Publications

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    ABSTRACT: Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells may be a powerful tool in regenerative medicine, but their potential tumorigenicity is a significant challenge for the clinical use of iPS cells. Previously, we succeeded in converting miPS cells into cancer stem cells (CSCs) under the conditions of tumor microenvironment. Both stem cells and tumor cells are profoundly influenced by bi-directional communication with their respective microenvironment, which dictates cell fate determination and behavior. The microenvironment derived from iPS cells has not been well studied. In this paper, we have investigated the effects of secreted factors from Nanog-mouse iPS (miPS) cells on mouse Lewis lung cancer (LLC) cells that are found in the conditioned media. The results demonstrated that miPS cells secrete factors that can convert the epithelia phenotype of LLC cells to a mesenchymal phenotype, and that can promote tumorigenisity, migration and invasion. Furthermore, LLC cells that have been exposed to miPS conditioned medium became resistant to apoptosis. These various biological effects suggest that the miPS microenvironment contain factors that can promote an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through an active Snail-MMP axis or by suppressing differentiation in LLC cells.
    American Journal of Cancer Research 01/2014; 4(1):80-88. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are capable of continuous proliferation and self-renewal and are proposed to play significant roles in oncogenesis, tumor growth, metastasis and cancer recurrence. CSCs are considered derived from normal stem cells affected by the tumor microenvironment although the mechanism of development is not clear yet. In 2007, Yamanaka's group succeeded in generating Nanog mouse induced pluripotent stem (miPS) cells, in which green fluorescent protein (GFP) has been inserted into the 5'-untranslated region of the Nanog gene. Usually, iPS cells, just like embryonic stem cells, are considered to be induced into progenitor cells, which differentiate into various normal phenotypes depending on the normal niche. We hypothesized that CSCs could be derived from Nanog miPS cells in the conditioned culture medium of cancer cell lines, which is a mimic of carcinoma microenvironment. As a result, the Nanog miPS cells treated with the conditioned medium of mouse Lewis lung carcinoma acquired characteristics of CSCs, in that they formed spheroids expressing GFP in suspension culture, and had a high tumorigenicity in Balb/c nude mice exhibiting angiogenesis in vivo. In addition, these iPS-derived CSCs had a capacity of self-renewal and expressed the marker genes, Nanog, Rex1, Eras, Esg1 and Cripto, associated with stem cell properties and an undifferentiated state. Thus we concluded that a model of CSCs was originally developed from miPS cells and proposed the conditioned culture medium of cancer cell lines might perform as niche for producing CSCs. The model of CSCs and the procedure of their establishment will help study the genetic alterations and the secreted factors in the tumor microenvironment which convert miPS cells to CSCs. Furthermore, the identification of potentially bona fide markers of CSCs, which will help the development of novel anti-cancer therapies, might be possible though the CSC model.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(4):e33544. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chlorotoxin is a 36-amino acid peptide derived from Leiurus quinquestriatus (scorpion) venom, which has been shown to inhibit low-conductance chloride channels in colonic epithelial cells. Chlorotoxin also binds to matrix metalloproteinase-2 and other proteins on glioma cell surfaces. Glioma cells are considered to require the activation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 during invasion and migration. In this study, for targeting glioma, we designed two types of recombinant chlorotoxin fused to human IgG-Fcs with/without a hinge region. Chlorotoxin fused to IgG-Fcs was designed as a dimer of 60 kDa with a hinge region and a monomer of 30 kDa without a hinge region. The monomeric and dimeric forms of chlorotoxin inhibited cell proliferation at 300 nM and induced internalization in human glioma A172 cells. The monomer had a greater inhibitory effect than the dimer; therefore, monomeric chlorotoxin fused to IgG-Fc was multivalently displayed on the surface of bionanocapsules to develop a drug delivery system that targeted matrix metalloproteinase-2. The target-dependent internalization of bionanocapsules in A172 cells was observed when chlorotoxin was displayed on the bionanocapsules. This study indicates that chlorotoxin fused to IgG-Fcs could be useful for the active targeting of glioblastoma cells.
    Journal of drug delivery. 01/2012; 2012:975763.
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    ABSTRACT: Targeting and down-regulation of ErbB2, a member of EGF receptor family, is regarded as one of the key aspect for cancer treatment because it is often overexpressed in breast and ovarian cancer cells. Although natural ligands for ErbB2 have not been found, unlike other ErbB receptors, EC-1, a 20-amino acid circular peptide, has been shown to bind to ErbB2 as an artificial ligand. Previously we showed EC-1 peptide did not induce the internalization of ErbB2 in SK-BR-3 cells. In this report, we designed divalent and multivalent forms of EC-1 peptide with the Fc portion of the human IgG and bionanocapsule modified with ZZ-tag on its surface to improve the interaction with ErbB2. These forms showed higher affinity to ErbB2 than that of EC-1 monomer. Furthermore, prominent endosomal accumulation of ErbB2 occurred in SK-BR-3 cells when stimulated with EC-Fc ligand multivalently displayed on the surface of the bionanocapsule, whereas SK-BR-3 cells as themselves displayed stringent mechanism against ErbB2 internalization without stimulation. The multivalent form of EC-1 peptide appeared to internalize ErbB2 more efficiently than divalent form did. This internalization was unaffected by the inhibition of clathrin association, but inhibited when the cholesterol was depleted which explained either caveolar or GPI-AP-early endocytic compartment (GEEC) pathway. Because of the lack of caveolin-1 expression, caveolar machinery may be lost in SK-BR-3 cell line. Therefore, it is suggested that the multivalent form of EC-1 induces the internalization of ErbB2 through the GEEC pathway.
    Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 02/2011; 15(11):2525-38. · 4.75 Impact Factor

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