Igor I Galynker, Zimri S Yaseen, Curren Katz, Xian Zhang, Gillian Jennings-Donovan, Stephen Dashnaw, Joy Hirsch, Helen Mayberg, Lisa J Cohen, Arnold Winston[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Insecure attachment has been linked to depression and to outcome in psychotherapy. The neural mechanisms subserving the relationship between attachment security and depression are not well understood. We have developed a method to examine attachment-related brain activity in depression. Twenty-eight women, half depressed, viewed images of their mother, a female friend, and female strangers during fMRI scanning. The effects of depression and insecure attachment were determined with whole-brain multiple linear regression of blood-oxygen-level-dependent response against subjects' Beck Depression Inventory and Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) coherence of mind scores. Interaction effects were analyzed with ANOVA. Activity associated with depression and with insecure attachment was found in the cortico-striato-thalamic circuits of affect regulation. For early attachment (mother-friend contrast), depression scores correlated with activation of cortical and sub-cortical components of these circuits, while attachment insecurity correlated with sub-cortical activity in the same circuitry. Depression and attachment insecurity correlated with both cortical and sub-cortical activities for mother-stranger, and areas of overlap and of enhancing interactions between depression and insecure attachment were found. For late attachment (friend-stranger contrast), only cortical effects were found. Depression and attachment insecurity may be subserved by similar but distinct components of affect regulating circuits. Their interactions may explain the greater difficulty of treating depression in insecurely attached patients and suggest a contributing role for insecure attachment in depression. Further, differential sub-cortical vs cortical encoding of early vs late attachment suggests a top-down model of late attachment, potentially relevant to psychotherapeutic outcome.Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 10/2011; · 6.13 Impact Factor
Article: Can depression be diagnosed by response to mother's face? A personalized attachment-based paradigm for diagnostic fMRI.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective measurement of depression remains elusive. Depression has been associated with insecure attachment, and both have been associated with changes in brain reactivity in response to viewing standard emotional and neutral faces. In this study, we developed a method to calculate predicted scores for the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) using personalized stimuli: fMRI imaging of subjects viewing pictures of their own mothers. 28 female subjects ages 18-30 (14 healthy controls and 14 unipolar depressed diagnosed by MINI psychiatric interview) were scored on the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) and the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) coherence of mind scale of global attachment security. Subjects viewed pictures of Mother (M), Friend (F) and Stranger (S), during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Using a principal component regression method (PCR), a predicted Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) score was obtained from activity patterns in the paracingulate gyrus (Brodmann area 32) and compared to clinical diagnosis and the measured BDI-II score. The same procedure was performed for AAI coherence of mind scores. Activity patterns in BA-32 identified depressed subjects. The categorical agreement between the derived BDI-II score (using the standard clinical cut-score of 14 on the BDI-II) and depression diagnosis by MINI psychiatric interview was 89%, with sensitivity 85.7% and specificity 92.8%. Predicted and measured BDI-II scores had a correlation of 0.55. Prediction of attachment security was not statistically significant. Brain activity in response to viewing one's mother may be diagnostic of depression. Functional magnetic resonance imaging using personalized paradigms has the potential to provide objective assessments, even when behavioral measures are not informative. Further, fMRI based diagnostic algorithms may enhance our understanding of the neural mechanisms of depression by identifying distinctive neural features of the illness.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(12):e27253. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: The relationship of early alliance ruptures and their resolution to process and outcome in three time-limited psychotherapies for personality disorders.J Christopher Muran, Jeremy D Safran, Bernard S Gorman, Lisa Wallner Samstag, Catherine Eubanks-Carter, Arnold Winston[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study examined the relationship of early alliance ruptures and their resolution to process and outcome in a sample of 128 patients randomly assigned to 1 of 3 time-limited psychotherapies for personality disorders: cognitive-behavioral therapy, brief relational therapy, or short-term dynamic psychotherapy. Rupture intensity and resolution were assessed by patient- and therapist-report after each of the first 6 sessions. Results indicated that lower rupture intensity and higher rupture resolution were associated with better ratings of the alliance and session quality. Lower rupture intensity also predicted good outcome on measures of interpersonal functioning, while higher rupture resolution predicted better retention. Patients reported fewer ruptures than did therapists. In addition, fewer ruptures were reported in cognitive-behavioral therapy than in the other treatments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).Psychotherapy Theory Research & Practice 06/2009; 46(2):233-48. · 0.98 Impact Factor
Article: Subjective and intersubjective analyses of the therapeutic alliance in a brief relational therapy.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of the study described in this paper was to develop a method for measuring the therapeutic alliance from an intersubjective perspective and to evaluate the efficacy of the measure in predicting psychotherapy outcome. We conducted the study using data from 22 patient-therapist dyads engaged in a 30-session protocol of a brief relational therapy. The alliance measure chosen for this purpose was the short form of the Working Alliance Inventory. We used the subjective patient and therapist versions of the measure and created a correlation index representing the intersubjective congruence between patients and therapists on their ratings of the alliance. We examined the relations among the measures, as well as their predictive relation to an outcome measure. The results showed significant intercorrelations among the three alliance measures, suggesting that all captured aspects of the therapeutic alliance. In addition, all three measures were significantly predictive of outcome, with the correlation index appearing more powerful.American journal of psychotherapy 02/2008; 62(3):313-28.
Article: Evaluating negative process: a comparison of working alliance, interpersonal behavior, and narrative coherency among three psychotherapy outcome conditions.Lisa Wallner Samstag, J Christopher Muran, Paul L Wachtel, Arietta Slade, Jeremy D Safran, Arnold Winston[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the interrelationships of three measures of the therapeutic relationship and their validity in predicting treatment outcome, including the early identification of two treatment-failure conditions. Forty-eight patient-therapist dyads, in 30-session therapies for personality-disordered patients, were classified as premature dropout (DO), poor outcome (PO), or good outcome (GO) cases. Poor and Good Outcomes were determined by a reliable change score. Dropout cases were terminated during the first third of treatment, and patients cited dissatisfaction with the therapy or therapist. Assessment of working alliance, interpersonal behavior and a new measure of narrative coherency in the first third of treatment revealed that DO dyads had significantly poorer alliances and less coherent narratives in early sessions, while PO dyads, who ultimately completed the 30-session treatment protocol, unexpectedly demonstrated the highest degree of hostile complementarity. Clinical implications of the results are discussed.American journal of psychotherapy 02/2008; 62(2):165-94.