one place to another, others view it as part of their identity (Belk, 2004; Lamont & Molnar, 2001). This paper examines how individuals' personalities, attitudes, and values affect their driving behavior, particularly their aggres-sive driving behavior.
    Psychology and Marketing 11/2011; · 1.13 Impact Factor
  • Kalanit Efrat, Aviv Shoham
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    ABSTRACT: This paper focuses on the growing phenomenon of 'Born Globals' (BGs) – small and technology-oriented firms that become international soon after establishment. Previous research identified that, owing to their unique traits, BGs tend to incept more rapidly in high technology industries. These firms are distinguished by moving quickly from inception to first foreign market entry – a strategy that carries considerable risks. Yet though this early internationalisation is a unique trait of BGs and is their core defining factor, some aspects of it are still under-addressed in the literature. One such element is the role of the external environment, namely target market factors, previously found to affect the operations and performance of gradually globalising firms. This conceptual paper proposes a model for how BGs' technological capabilities interact with their niche marketing focus strategy, and how these interactions moderate the risk factors associated with target markets factors to influence BGs' performance.
    European J of International Management 01/2011; 5(3):271 - 284. · 0.47 Impact Factor
  • Vassilis Dalakas, Aviv Shoham
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose – The paper intends to enrich the set of national contexts used so far in studies about gift-giving. It also intends to test the unique explanatory power of the dimensions of egalitarianism. Design/methodology/approach – The study uses a survey methodology with an Israeli sample. Findings – The results suggest that egalitarianism affects gift-giving behaviors only for females and anniversary presents. Research limitations/implications – The research is not cross-cultural per se. Thus, further research is needed in nations that are maximally different from the USA and Israel on their cultural dimensions. Practical implications – Strong social norms about gift-giving “protocol” may override the effect of egalitarianism attitudes on gift-giving behavior. Thus, marketers can benefit greatly from creating, nurturing, and promoting ritualistic and structured gift-giving situations. Originality/value – The paper examines gift-giving in Israel, a culturally different setting than the USA and other developed nations. It also extends the use of gender-role attitudes, especially egalitarianism, as a predictor of gift-giving behaviors.
    Journal of Consumer Marketing 06/2010; 27(4):381-389.
  • Bela Florenthal, Aviv Shoham
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose – This paper has two purposes. First, it aims to propose an alternative conceptualization for interactivity that distinguishes between four interactivity modes: human, medium, message, and product. Second, it seeks to develop a framework of channel preferences that integrates the four-mode concept of channel interactivity. Design/methodology/approach – A synthesis of interactivity literature streaming from several disciplines (social psychology, computer science, communication, object interaction, and marketing) was used to develop the four-mode concept. A framework is proposed to illustrate how consumers' perceptions of, and preferences for, the four interactivity modes impact channel preferences. Findings – The propositions developed suggest: channels are perceived as offering different modes of interactivity; preferences for interactivity modes are shaped by personal and situational characteristics; and a match/mismatch between consumers' perceptions of and preferences for the interactivity modes determine channel preferences. Research limitations/implications – The approach allows an evaluation of particular interactive technologies, an assessment of multi-channel strategies, and an examination of consumers' satisfaction with their shopping experiences. Originality/value – The authors propose a broader approach than existing ones. It is not restricted to an online channel; it integrates consumers' interaction with products; and it enables a comparison of online and offline channels. In addition, most research has focused on perceptions of interactivity whereas the framework presented in the paper addresses perceptions of, and preferences for, interactivity modes that impact channel choices.
    Journal of Services Marketing 02/2010; 24(1):29-41. · 0.62 Impact Factor
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    Yossi Gavish, Aviv Shoham, Ayalla Ruvio
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose – The purposes of this research are to examine the extent to which daughters view their mothers as consumption role models, the extent to which daughters serve as consumption role models for their mothers, and the extent to which external role models are shared by mothers and their adolescent daughters. Design/methodology/approach – Two qualitative studies focused on mothers-adolescent daughters-vicarious role models interactions as drivers of consumption behaviors in Western cultures. Study 1 included 20 in-depth interviews with mothers and their adolescent daughters (conducted separately). Study 2 included five of the original dyads interviewed jointly and observed in fashion stores. Findings – Regarding adolescent daughters' use as role models and fashion markers for their mothers, most mothers confirmed that their adolescent daughters' fashion opinion was very important. Second, based on consumer socialization arguments, mothers served as role models for their adolescent daughters. Most dyads shop for fashion items together and in the same stores. Regarding the issue of cognitive versus chronological ages, the studies suggest that there is a gap between mothers' cognitive and chronological ages in support of cognitive age theory and the youthfulness ideal of Western cultures. Notably, such a gap mostly failed to materialize for adolescent daughters. Hence, consumption similarity appears to be driven more by the gap for mothers than the gap for daughters. Finally, external role models such as celebrities did not have a great influence on mothers or their adolescent daughters. Originality/value – The research used in-depth interviews with and in-store observation of mothers and adolescent daughters. Future research might use similar interviews with younger daughters. Another extension of the work reported here that can provide triangulation for the findings is to change from a qualitative to a quantitative methodology.
    Journal of Consumer Marketing 01/2010; 27(1):43-56.
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    ABSTRACT: The cross-country study of public administration based on citizens' surveys in Europe is a relatively novel approach to analyzing the social and political dynamics of the continent. The goal of this study is to examine some aspects of bureaucracy and democracy as perceived by knowledgeable citizens in six countries (Ireland, Israel, Lithuania, Norway, Slovakia, and Spain). A rationale is developed to support hypotheses about the relationship between democracy and bureaucracy. The study also proposes hypotheses about differences between the countries in terms of satisfaction with public services, trust in governance and public administration agencies, and a set of managerial-oriented variables of the public sector (i.e. perceived innovation, responsiveness, professionalism, organizational politics, leadership and vision, ethics and morality). The study's findings indicate that various aspects of bureaucracy and democracy differ across countries and that democratic longevity may be a good explanation for these differences.
    European Union Politics 01/2010; 11(2):289-308. · 1.26 Impact Factor
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    Ayalla A Ruvio, Aviv Shoham
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    ABSTRACT: This article develops a multilevel model to explain social ventures' organizational outcome. The study examines the relationships between entrepreneurs' motivations and vision, ventures' strategy and environment, ventures' performance, and five-year survival of nascent Israeli firms. The findings suggest that an entrepreneur's motivation is reflected in their vision, which in turn is transformed into their ventures' strategies. Additionally, the environment is associated with entrepreneur's motivations and strategies and success. The results show that the latter was the only predictor of a ventures five-year survival.
    International Small Business Journal 01/2010; · 1.49 Impact Factor
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    Mei Rose, Gregory M. Rose, Aviv Shoham
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose – This paper aims to highlight the importance of examining sub-cultural attitudes when assessing the animosity of individuals from one nation toward the products of other nations. Design/methodology/approach – The context chosen, Arab and Jewish Israelis' attitudes toward the UK and Italy, provides a strong setting to test the influence of animosity on product judgments and willingness to purchase products from these nations. Attitudes toward British and Italian products were collected in shopping malls and community centers in middle class neighborhoods in Northern Israel. A total of 112 Arab Israeli and 111 Jewish Israeli consumers were sampled. Findings – Both animosity and consumer ethnocentrism led to a decreased willingness to purchase a nation's products. Arab Israelis felt more animosity toward the UK than Jewish Israelis, which negatively impacted their product judgments of British products. Originality/value – Previous research on the impact of animosity on foreign products has generally looked at nations as a whole, examined contexts where animosity was fairly distant (e.g. Chinese animosity toward Japan from the second world war), and found that animosity does not affect product judgments. The paper examines a more immediate context (current attitudes among Arab and Jewish Israelis), highlights the importance of considering subcultures when studying animosity, and finds that animosity can and does affect the product judgments of foreign products when felt animosity is strong.
    Journal of Consumer Marketing 07/2009; 26(5):330-339.
  • Sara Lev, Avi Fiegenbaum, Aviv Shoham
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    ABSTRACT: Summary The current paper focuses on the management of external knowledge as a central mechanism when organizations face threats from turbulent environments. Based on absorptive capacity (ACAP) theory, we emphasize ACAP's separation into potential and realized knowledge and suggest that each should be associated with three-dimensional stocks and distinguish between managing knowledge stocks and knowledge flows. Data from 522 managers from 12 Israli hospitals support the theoretical model. Organizations that manage both potential and realized ACAP stocks achieve better performance in a turbulent environment. The paper explores the practical and theoretical contivutions of the new suggested framework by linking environmental competitiveness, ACAP stocks, and performance.
    European Management Journal. 01/2009; 27(1):13-25.
  • Aviv Shoham, Gregory M. Rose
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    ABSTRACT: The business-performance-consequences of market orientation are a central topic in marketing. However, previous research outside of North America has utilized a wide variety of operational and conceptual definitions of performance, producing an equivocal set of findings. In this study, we propose a four dimensional framework for business performance, theoretically integrate the findings from past studies within this framework, empirically establish a relation between market orientation and business performance in a non-North American context: Israel, and discuss potential similarities and differences across nations. Thus, this paper replicates and extends the seminal work of previous examinations of market orientation (e.g., Deshpande, Farley, and Webster 1993; Kohli and Jaworski 1990; Narver and Slater 1990).
    Journal of Global Marketing 10/2008; 14(4):5-25.

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