Article: Clinical Outcomes of Gamma Knife Radiosurgery in the Salvage Treatment of Patients with Recurrent High-Grade Glioma.Ameer L Elaimy, Alexander R Mackay, Wayne T Lamoreaux, John J Demakas, Robert K Fairbanks, Barton S Cooke, Andrew F Lamm, Christopher M Lee[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Previously published randomized evidence did not report a survival advantage for patients diagnosed with grade IV glioma who were treated with stereotactic radiosurgery followed by external-beam radiation therapy and chemotherapy when compared to patients treated with external-beam radiation therapy and chemotherapy alone. In recent years, Gamma Knife radiosurgery has become increasingly popular as a salvage treatment modality for patients diagnosed with recurrent high-grade glioma. The purpose of this article is to review the efficacy of Gamma Knife radiosurgery for patients who suffer from this malignancy. METHODS: Retrospective, prospective, and randomized clinical studies published between the years 2000 and 2012 analyzing Gamma Knife radiosurgery for patients with high-grade glioma were reviewed. RESULTS: After assessing patient age, Karnofsky Performance Status, tumor histology, and extent of resection, Gamma Knife radiosurgery is a viable, minimally-invasive treatment option for patients diagnosed with recurrent high-grade glioma. The available prospective and retrospective evidence suggests that Gamma Knife radiosurgery provides patients with a high local tumor control rate and a median survival following tumor recurrence ranging from 13 to 26 months. Gamma Knife radiosurgery followed by chemotherapy for recurrent high-grade glioma may provide select patients with increased levels of survival. However, further investigation into this matter is needed due to the limited number of published reports. Additional clinical research is also needed to analyze the efficacy and radiation-related toxicities of fractionated Gamma Knife radiosurgery due to its potential to limit treatment-associated morbidity. CONCLUSIONS: Gamma Knife radiosurgery is a safe and effective treatment option for select patients diagnosed with recurrent high-grade glioma. Although treatment outcomes have improved, further evidence in the form of phase III randomized trials is needed to assess the durability of treating patients in specific clinical situations.World Neurosurgery 02/2013; · 0.68 Impact Factor
Article: A concise review of the efficacy of stereotactic radiosurgery in the management of melanoma and renal cell carcinoma brain metastases.Peter W Hanson, Ameer L Elaimy, Wayne T Lamoreaux, John J Demakas, Robert K Fairbanks, Alexander R Mackay, Barton S Cooke, Sudheer R Thumma, Christopher M Lee[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Melanoma and renal cell carcinoma have a well-documented tendency to develop metastases to the brain. Treating these lesions has traditionally been problematic, because chemotherapy has difficulty crossing the blood brain barrier and whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) is a relatively ineffective treatment against these radioresistant tumor histologies. In recent years, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has emerged as an effective and minimally-invasive treatment modality for irradiating either single or multiple intracranial structures in one clinical treatment setting. For this reason, we conducted a review of modern literature analyzing the efficacy of SRS in the management of patients with melanoma and renal cell carcinoma brain metastases. In our analysis we found SRS to be a safe, effective and attractive treatment modality for managing radioresistant brain metastases and highlighted the need for randomized trials comparing WBRT alone vs. SRS alone vs. WBRT plus SRS in treating patients with radioresistant brain metastases.World Journal of Surgical Oncology 08/2012; 10(1):176. · 1.12 Impact Factor
Article: Effect of pretreatment clinical factors on overall survival in glioblastoma multiforme: a Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) population analysis.Sudheer R Thumma, Robert K Fairbanks, Wayne T Lamoreaux, Alexander R Mackay, John J Demakas, Barton S Cooke, Ameer L Elaimy, Peter W Hanson, Christopher M Lee[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is one of the most aggressive primary brain tumors and is associated with a dismal prognosis. The median survival after the primary diagnosis remains poor, even after multimodal treatment approaches. However, a few patients have been reported to have long term survival greater than three years. A number of studies have attempted to define factors capable of predicting long term outcomes in specific patient groups. This article reports the outcomes of a very large group of patients diagnosed with GBM, and analyzes specific prognostic factors known to influence survival in these patients. METHODS: We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database of the US National Cancer Institute (NCI) to investigate various patient-related and treatment- related factors that could influence the long term survival in patients diagnosed with glioblastoma. A total of 34,664 patients aged 20 years or older with a diagnosis of GBM during the years 1973 to 2008 were studied. Overall survival outcomes were examined with Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox hazard models. RESULTS: Asian/Pacific Islanders had a better survival compared to the white population (P = <0.001). Patients diagnosed with GBM during the years 2000 to 2008 had a superior survival rate when compared with earlier decades (P = <0 .001). Statistically significant improvements in overall survival were also found for patients who received surgical resections, and adjuvant radiation treatment versus no radiation (P-values <0.001). Young age was also found to be highly predictive of improved overall survival rates when separated into age groups as well as when studied as a continuous variable. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical pretreatment and treatment factors, including young age at diagnosis, Asian/Pacific Islander ethnicity, recent year of diagnosis, surgical resection and the use of adjuvant radiation therapy favorably influence survival in patients diagnosed with glioblastoma. Trial Registration All data were obtained from the United States Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database.World Journal of Surgical Oncology 05/2012; 10(1):75. · 1.12 Impact Factor
Article: Long-Term Survival of a Patient with Brainstem and Recurrent Brain Metastasis from Stage IV Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer Treated with Multiple Gamma Knife Radiosurgeries and Craniotomies: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.Andrew F Lamm, Ameer L Elaimy, Alexander R Mackay, Robert K Fairbanks, John J Demakas, Barton S Cooke, Christopher M Lee, Blake S Taylor, Wayne T Lamoreaux[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The prognosis of patients diagnosed with stage IV nonsmall cell lung cancer that have brain and brainstem metastasis is very poor, with less than a third surviving a year past their initial date of diagnosis. We present the rare case of a 57-year-old man who is a long-term survivor of brainstem and recurrent brain metastasis, after aggressive treatment. He is now five and a half years out from diagnosis and continues to live a highly functional life without evidence of disease. Four separate Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgeries in conjunction with two craniotomies were utilized since his initial diagnosis to treat recurrent brain metastasis while chemoradiation therapy and thoracic surgery were used to treat his primary disease in the right upper lung. In his situation, Gamma Knife radiosurgery proved to be a valuable, safe, and effective tool for the treatment of multiply recurrent brain metastases within critical normal structures.Case reports in oncological medicine. 01/2012; 2012:621641.
Article: Clinical outcomes of gamma knife radiosurgery in the treatment of patients with trigeminal neuralgia.Ameer L Elaimy, Peter W Hanson, Wayne T Lamoreaux, Alexander R Mackay, John J Demakas, Robert K Fairbanks, Barton S Cooke, Sudheer R Thumma, Christopher M Lee[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Since its introduction by Leksell, Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has become increasingly popular as a management approach for patients diagnosed with trigeminal neuralgia (TN). For this reason, we performed a modern review of the literature analyzing the efficacy of GKRS in the treatment of patients who suffer from TN. For patients with medically refractory forms of the condition, GKRS has proven to be an effective initial and repeat treatment option. Cumulative research suggests that patients treated a single time with GKRS exhibit similar levels of facial pain control when compared to patients treated multiple times with GKRS. However, patients treated on multiple occasions with GKRS are more likely to experience facial numbness and other facial sensory changes when compared to patients treated once with GKRS. Although numerous articles have reported MVD to be superior to GKRS in achieving facial pain relief, the findings of these comparison studies are weakened by the vast differences in patient age and comorbidities between the two studied groups and cannot be considered conclusive. Questions remain regarding optimal GKRS dosing and targeting strategies, which warrants further investigation into this controversial matter.International Journal of Otolaryngology 01/2012; 2012:919186.