Publications

  • Rahul S Pawar, Erich Grundel, Ali Reza Fardin-Kia, Jeanne I Rader
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    ABSTRACT: Extracts of Acacia rigidula leaves are used in weight-loss products sold in vitamin shops and over the internet with little or no published data about their potential biological effects. In our chemical investigations on authenticated A. rigidula plant material, we established a rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the quantitative determination of several phenethylamine, tyramine and tryptamine derivatives. Stable isotopically labeled compounds were used as internal standards for quantitative analysis. We found total calculated contents of 6 biogenic amines in A. rigidula leaf of 18.6 and 32.9μg/g. The content of selected amines in 21 dietary supplements labeled as containing A. rigidula was determined by a second LC-MS/MS method. Our study revealed significant differences in the amine profiles of authenticated plant materials and dietary supplements. β-Methylphenethylamine, a non-natural compound, was found in 9 of the 21 dietary supplement products. β-Methylphenethylamine was found at levels of 960-60,500μg/g while phenethylamine was found at levels of 710-171,620μg/g. β-Methylphenethylamine is a positional isomer of amphetamine and our results showed that it can be misidentified as amphetamine during LC-MS analysis. An independent GC-MS analysis was used to confirm the presence of β-methylphenethylamine and the absence of amphetamine in dietary supplements labeled as containing A. rigidula. This study demonstrates that confirmations by independent analytical methods are essential to verify findings of unusual or unexpected compounds in dietary supplements.
    Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis 10/2013; 88C:457-466. · 2.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The fatty acids contained in marine oils or products are traditionally analyzed by gas chromatography using capillary columns coated with polyethylene glycol phases. Recent reports indicate that 100 % cyanopropyl siloxane phases should also be used when the analyzed samples contain trans fatty acids. We investigated the separation of the fatty acid methyl esters prepared from menhaden oil using the more polar SLB-IL111 (200 m × 0.25 mm) ionic liquid capillary column and the chromatographic conditions previously optimized for the separation of the complex mixture of fatty acid methyl esters prepared from milk fat. Identifications of fatty acids were achieved by applying Ag(+)-HPLC fractionation and GC-TOF/MS analysis in CI(+) mode with isobutane as the ionization reagent. Calculation of equivalent chain lengths confirmed the assignment of double bond positions. This methodology allowed the identification of 125 fatty acids in menhaden oil, including isoprenoid and furanoid fatty acids, and the novel 7-methyl-6-hexadecenoic and 7-methyl-6-octadecenoic fatty acids. The chromatographic conditions applied in this study showed the potential of separating in a single 90-min analysis, among others, the short chain and trans fatty acids contained in dairy products, and the polyunsaturated fatty acids contained in marine products.
    Lipids 09/2013; · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Declarations of the total content of trans fatty acids (FA) and saturated FA (SFA) are mandatory on food labels in the US and Canada. Gas chromatography (GC) has been the method of choice for the determination of FA composition. However, GC is time consuming and requires conversion of fats and oils to their FA methyl esters. In the present study, a recently published Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopic procedure was applied to the rapid (<5 min) determination of total SFA, monounsaturated FA (MUFA), polyunsaturated FA (PUFA), and trans FA contents of 30 commercially available edible fats and oils. Good agreement was obtained between the GC and FT-NIR methods for the determination of total SFA, MUFA, and PUFA contents. Differences between the two methods were apparent for the determination of trans fat at trans fat levels <2 % of total fat. The analytical determinations of total SFA, MUFA, and PUFA contents for many of the oils examined differed from the respective values declared on the product labels. Our findings demonstrate that the FT-NIR procedure serves as a suitable alternative method for the rapid determination of total SFA, MUFA, PUFA and trans FA contents of neat vegetable oils.
    Journal of Oil & Fat Industries 06/2013; 90(6):757-770. · 1.59 Impact Factor
  • D Vyas, U Moallem, B B Teter, A R K Fardin-Kia, R A Erdman
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    ABSTRACT: During diet-induced milk fat depression (MFD), the short and medium-chain fatty acids (SMCFA), which are synthesized de novo in the mammary gland, are reduced to a much greater extent than the long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) that originate from the circulation. Our hypothesis was that increased availability of SMCFA might rescue conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-induced MFD in lactating dairy cows. To test that hypothesis, 4 rumen-fistulated lactating Holstein cows (128 ± 23 d in milk) were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 3-wk experimental periods. Treatments were applied during the last 2 wk of each period and included 3× daily abomasal infusion of a total of (1) 230 g/d of LCFA (blend of 59% cocoa butter, 36% olive oil, and 5% palm oil); (2) 420 g/d of butterfat (BF); (3) 230 g/d of LCFA with 27 g/d of CLA (LC-CLA), containing 10 g/d of trans-10,cis-12 CLA; and (4) 420 g/d of butterfat with 27 g/d of CLA (BF-CLA). Butterfat provided 50% of C16 (115 g/d) and similar amounts of C18 FA as found in LCFA, such that the difference between the BF and LCFA treatments was 190 g/d of SMCFA. No treatment effects were observed for DMI or milk yield. Milk fat content was reduced by 41 and 32%, whereas milk fat yield was reduced by 41 and 38% with LC-CLA and BF-CLA, respectively, compared with their respective controls. Abomasal infusion of CLA reduced de novo synthesized fatty acid (DNFA; SMCFA and 50% C16:0) concentration, whereas DNFA tended to be greater with BF infusion. An interaction was observed between SMCFA and CLA as the increased availability of SMCFA reduced stearoyl-CoA-desaturase-1 gene expression, whereas it tended to reduce lipoprotein lipase (LPL), 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 6 (AGPAT-6), sterol regulatory element-binding protein cleavage-activating protein (SCAP), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) gene expression in the presence of CLA. The mRNA expression of genes involved in de novo fatty acid synthesis [acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase α (ACACA) and fatty acid synthase (FASN)], fatty acid uptake (LPL), and triglyceride synthesis [AGPAT-6 and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT-1)] along with protein abundance of the ACC and FASN were reduced with CLA. However, the increased availability of SMCFA had no effect on lipogenic gene expression except for LPL, whose expression was increased with BF infusion. The results suggest that nutritional manipulation by increasing the intestinal availability of SMCFA was not sufficient to rescue CLA-induced MFD.
    Journal of Dairy Science 02/2013; · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    Pierluigi Delmonte, Ali Reza Fardin-Kia, Jeanne I Rader
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    ABSTRACT: The separation of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) provided by a 200 m x 0.25 mm SLB-IL111 capillary column is enhanced by adding a second dimension of separation (2D) in a GC×GC design. Rather than employing two GC columns of different polarities or using different elution temperatures, the separation in the two dimensional space is achieved by altering the chemical structure of selected analytes between the two dimensions of separation. A capillary tube coated with palladium is added between the first dimension of separation (1D) column and the cryogenic modulator, providing the reduction of unsaturated FAMEs to their fully saturated forms. The 2D separation is achieved using a 2.5 m x 0.10 mm SLB-IL111 capillary column and separates FAMEs based solely on their carbon skeleton. The two dimensional separation can be easily interpreted based on the principle that all the saturated FAMEs lie on a straight diagonal line bisecting the separation plane, while the FAMEs with the same carbon skeleton but differing in the number, geometric configuration or position of double bonds lie on lines parallel to the 1D time axis. This technique allows the separation of trans fatty acids and polyunsaturated FAs (PUFA) in a single experiment and eliminates the overlap between PUFAs with different chain lengths. To our knowledge, this the first example of GC×GC in which a chemical change is instituted between the two dimensions in order to alter the relative retentions of components and identify unsaturated FAMEs.
    Analytical Chemistry 12/2012; · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Current interest by the food industry in exploring reformulation options that lower the content of trans fat in edible fats and oils requires methods to accurately measure low levels of trans fat. In the present study, the quantitation of trans fat in 25 edible fat and oil samples was evaluated using two current analytical approaches, attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) according to Official Methods of the American Oil Chemists' Society. Significant differences between the ATR-FTIR and reference GC-FID quantitations were found for samples with a trans fat content <2% of total fat. These discrepancies could be explained, in part, by the presence of certain oil constituents (e.g., vitamins, carotenoids, high levels of saturated fat) that produced absorbance bands at or near 966 cm(-1) in the ATR-FTIR spectra, a region that was previously identified as being characteristic of isolated trans double bonds. Results demonstrate that the natural content of such oil constituents could result in significant overestimations of trans fat when ATR-FTIR is used to analyze edible fats and oils with a trans fat content <2% of total fat.
    Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 06/2012; 404(3):809-19. · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The content of trans fat in foods is most commonly determined by summing the levels of individual trans fatty acids (FAs), analyzed as FA methyl esters (FAME) by gas chromatography. Current Official Methods of the American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS) enable quantitation of total trans fat in foods but were not designed for the determination of transFA isomeric compositions. In the present study, the content of trans fat in 32 representative fast food samples ranged from 0.1 to 3.1 g per serving, as determined according to AOCS Official Method Ce 1j-07. Further analysis of FAME using the 200 m SLB-IL111 ionic liquid column yielded quantitative results of total, trans, saturated, and cis unsaturated fat that were comparable to those of Method Ce 1j-07 and also allowed for the complementary determination of individual trans 18:1, trans 18:2, and trans 18:3 FA isomeric compositions under conditions suitable for routine sample analysis.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 04/2012; 60(18):4567-77. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since trans fat labeling requirements became mandatory in the US and many other countries, there has been a need for rapid and accurate analytical methodologies that can facilitate compliance with the various regulations. The determination of total trans fatty acids by mid-infrared (IR) spectroscopy is a widely used procedure that was standardized and validated as AOCS Official Method Cd 14e-09 (negative second derivative infrared spectroscopic method for the rapid (5 min) determination of total isolated trans fat) in 2009. The C–H out-of-plane deformation mid-IR band observed at 966 cm−1 is uniquely characteristic of isolated (non-conjugated) double bonds with trans configuration. AOCS Official Method Cd 14e-09, the most recent attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform IR (ATR-FTIR) official method, entails the measurement of the height of the negative second derivative of the trans absorption band. In the present study, the performance of a novel, portable FTIR system equipped with a heated 9-bounce diamond ATR crystal was evaluated and compared to that of a conventional benchtop single-bounce ATR-FTIR spectrometer. The introduction of the 9-bounce diamond ATR crystal resulted in the lowering of the limit of quantification of trans fat, as a percentage of the total fat, from approximately 2 to 0.34%. The data collected from accurately weighed gravimetric standards and 28 unknown test samples ranging in trans fat content from about 0.5 to 54%, as a percentage of the total fat, indicated that this IR official method and the use of the new 9-bounce portable ATR-FTIR instrumentation could lead to a five-fold enhancement in sensitivity relative to single-bounce systems. Implementing these changes would facilitate regulatory compliance and verification of fat and oil samples for trans fat content in the US and other countries, since all of the published regulations (e.g., “0 g trans fat per serving”) have levels of trans fat, as percentage of total fat, that exceed 0.34%.
    Journal of Oil & Fat Industries 03/2012; 89(3):419-429. · 1.59 Impact Factor
  • Ali Reza Fardin-Kia, Sara M Handy, Jeanne I Rader
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    ABSTRACT: Taste disturbances following consumption of pine nuts, referred to as "pine mouth", have been reported by consumers in the United States and Europe. Nuts of Pinus armandii have been associated with pine mouth, and a diagnostic index (DI) measuring the content of Δ5-unsaturated fatty acids relative to that of their fatty acid precursors has been proposed for identifying nuts from this species. A 100 m SLB-IL 111 GC column was used to improve fatty acid separations, and 45 pine nut samples were analyzed, including pine mouth-associated samples. This study examined the use of a DI for the identification of mixtures of pine nut species and showed the limitation of morphological characteristics for species identification. DI values for many commercial samples did not match those of known reference species, indicating that the majority of pine nuts collected in the U.S. market, including those associated with pine mouth, are mixtures of nuts from different Pinus species.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 02/2012; 60(10):2701-11. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The SLB-IL111, a new ionic liquid capillary column for gas chromatography available from Supelco Inc., was recently shown to provide enhanced separation of unsaturated geometric and positional isomers of fatty acid (FAs) when it was compared to cyanopropylsiloxane (CPS) columns currently recommended for the analysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). A 200 m SLB-IL111 capillary column, operated under a combined temperature and eluent flow gradient, was successfully used to resolve most of the FAs contained in milk fat in a single 80 min chromatographic separation. The selected chromatographic conditions provided a balanced, simultaneous separation of short-chain (from 4:0), long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and most of the unsaturated FA positional/geometric isomers contained in milk fat. Among the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), these conditions separated t11-18:1 and t10-18:1 FAs, the two most abundant trans fatty acids (t-FA) contained in most dairy products. These t-FAs reportedly have different biological activities. The conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers commonly found in dairy products were separated from each other, including t7,c9-18:2 from c9,t11-18:2, which eliminated the need for their complementary silver ion HPLC analysis. The application of the SLB-IL111 column provided a complementary elution profile of FAMEs to those obtained by CPS columns, allowing for a more comprehensive FA analysis of total milk fat. The FAMEs were identified by the use of available reference materials, previously synthesized and characterized reference mixtures, and prior separations of the milk fat FAMEs by silver ion chromatography based on the number/geometry of double bonds.
    Journal of Chromatography A 02/2012; 1233:137-46. · 4.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pine nuts are a part of traditional cooking in many parts of the world and have seen a significant increase in availability/use in the United States over the past 10 years. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) field offices received 411 complaints from U.S. consumers over the past three years regarding taste disturbances following the consumption of pine nuts. Using analysis of fatty acids by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection, previous reports have implicated nuts from Pinus armandii (Armand Pine) as the causative species for similar taste disturbances. This method was found to provide insufficient species resolution to link FDA consumer complaint samples to a single species of pine, particularly when samples contained species mixtures of pine nuts. Here we describe a DNA based method for differentiating pine nut samples using the ycf1 chloroplast gene. Although the exact cause of pine nut associated dysgeusia is still not known, we found that 15 of 15 samples from consumer complaints contained at least some Pinus armandii, confirming the apparent association of this species with taste disturbances.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 09/2011; 59(20):10995-1002. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ionic liquid SLB-IL111 column, available from Supelco Inc., is a novel fused capillary gas chromatography (GC) column capable of providing enhanced separations of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) compared to the highly polar cyanopropyl siloxane columns currently recommended for the separation of cis- and trans isomers of fatty acids (FAs), and marketed as SP-2560 and CP-Sil 88. The SLB-IL111 column was operated isothermal at 168°C, with hydrogen as carrier gas at 1.0 mL/min, and the elution profile was characterized using authentic GC standards and synthetic mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers as test mixtures. The SLB-IL111 column provided an improved separation of cis- and trans-18:1 and cis/trans CLA isomers. This is the first direct GC separation of c9,t11- from t7,c9-CLA, and t15-18:1 from c9-18:1, both of which previously required complimentary techniques for their analysis using cyanopropyl siloxane columns. The SLB-IL111 column also provided partial resolution of t13/t14-18:1, c8- from c6/c7-18:1, and for several t,t-CLA isomer pairs. This column also provided elution profiles of the geometric and positional isomers of the 16:1, 20:1 and 18:3 FAMEs that were complementary to those obtained using the cyanopropyl siloxane columns. However, on the SLB-IL111 column the saturated FAs eluted between the cis- and trans MUFAs unlike cyanopropyl siloxane columns that gave a clear separation of most saturated FAs. These differences in elution pattern can be exploited to obtain a more complete analysis of complex lipid mixtures present in ruminant fats.
    Journal of Chromatography A 01/2011; 1218(3):545-54. · 4.61 Impact Factor
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    Pierluigi Delmonte, Ali-Reza Fardin Kia, Qing Hu, Jeanne I Rader
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years, several countries have implemented new regulations regarding the limitation or labeling of the trans fatty acid (TFA) content of foods and dietary supplements. GC methods for fatty acid (FA) analysis have been updated by improving the separation of TFAs from other FAs, especially trans- and cis-18:1, and by focusing more attention on the FAs contained in fats and oils in lower amounts. FA analysis is affected by the limited availability of reference materials. Identifications are frequently made simply by comparison with separations reported in the literature. This report describes the preparation of mixtures containing fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) that are not available as reference materials. These mixtures can be used for FAME identifications. The prepared mixtures are analyzed under the experimental conditions of the American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS) Official Method Ce 1h-05 and AOCS Recommended Practice Ce 1j-07.
    Journal of AOAC International 01/2009; 92(5):1310-26. · 1.23 Impact Factor
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    Pierluigi Delmonte, Qing Hu, Ali-Reza Fardin Kia, Jeanne I Rader
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years, several countries have implemented new regulations regarding limitations or labeling of the trans fatty acid (tFA) content in foods. In order to comply with the new requirements, gas chromatographic methods for fatty acid (FA) analysis have been refined toward the quantitation of a larger number of FAs. Increased attention is also being paid to those present in lower quantities. This article describes a simple procedure for obtaining, pure or in mixtures, geometric and positional isomers of a commercially available monounsaturated FA. cis 10-17:1 Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was isomerized into its positional/geometrical isomers by repeated hydrobromination/dehydrobromination of its double bond. Reaction products were fractionated into cis and trans geometric isomers by silver ion HPLC. Pure cis-17:1 FAME positional isomers were obtained by reversed-phase HPLC fractionation and identified by gas chromatography--covalent adduct chemical ionization MS/MS using acetonitrile as the reacting gas. The isomerization with p-toluenesulfinic acid of the purified FAME yielded the corresponding trans isomers; these products were analyzed by GC with flame ionization detection using a Supelco 2560 capillary column in order to determine their elution order and retention times (t(R)). A novel procedure was developed to determine t(r) for 17:1 FAME positional/geometrical isomers relative to that of the commercially available cis 10-17:1 FAME.
    Journal of Chromatography A 11/2008; 1214(1-2):30-6. · 4.61 Impact Factor

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