Article: SILKWORM (Bombyx mori) CRYOPRESERVATION: EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT AS REVEALED BY MICROSCOPIC STUDIESCryoLetters 90-99 (2013). 01/2013; 34((1)):90-99.
Article: Genetic analysis of scattered populations of the Indian eri silkworm, Samia cynthia ricini Donovan: Differentiation of subpopulations.Appukuttannair R Pradeep, Anuradha H Jingade, Choba K Singh, Aravind K Awasthi, Vikas Kumar, Guruprasad C Rao, N B Vijaya Prakash[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Deforestation and exploitation has led to the fragmentation of habitats and scattering of populations of the economically important eri silkworm, Samia cynthia ricini, in north-east India. Genetic analysis of 15 eri populations, using ISSR markers, showed 98% inter-population, and 23% to 58% intra-population polymorphism. Nei's genetic distance between populations increased significantly with altitude (R(2) = 0.71) and geographic distance (R(2) = 0.78). On the dendrogram, the lower and upper Assam populations were clustered separately, with intermediate grouping of those from Barpathar and Chuchuyimlang, consistent with geographical distribution. The Nei's gene diversity index was 0.350 in total populations and 0.121 in subpopulations. The genetic differentiation estimate (Gst) was 0.276 among scattered populations. Neutrality tests showed deviation of 118 loci from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The number of loci that deviated from neutrality increased with altitude (R(2) = 0.63). Test of linkage disequilibrium showed greater contribution of variance among eri subpopulations to total variance. D('2)IS exceeded D('2)ST, showed significant contribution of random genetic drift to the increase in variance of disequilibrium in subpopulations. In the Lakhimpur population, the peripheral part was separated from the core by a genetic distance of 0.260. Patchy habitats promoted low genetic variability, high linkage disequilibrium and colonization by new subpopulations. Increased gene flow and habitat-area expansion are required to maintain higher genetic variability and conservation of the original S. c. ricini gene pool.Genetics and Molecular Biology 07/2011; 34(3):502-10. · 0.63 Impact Factor
Article: A review of the implications of heterozygosity and inbreeding on germplasm biodiversity and its conservation in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Abstract Silkworm genebanks assume paramount importance as the reservoirs of biodiversity and source of alleles that can be easily retrieved for genetic enhancement of popular breeds. More than 4000 Bombyx mori L (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) strains are currently available and these strains are maintained through continuous sibling mating. This repeated sibling mating makes the populations of each strain more homozygous, but leads to loss of unique and valuable genes through the process of inbreeding depression. Hence, it is essential to maintain a minimal degree of heterozygosity within the population of each silkworm strain, especially in the traditional geographic strains, to avoid such loss. As a result, accurate estimation of genetic diversity is becoming more important in silkworm genetic resources conservation. Application of molecular markers help estimate genetic diversity much more accurately than that of morphological traits. Since a minimal amount of heterozygosity in each silkworm strain is essential for better conservation by avoiding inbreeding depression, this article overviews both theoretical and practical importance of heterozygosity together with impacts of inbreeding depression and the merits and demerits of neutral molecular markers for measurements of both heterozygosity and inbreeding depression in the silkworm Bombyx mori.Journal of Insect Science 01/2011; 11:8. · 0.95 Impact Factor
Article: Genetic evaluation of eri silkworm Samia cynthia ricini: ISSR loci specific to high and low altitude regimes and quantitative attributes.Appukuttannair R Pradeep, Aravind K Awasthi, Choba K Singh, H Jingade Anuradha, C Guruprasad P Rao, N B Vijayaprakash[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Genetic structure of populations is under constant pressure from varying geographical conditions that induce phenotypic plasticity in insects. Spatial distribution of 15 populations of Indian eri silkworm, Samia cynthia ricini originated at various altitudes of sub Himalayas based on Euclidean distance realized from yield attributes showed two population clusters irrespective of their place of origin and altitude. However, DNA amplification profile by inter SSR (ISSR) markers showed genetic variations among the populations depend on low and high altitudes. One ISSR locus each specific to high and low altitude population was identified. The locus from high altitude showed deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium but that from low altitude was in neutrality suggests that the high altitude loci could be under pressure from the altitudinal variations. In association with different yield traits, 18 loci were identified. Of which, three markers showed association with more than one trait indicative of pleiotropic influence. Stepwise addition of markers enhanced the correlation between markers and the associated trait pointed to polygenic influence. Association of markers with altitude and yield traits suggests an imperative relation of rare genetic loci with gene-environment interaction and phenotypic variability in S. c. ricini.Journal of applied genetics 05/2011; 52(3):345-53. · 1.66 Impact Factor
Article: Molecular Markers for Biomass Traits: Association, Interaction and Genetic Divergence in Silkworm Bombyx mori.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Improvement of high yielding, disease resistant silkworm strains became imminent to increase production of silk, which is a major revenue earner for sericulturists. Since environment interacts with phenotype, conventional breeding did not result in commendable yield improvement in synthetic strains of silkworm, Bombyx mori. Identification of DNA markers associated with different economically important biomass traits and its introgression could assist molecular breeding and expression of stabilized high yielding characters, but genetic basis of most quantitative traits in silkworm is poorly understood due to its polygenic control. Correlation analysis (R = 0.9) revealed significant interrelation among biomass traits viz., larval duration (TLD), larval weight (LWT), cocoon weight (CWT), shell weight (SWT), shell ratio (SR) and floss content. PCR using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) primers revealed 92% polymorphism among 14 tropical and temperate strains of B. mori, with average diversity index of 0.747. Stepwise multiple regression analysis (MRA) selected 35 ISSR markers positively or negatively correlated with different biomass traits, illustrated polygenic control. ISSR marker 830.8(1050bp) was significantly associated with LWT, CWT, SWT, SR and floss content, indicated its pleiotropic role. Two ISSR markers, 835.5(1950bp) and 825.9(710bp) showed significant association with floss content and TLD. These markers were segregated in F(2) generation and Chi-square test confirmed (chi(2) = ~45; P < 0.05) its genetic contribution to the associated biomass traits. Strains, with both positively and negatively correlated markers, had intermediate mean value for biomass traits (eg. SWT = 0.17 +/- 0.014 g in GNM and Moria) indicated interaction of loci in natural populations. Low yielding Indian strains grouped together by Hierarchical clustering. Chinese and Japanese strains were distributed in the periphery of ALSCAL matrix indicated convergence of genetic characters in Indian strains. Average genetic distance between Chinese strains and Indian strains (0.193) significantly (P < 0.01) varied from that between Chinese and Japanese strains. Interaction of loci and allelic substitutions induced phenotypic plasticity in temperate B. mori populations on tropic adaptation in India. These outcomes show possibility to combine favorable alleles at different QTL to increase larval, cocoon and shell weight.Biomarker insights 01/2007; 2:197-217.