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    Melissa Rooke, Lucy A Coupland, Thy Truong, Anneke C Blackburn
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    ABSTRACT: Sarcomas are cancers that arise from tissues of mesenchy- mal origin and there has been limited improvement in treatments over the last 30 years. The Warburg effect is a widespread metabolic phenotype of cancer, where glycolysis is favoured despite the presence of oxygen. Dichloroacetate (DCA) is a pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) inhibitor in clinical use that can reverse the Warburg effect, inhibiting growth and enhancing apoptosis in a range of cancers. We have investigated its effectiveness against sarcoma cells in vitro and in vivo.
    Metabolism, Diet and Disease 2014: Cancer and metabolism, Washington DC, USA; 05/2014
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    ABSTRACT: There is a continuing need to improve the efficacy of anticancer agents and to reduce the toxicity associated with them. Recently, reversal of the glycolytic phenotype of cancer cells with novel agents such as DCA (dichloroacetate) has been recognised as an important new target for cancer therapy. DCA is currently being assessed as a novel chemotherapeutic in clinical trials. It is anticipated that DCA will be used in combination with other well-established chemotherapeutic drugs. It is therefore critically important to determine the effects of DCA on therapeutic efficacy, and off-target effects of existing frontline anti-cancer drugs. We have recently discovered that DCA induces glutamate cysteine ligase, the rate-limiting step in glutathione (GSH) synthesis, a major cellular antioxidant. We hypothesised that the ability of DCA to stimulate GSH-synthesising capacity could reduce cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, which is thought to be mediated in part by oxidative stress. To determine whether DCA can attenuate cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, and to determine if DCA influences the anti-cancer properties of cisplatin. 120 Balb/c mice were injected subcutaneously with the syngeneic 4T1 breast cancer cell line and then co-treated with DCA and cisplatin weekly for 1 month. Controls included treatment with cisplatin alone, DCA alone, or normal saline injections. Serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine were measured and kidney damage was assessed histologically. Tumour size was monitored throughout. DCA prevented increases in serum creatinine, BUN, and renal proximal tubule apoptosis evident in cisplatin-only treated mice. The tumour size in mice in the co-treated group decreased at the same rate as the cisplatin-only treated mice. We have thus concluded that DCA largely prevents the development of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, and does not attenuate its anti-cancer properties.
    Pathology 02/2014; 46 Suppl 1:S110-1. · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice 04/2012; 10(2). · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    AC Blackburn, M Rooke, Y Li, JE Dahlstrom, PG Board
    Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice 04/2012; 10(2). · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glutathione transferase Kappa (GSTK1-1) also termed disulfide bond-forming oxidoreductase A-like protein (DsbA-L) has been implicated in the post-translational multimerization of adiponectin and has been negatively correlated with obesity in mice and humans. We investigated adiponectin in Gstk1(-/-) mice and surprisingly found no difference in the levels of total serum adiponectin or the level of high molecular weight (HMW) multimers when compared with normal controls. Non-reducing SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blotting also showed a similar distribution of low, middle and HMW multimers in normal and Gstk1(-/-) mice. Variation in adiponectin has been correlated with glucose tolerance and with the levels of phosphorylated AMP-kinase but we found similar glucose tolerance and similar levels of phospho 5-AMP-activated protein kinase in normal and Gstk1(-/-) mice. Consequently, our findings suggest that GSTK1-1 is not absolutely required for adiponectin multimerization in vivo and alternate pathways may be activated in GSTK1-1 deficiency.
    International journal of obesity (2005) 01/2012; 36(10):1366-9. · 5.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dichloroacetic acid (DCA) has potential for use in cancer therapy and the treatment of metabolic acidosis. However, DCA can create a deficiency of glutathione transferase Zeta (GSTZ1-1). Gstz1 knockout mice have elevated oxidative stress and low glutathione levels that increases their sensitivity to acetaminophen toxicity. As it is highly likely that patients that are treated with DCA will develop drug induced GSTZ1-1 deficiency we considered they could be at risk of elevated toxicity if they are exposed to other drugs that cause oxidative stress or consume glutathione (GSH). To test this hypothesis we treated mice with DCA and acetaminophen (APAP). Surprisingly, the mice pre-treated with DCA suffered less APAP-mediated hepatotoxicity than untreated mice. This protection is most likely due to an increased capacity for the liver to synthesize GSH, since DCA increased the expression and activity of glutamate-cysteine ligase GCL, the rate-limiting enzyme of GSH synthesis. Other pathways for acetaminophen disposal were unchanged or diminished by DCA. Pre-treatment with DCA may be of use in other settings where the maintenance of protective levels of GSH are required. However, DCA may lower the efficacy of drugs that rely on oxidative stress and the depletion of GSH to enhance their cytotoxicity or of drugs that are detoxified by GSH conjugation. Consequently, as the use of DCA in the clinic is likely to increase, it will be critical to evaluate the interactions of DCA with other drugs to ensure the combinations retain their efficacy and do not cause enhanced toxicity.
    Biochemical pharmacology 11/2011; 83(3):427-33. · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    Ramon C Sun, Philip G Board, Anneke C Blackburn
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    ABSTRACT: Cancer cells have a different metabolic profile compared to normal cells. The Warburg effect (increased aerobic glycolysis) and glutaminolysis (increased mitochondrial activity from glutamine catabolism) are well known hallmarks of cancer and are accompanied by increased lactate production, hyperpolarized mitochondrial membrane and increased production of reactive oxygen species. In this study we target the Warburg effect with dichloroacetate (DCA) and the increased mitochondrial activity of glutaminolysis with arsenic trioxide (ATO) in breast cancer cells, measuring cell proliferation, cell death and mitochondrial characteristics. The combination of DCA and ATO was more effective at inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing cell death than either drug alone. We examined the effect of these treatments on mitochondrial membrane potential, reactive oxygen species production and ATP levels and have identified new molecular mechanisms within the mitochondria for both ATO and DCA: ATO reduces mitochondrial function through the inhibition of cytochrome C oxidase (complex IV of the electron transport chain) while DCA up-regulates ATP synthase β subunit expression. The potentiation of ATO cytotoxicity by DCA is correlated with strong suppression of the expression of c-Myc and HIF-1α, and decreased expression of the survival protein Bcl-2. This study is the first to demonstrate that targeting two key metabolic hallmarks of cancer is an effective anti-cancer strategy with therapeutic potential.
    Molecular Cancer 11/2011; 10:142. · 5.13 Impact Factor
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    Anneke C Blackburn
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    ABSTRACT: Advances in genotyping technology have provided us with a large number of genetic loci associated with cancer susceptibility; however, our ability to understand the functional effects of the genetic variants of these loci remains limited. In the previous issue, Smits and colleagues demonstrate the use of congenic rat strains to discover that the Mcs5a breast cancer susceptibility locus is most likely acting through the immune system, via novel transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. This challenges our conventional thinking of cancer susceptibility and gene regulation pathways, and illustrates the potential for rodent models to help us functionally characterize polymorphisms of cancer-associated loci.
    Breast cancer research: BCR 10/2011; 13(5):112. · 5.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glutathione transferase kappa (GSTK1-1) is a highly conserved, mitochondrial enzyme potentially involved in redox reactions. GSTK1-1-deficient mice were generated to further study the enzyme's biological role. Reduced and total glutathione levels in liver and kidney were unchanged by GSTK1-1 deficiency and NADPH quinone oxidoreductase 1 expression was not elevated indicating that there is no general underlying oxidative stress in Gstk1(-/-) mice. Electron microscopy of liver and kidney showed no changes in mitochondrial morphology with GSTK1-1 deficiency. The death of a number of Gstk1(-/-) males with urinary tract problems prompted close examination of the kidneys. Electron microscopy revealed glomerular basement membrane changes at 3 months, accompanied by detectable microalbuminuria in male mice (albumin:creatinine ratio of 2.66±0.83 vs 1.13±0.20 mg/mmol for Gstk1(-/-) and wild-type (WT), respectively, P=0.001). This was followed by significant foot process effacement (40-55% vs 10% for Gstk1(-/-) and WT, respectively) at 6 months of age in all Gstk1(-/-) mice examined. Kidney tubules were ultrastructurally normal. Compared with human disease, the Gstk1(-/-) kidneys show changes seen in glomerulopathies causing nephrotic syndrome. Gstk1(-/-) mice may offer insights into the early development of glomerular nephropathies.
    Laboratory Investigation 08/2011; 91(11):1572-83. · 3.96 Impact Factor
  • Anneke C Blackburn, D Joseph Jerry
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic factors play an important role in determining risk and resistance to increased breast cancer. Recent technological advances have made it possible to analyze hundreds of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms in large-scale association studies in humans and have resulted in identification of alleles in over 20 genes that influence breast cancer risk. Despite these advances, the challenge remains in identifying what the functional polymorphisms are that confer the increased risk, and how these genetic variants interact with each other and with environmental factors. In rodents, the incidence of mammary tumors varies among strains, such that they can provide alternate ideas for candidate pathways involved in humans. Mapping studies in animals have unearthed numerous loci for breast cancer susceptibility that have been validated in human populations. In a reciprocal manner, knockin and knockout mice have been used to validate the tumorigenicity of risk alleles found in population studies. Rodent studies also underscore the complexity of interactions among alleles. The fact that genes affecting risk and resistance to mammary tumors in rodents depend greatly upon the carcinogenic challenge emphasizes the importance of gene x environment interactions. The challenge to rodent geneticists now is to capitalize on the ability to control the genetics and environment in rodent models of tumorigenesis to better understand the biology of breast cancer development, to identify those polymorphisms most relevant to human susceptibility and to identify compensatory pathways that can be targeted for improved prevention in women at highest risk of developing breast cancer.
    Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia 03/2011; 16(1):57-64. · 7.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mutation and loss of function in p53 are common features among human breast cancers. Here we use BALB/c-Trp53+/- mice as a model to examine the sequence of events leading to mammary tumors. Mammary gland proliferation rates were similar in both BALB/c-Trp53+/- mice and wild-type controls. In addition, sporadic mammary hyperplasias were rare in BALB/c-Trp53+/- mice and not detectably different from those of wild-type controls. Among the 28 mammary tumors collected from BALB/c-Trp53+/- mice, loss of heterozygosity for Trp53 was detected in more than 90% of invasive mammary tumors. Transplantation of Trp53+/- ductal hyperplasias also indicated an association between loss of the wild-type allele of Trp53 and progression to invasive carcinomas. Therefore, loss of p53 function seems to be a rate-limiting step in progression. Moreover, expression of biomarkers such as estrogen receptor alpha, progesterone receptor, Her2/Neu, and activated Notch1 varied among mammary tumors, suggesting that multiple oncogenic lesions collaborate with loss of p53 function. Expression of biomarkers was retained when tumor fragments were transplanted to syngeneic hosts. Tumors expressing solely luminal or basal keratins were also observed (27 and 11%, respectively), but the largest class of tumors expressed both luminal and basal keratins (62%). Overall, this panel of transplantable tumors provides a resource for detailed evaluation of the cell lineages undergoing transformation and preclinical testing of therapeutic agents targeting a variety of oncogenic pathways including cancer stem cells.
    American Journal Of Pathology 03/2010; 176(3):1421-32. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: According to present estimations, the unfavorable combination of alleles with low penetrance but high prevalence in the population might account for the major part of hereditary breast cancer risk. Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1) has been proposed as a tumor suppressor for breast cancer and other cancer types. Genomewide mapping in mice further identified Dmbt1 as a potential modulator of breast cancer risk. Here, we report the association of two frequent and linked single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with increased breast cancer risk in women above the age of 60 years: DMBT1 c.-93C>T, rs2981745, located in the DMBT1 promoter; and DMBT1 c.124A>C, p.Thr42Pro, rs11523871(odds ratio [OR]=1.66, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.21-2.29, P=0.0017; and OR=1.66; 95% CI=1.21-2.28, P=0.0016, respectively), based on 1,195 BRCA1/2 mutation-negative German breast cancer families and 1,466 unrelated German controls. Promoter studies in breast cancer cells demonstrate that the risk-increasing DMBT1 -93T allele displays significantly decreased promoter activity compared to the DMBT1 -93C allele, resulting in a loss of promoter activity. The data suggest that DMBT1 polymorphisms in the 5'-region are associated with increased breast cancer risk. In accordance with previous results, these data link decreased DMBT1 levels to breast cancer risk.
    Human Mutation 10/2009; 31(1):60-6. · 5.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The glycolytic phenotype is a widespread phenomenon in solid cancer forms, including breast cancer. Dichloroacetate (DCA) has recently been proposed as a novel and relatively non-toxic anti-cancer agent that can reverse the glycolytic phenotype in cancer cells through the inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase. We have examined the effect of DCA against breast cancer cells, including in a highly metastatic in vivo model. The growth of several breast cancer cell lines was found to be inhibited by DCA in vitro. Further examination of 13762 MAT rat mammary adenocarcinoma cells found that reversal of the glycolytic phenotype by DCA correlated with the inhibition of proliferation without any increase in cell death. This was despite a small but significant increase in caspase 3/7 activity, which may sensitize cancer cells to other apoptotic triggers. In vivo, DCA caused a 58% reduction in the number of lung metastases observed macroscopically after injection of 13762 MAT cells into the tail vein of rats (P = 0.0001, n > or = 9 per group). These results demonstrate that DCA has anti-proliferative properties in addition to pro-apoptotic properties, and can be effective against highly metastatic disease in vivo, highlighting its potential for clinical use.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 06/2009; 120(1):253-60. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glutathione transferase Zeta (GSTZ1-1) is identical to maleylacetoacetate isomerase and catalyses a significant step in the catabolism of phenylalanine and tyrosine. Exposure of GSTZ1-1 deficient mice to high dietary phenylalanine causes a rapid loss of circulating white blood cells (WBCs). The loss was significant (P<0.05) after 2 days and total WBCs were reduced by 60% after 6 days. The rapid loss of WBCs was attributed to the accumulation of the catabolic intermediates maleylacetoacetate or maleylacetone (MA) in the circulation. Serum from GSTZ1-1 deficient mice treated with phenylalanine was cytotoxic to splenocytes from normal BALB/c mice and direct incubation of normal splenocytes with MA caused a rapid loss of viability. Dichloroacetic acid (DCA) has been used therapeutically to treat lactic acidosis and is potentially of use in cancer chemotherapy. Since DCA can inactivate GSTZ1-1 there is a possibility that long-term treatment of patients with DCA could cause GSTZ1-1 deficiency and susceptibility to oxidative stress and phenylalanine/tyrosine-induced WBC loss. However, although we found that DCA at 200mg/(kg day) causes a severe loss of hepatic GSTZ1-1 activity in BALB/c mice, it did not induce WBC cytotoxicity when combined with high dietary phenylalanine.
    Biochemical pharmacology 04/2009; 77(8):1358-63. · 4.25 Impact Factor
  • Philip G. Board, M. W. Anders, Anneke C. Blackburn
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    ABSTRACT: The zeta class of glutathione S-transferases (GSTZ) is one of the most recently discovered soluble GST classes and has proved to be of considerable interest because of its contribution to the catabolism of phenylalanine and tyrosine and its role in α-halo acid metabolism. GSTZ was originally discovered as a result of a bioinformatic approach to gene discovery in the mid-1990s. This approach and others have also led to the discovery of several polymorphic forms of GSTZ. This chapter summarizes methods and approaches that have been used to express recombinant GSTZ, determine its crystal structure, measure its activity and characterize its kinetic properties, and study the function and importance of GSTZ in the metabolism of dichloroacetate (DCA), which is of great toxicological and public health interest. DCA is a multisite toxicant and carcinogen that is a byproduct of water chlorination and is a breakdown product of the industrial chemical and environmental contaminant trichloroethylene. Key WordsBioinformatics–BLAST programs–dichloroacetic acid–expressed sequence tag–fumarylaceto-acetate hydrolase–gene knockout–glutathione S-transferase-zeta–glyoxylic acid–α-halo acids–leukotrienes–maleylacetoacetate isomerase–polymorphisms–single nucleotide polymorphisms
    06/2008: pages 85-107;
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    ABSTRACT: The Omega class glutathione transferase GSTO1-1 can catalyze the reduction of pentavalent methylated arsenic species and is responsible for the biotransfomation of potentially toxic alpha-haloketones. We investigated the cause of GSTO1-1 deficiency in the T-47D breast cancer cell line and found that the cell line is hemizygous for a polymorphic allele that encodes the deletion of Glu155. Northern and Western blots show that T-47D cells contain GSTO1 mRNA but no GSTO1-1 protein suggesting that the deletion of Glu155 causes GSTO1-1 deficiency in vivo. In further support of this contention we found that lymphoblastoid cell lines from subjects who are heterozygous for the deletion of Glu155 have only 60% of normal activity with the GSTO1-1 specific substrate 4-nitrophenacyl glutathione. Pulse-chase studies showed that the deletion of Glu155 causes increased turnover of GSTO1-1 in T47-D cells. These data establish the fact that the polymorphic deletion of Glu155 can cause GSTO1-1 deficiency in vivo. GSTO1-1 expression is elevated in some cell lines that are resistant to the cytotoxic cancer drugs adriamycin, etoposide and cisplatinum but its specific contribution to multi drug resistance has not been evaluated. In this study GSTO1-1 deficient T47-D cells were used to determine if GSTO1-1 contributes directly to arsenic and drug resistance. We established stable expression of normal GSTO1-1 in T-47D cells and found that this did not alter sensitivity to arsenic trioxide, cisplatinum daunorubicin or etoposide.
    The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 06/2008; 40(11):2553-9. · 4.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Treatment with estrogen and progesterone (E+P) mimics the protective effect of parity on mammary tumors in rodents and depends upon the activity of p53. The following experiments tested whether exogenous E+P primes p53 to be more responsive to DNA damage and whether these pathways confer resistance to mammary tumors in a mouse model of Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Mice that differ in p53 status (Trp53+/+, Trp53+/-, Trp53-/-) were treated with E+P for 14 days and then were tested for p53-dependent responses to ionizing radiation. Responses were also examined in parous and age-matched virgins. The effects of hormonal exposures on tumor incidence were examined in BALB/c-Trp53+/- mammary tissues. Nuclear accumulation of p53 and apoptotic responses were increased similarly in the mammary epithelium from E+P-treated and parous mice compared with placebo and age-matched virgins. This effect was sustained for at least 7 weeks after E+P treatment and did not depend on the continued presence of ovarian hormones. Hormone stimulation also enhanced apoptotic responses to ionizing radiation in BALB/c-Trp53+/- mice but these responses were intermediate compared with Trp53+/+ and Trp-/- tissues, indicating haploinsufficiency. The appearance of spontaneous mammary tumors was delayed by parity in BALB/c-Trp53+/- mice. The majority of tumors lacked estrogen receptor (ER), but ER+ tumors were observed in both nulliparous and parous mice. However, apoptotic responses to ionizing radiation and tumor incidence did not differ among outgrowths of epithelial transplants from E+P-treated donors and nulliparous donors. Therefore, E+P and parity confer a sustained increase in p53-mediated apoptosis within the mammary epithelium and suppress mammary tumorigenesis, but this effect was not retained in epithelial outgrowths.
    Breast cancer research: BCR 06/2008; 10(3):R43. · 5.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Low-penetrance breast cancer susceptibility alleles seem to play a significant role in breast cancer risk but are difficult to identify in human cohorts. A genetic screen of 176 N2 backcross progeny of two Trp53(+/-) strains, BALB/c and C57BL/6, which differ in their susceptibility to mammary tumors, identified a modifier of mammary tumor susceptibility in an approximately 25-Mb interval on mouse chromosome 7 (designated SuprMam1). Relative to heterozygotes, homozygosity for BALB/c alleles of SuprMam1 significantly decreased mammary tumor latency from 70.7 to 61.1 weeks and increased risk twofold (P = 0.002). Dmbt1 (deleted in malignant brain tumors 1) was identified as a candidate modifier gene within the SuprMam1 interval because it was differentially expressed in mammary tissues from BALB/c-Trp53(+/-) and C57BL/6-Trp53(+/-) mice. Dmbt1 mRNA and protein was reduced in mammary glands of the susceptible BALB/c mice. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that DMBT1 protein expression was also significantly reduced in normal breast tissue from women with breast cancer (staining score, 1.8; n = 46) compared with cancer-free controls (staining score, 3.9; n = 53; P < 0.0001). These experiments demonstrate the use of Trp53(+/-) mice as a sensitized background to screen for low-penetrance modifiers of cancer. The results identify a novel mammary tumor susceptibility locus in mice and support a role for DMBT1 in suppression of mammary tumors in both mice and women.
    American Journal Of Pathology 07/2007; 170(6):2030-41. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BALB/c mice are predisposed to developing spontaneous mammary tumors, which are further increased in a p53 heterozygous state. C57BL/6J mice are resistant to induced mammary tumors and develop less than 1% mammary tumors in both wild-type and p53+/- states. To map modifiers of mammary tumorigenesis, we have established F1 and F2 crosses and backcrosses to BALB/cJ (N2-BALB/cJ) and C57BL/6J (N2-C57BL/6J) strains. All cohorts developed mammary carcinomas in p53+/- females, suggesting that multiple loci dominantly and recessively contributed to mammary tumorigenesis. We mapped two modifiers of mammary tumorigenesis in the BALB/cJ strain. Mtsm1 (mammary tumor susceptibility modifier), a dominant-acting modifier, is located on chromosome 7. Mtsm1 is suggestive for linkage to mammary tumorigenesis (p = 0.001). We have analyzed the Mtsm1 region to locate candidate genes by comparing it to a rat modifier region, Mcs3, which shares syntenic conservation with Mtsm1. Expression data and SNPs were also taken into account. Five potential candidate genes within Mtsm1 are Aldh1a3, Chd2, Nipa2, Pcsk6, and Tubgcp5. The second modifier mapped is Mtsm2, a recessive-acting modifier. Mtsm2 is located on chromosome X and is significantly linked to mammary tumorigenesis (p = 1.03 x 10(-7)).
    Mammalian Genome 06/2007; 18(5):300-9. · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glutathione S-transferase (GST) zeta (GSTZ1-1) plays a significant role in the catabolism of phenylalanine and tyrosine, and a deficiency of GSTZ1-1 results in the accumulation of maleylacetoacetate and its derivatives maleylacetone (MA) and succinylacetone. Induction of GST subunits was detected in the liver of Gstz1(-/-) mice by Western blotting with specific antisera and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of glutathione affinity column-purified proteins. The greatest induction was observed in members of the mu class. Induction of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 and the catalytic and modifier subunits of glutamate-cysteine ligase was also observed. Many of the enzymes that are induced in Gstz1(-/-) mice are regulated by antioxidant response elements that respond to oxidative stress via the Keap1/Nrf2 pathway. It is significant that diminished glutathione concentrations were also observed in the liver of Gstz1(-/-) mice, which supports the conclusion that under normal dietary conditions, the accumulation of electrophilic intermediates such as maleylacetoacetate and MA results in a high level of oxidative stress. Elevated GST activities in the livers of Gstz1(-/-) mice suggest that GSTZ1-1 deficiency may alter the metabolism of some drugs and xenobiotics. Gstz1(-/-) mice given acetaminophen demonstrated increased hepatotoxicity compared with wild-type mice. This toxicity may be attributed to the increased GST activity or the decreased hepatic concentrations of glutathione, or both. Patients with acquired deficiency of GSTZ1-1 caused by therapeutic exposure to dichloroacetic acid for the clinical treatment of lactic acidosis may be at increased risk of drug- and chemical-induced toxicity.
    Molecular Pharmacology 03/2006; 69(2):650-7. · 4.41 Impact Factor

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