Article: A survey of operational characteristics, socioeconomic and health effects of scavenging activity in Lagos, Nigeria.Abel Afon[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study presents the social, economic, health and environmental implications of solid waste scavenging activity in Olusosun, one of the government's designated open waste dumpsites in Lagos, Nigeria. Using incidental or convenience sampling methods of questionnaire administration, 112 scavengers were sampled. It was established that scavenging on the site was only possible through registration with an associate on site. Recovering items from hills of waste involved physical energy and the use of manually-operated rudimentary equipment. Thus, 87% of the scavengers were males in their early twenties (minimum age = 19 years; maximum age = 35 years; mean = 26.7 years; SD = 4.2). The daily mean income from the exercise was Naira 480.80 (Naira 160 = $1.00). The most important method of arriving at the selling prices of the scavenged products was the use of scale measurement. Although the scavengers were aware that scavenging exposed them to both environmental and health hazards, they continued scavenging for economic and social reasons. The study concluded that because of the level of employment provided and the large number of people directly involved (1243 on this site alone), outright banning, even when the open dump is closed down, without rehabilitating the scavengers will constitute a social, economic and security threat to the community. Scavenging should, therefore, be integrated fully into the waste-management system and regulated.Waste management & research : the journal of the International Solid Wastes and Public Cleansing Association, ISWA. 05/2012; 30(7):664-71.
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ABSTRACT: This study assessed the practice of disposing of waste from the eight dental clinics of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. All the cleaners (14) in the hospitals were surveyed through questionnaire. Information obtained from the cleaners included socio-economic characteristics (biodata), personal protection, facilities available for them to work with and job satisfaction. Two soil samples were obtained from the open dump site (0.15 and 0.30 m depth) and two water samples were also collected (at 0.00 and 50.00 m) within the vicinity of the dump site. Both the soil and water samples were taken to the central science laboratory for chemical analyses. Ten (71.4%) of the 14 cleaners were not satisfied with their job. The laboratory findings suggested a very high content of lead, chromium, mercury, cadmium and manganese in both soil and water samples in comparison with the Nigerian Federal Environmental Protection Agency standards. The study concludes that the use of tooth-coloured restorative materials and digital X-ray facility to serve as alternatives to the generation of these wastes is recommended and that farming activities should not be allowed in the area until an audit of the soil and water have been performed.Waste management & research : the journal of the International Solid Wastes and Public Cleansing Association, ISWA. 09/2010; 28(9):769-77.
Abel O Afon, Afolabi Okewole[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The study established waste multipliers that could be used in conjunction with the population figure of a city to estimate the quantity of solid waste generation in the developing world. Oyo, a traditional city in Nigeria was the focus of the study. Two sets of data were collected. The first was the information on the socio-economic attributes of residents obtained from 648 households through questionnaires administered using a systematic random sampling technique. The second was the measurement of waste generated in 25% of the households for a week in each of the 12 months of the year. The study established that 23.3% of the residents surveyed have educational qualifications beyond secondary school, with 51.2% engaged in occupations requiring very little or no formal education and 50.9% were in the low-income group. The daily per capita solid waste generation was 0.129 kg. The highest (9.8%) and lowest (6.5%) of the annual quantities of waste were produced in October and February, respectively. Similarly, 20.2% of the weekly generation was produced on Saturday and the 10.2% produced on Thursday was the lowest. Animal dung, which accounted for 18.0%, constituted the highest component of the total solid waste generated. The study further established that the organic component of the waste generation was 75.4%. The results of the regression analysis R2 significant at 0.001 showed that income, household size, social status, occupation, education and season of the year explained 88.8% of waste generation in Oyo. It was established that 50.90 tonnes of solid waste was generated per day in the city in 2005, and the daily generation in the year 2008 is estimated to be 55.20 tonnes. The study concluded that with an average annual population growth of 13 000 people for the town, an additional 1.3 acres of land will need to be legally acquired annually, implying that 10.92-19.68 hectares ill be required as dump site(s) over the next 20-30 years.Waste Management & Research 09/2007; 25(4):371-9. · 1.19 Impact Factor