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Why ATP is always used as a energy source in almost all the living things?

And why not other energy rich compounds

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  • Jayachandra Reddy · Pondicherry University
    ATP came from ADP or AMP that is formed again nucleotide biosynthesis
  • Deleted
    ATP hydrolysis occurs with ease and fast. Maybe its energy coupling to the downstream reactions are more efficient (NEEDS REFERENCE). But is it ALWAYS that ATP is used? Please cite some source for this energy currency:-)
  • Sergej Tomic · Military Medical Academy
    The same answer could also come from the question, why all living things have only 4 nucleic bases (or 5) in their genetic code.
  • Jayachandra Reddy · Pondicherry University
    this is stupid questions ,why four bases ,why carbohydrates r not acting like proteins ,why lipids not acting like nucleotides ,why 2 same chromosomes not 3,111,21, why trees only giving oxygen not humans from starting on earth
    .................only forming of molecules from evolutionarly depending on environment ,if its maintaining stability its adapting that molecules to that particular conditions ,some environmental changes, the molecules r also changing through mutations or other process.
    natural selection........
    i dont agree with amiya
    because if ATP hydrolysis occurs with ease and fast ,the formation is difficult so we dont call that time atp is the energy currency of the cell and also all CTP,GTP,TTP,ATP,triphosphates has resonance form all will release same energy if its break.
  • Siddhartha Taritla · Indian Institute of Science
    thank u Mr.Joachim Pimiskern
    and all of the above suggestions
  • Deleted
    @Jayachandra Reddy: Formation of ATP is very fast especially from phosphorylcreatine, so much so that in 100 M sprint, this almost exclusively supplies the energy . But please provide info that ATP is ALWAYS the energy source, 'cause I'm not sure about this.
  • Vinod Viswanath · CASHEW EXPORT PROMOTION COUNCIL OF INDIA-
    ATP is a rich a energy source for all the living cells bcos they oxidized NADH+H obtained.During ETC ATP has doing a important role....the term is called 'Q' Cycle...refer Q cycle..and get wonderful answer..
  • Shubhendu Seal · General Electric
    ATP has evolved as the energy currency because of following facts: 1. availability in cell, 1. Stability of molecule, 3. energy content of the molecule.
    ATP is one of the most stable high energy molecule abundant in the biological system.
    ATP is a complex nanomachine that serves as the primary energy currency of the cell (Trefil, 1992, p.93). A nanomachine is a complex precision microscopic-sized machine that fits the standard definition of a machine. ATP is the “most widely distributed high-energy compound within the human body” (Ritter, 1996, p. 301).
    The energy level it carries is just the right amount for most biological reactions. Nutrients contain energy in low-energy covalent bonds which are not very useful to do most of kinds of work in the cells.These low energy bonds must be translated to high energy bonds, and this is a role of ATP. A steady supply of ATP is so critical that a poison which attacks any of the proteins used in ATP production kills the organism in minutes. Certain cyanide compounds, for example, are poisonous because they bind to the copper atom in cytochrome oxidase. This binding blocks the electron transport system in the mitochondria where ATP manufacture occurs (Goodsell, 1996, p.74).
    ATP has high energy phosphoanhydride bonds which make this molecule very rich in energy (~7.3 kCal/per molecule when ATP changes to ADP releasing a pyrophosphate; and ~10.5 kCal/molecule when ADP changes to AMP).

    After going through the above discussion i personnaly felt as if we are trying to satisfy our ego and not discussing based on facts (i know many will not like it).
  • Sergej Tomic · Military Medical Academy
    The facts concerning ATP's wonderful properties do not explain why ATP is present in all existing organisms, beside other energy sources present as well, such as phosphenolpyruvat, GTP, and other P rich compounds?
    I would look for the answer within the first enzymes that existed during the RNA world.
  • Didier JAMBOU · Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nice
    Dear Colleagues,

    In fact very interesting topic, linking to the selection by "nature" of compounds of life on earth.
    More upstream why the carbon atom (as silicium could have similar properties) , is the main constituant of organic molecules ? why oxygen rather than fluor for oxydative properties ... and so on ...
    And these first "choice" of atoms by nature this could have influence the following, in particular molecules used in living organisms.
    Independently of energy, a lot of enzyme in reaction graft phosphates groups to over molecules; and in DNA synthesis, ATP is at the same time source of adenine and also source of energy and phosphosphate groups.
    Tyrosine kinase implicated in cellular division phosphorylates some membrane proteins, using ATP.
    So independently of energy, this molecule is used as substrate to provide phosphate, the phosporylated form of enzymes being active, and also allowing changing protein conformation.
    So, all the precedent render wider utilisation of ATP in cellular processess, in parallel with energy source.
    But why not GTP in this case (there is some G-proteins implicated in cellular process).
    Thermodynamicians could indicate us if using ATP for phosphorilation ie is less consumning energy than GTP ? (or differently said : balance between necessary energy before and possible recuparation of energy later is positive Perhaps have we also to eveluate the availability of adenine in nature (from alimentation), compared to guanine, cytosine for GTP and CTP.
    If theres is a reason for ATP, to my mind, its more upstream that we have to search an explanation, if we could be able to find it.
    Finally, in other "earths" in universe, perhaps exit living organsims like us, but built with silicium (Hoaw ! transparent ?) and breathing an atmosphere composed of fluor (bad for us) :-)
    Regards
    Didier J
  • Trushakant Patil · St.James School of Medicine
    is simple if you look into fuel es.Fuel homeostastasis is amintained in body in terms of processes those generate ATP and utilise them.A fine act icheck and counter check if done this helps to use ATP judiciously.As rightly said ATP is a currency of the cell and its production is governed by the processes tose produce them such as TCA cyle ,fatty acid oxidation and so forth.Since ATP is a ready source.it could be used as and when there is demand.Hence it is a ready source of energy.I shall be more than happy to enlighten on this if this not clarified.
  • Anil Batta · Baba Farid University of Health Sciences
    ATP is energy currency because it has moderate amount of energy which satisfy the parameter in which amount the energy is utilized or produced. e.g NADH+H gives three ATPs and FADH2 two molecules in ETC.
  • Wenxi Xu · Fudan University
    I think we should talk more about evolution, you know, before cells existed, several kinds of small moleculars got together and choose ATP. why?
  • Interesting question. ATP is the energy machine of mitochondriae, which are thought to have been independent organisms at one time. Evolution up the eukaryote line has kept it this way, necessitating transmembrane transport, not the most efficient use of biological energy - but not the worst either.
  • Anil Batta · Baba Farid University of Health Sciences
    Optimum number of calories & 7.4 Kcal.
  • Huiling Huang · Tianjin Medical University
    It's very interesting question !I agree with Didier Jambou for analysis
  • Raghavendra Sathyanarayana · Kuvempu University
    It might be an evolutionary acceptance
  • Low energy requirement to form the phosphate bonds
  • Deleted
    Read more about how to enhance ATP production through low level laser irradiation:
    http://spie.org/x35504.xml?ArticleID=x35504
  • Sunny Kataria · Tata Institute of Fundamental Research
    Well this might be because NTPs and dNTPs can provide energy for their self polymerization into DNA and RNA which is for obvious reasons a self selected trait and hence enzymes using same NTPs involved in other cellular process can evolve from same enzymes. Other energy sources like PMF and photo-energy sources if can manage to convert available energy into forms of NTPs it will serve dual selection advantage. Why reactions using ATP is greater than those using GTP and followed by even lower for other NTPs may have to do with some benefit provided by chemical configuration of A and G, like stability or greater half life. But may just be due to mere chance at the evolution of living systems.
  • Ana María Sánchez Peralta · University of Granada
    When you use energy to power must be the most profitable, which is generated by glucose is the most profitable, ATP. The body is wise, does not spend unprofitable energy to make energy.
  • Sunny Kataria · Tata Institute of Fundamental Research
    The key is in the evolutionary advantage of using NTPs as both substrate monomers and energy source for replication and self assembly.
  • Yves Van Assche · TotalEnergeticWellness
    Our body recognizes and uses only one single element to produce ATP and that is Hydrogen !!! Why do top athletes eat pasta, bread before competition.... carbohydrate ...is only for the stored hydrogen in the food that is a carbohydrate.
    Enzymes in our digestive system produce 900ml of pure hydrogen a day from the food we eat ......Those who want to understand all this read the lecture of Nobel prize winner for BioChemistry in 1978 Mitchell ....his lecture is attached so you know my source of the above....
  • Yves Van Assche · TotalEnergeticWellness
    Hydrogenase of 3.8 billion years ago Happe and Bagley reported, ‘Hydrogenases are enzymes that can reversibly split molecular hydrogen.…the crystal structure at 2.85 resolution of a Ni/Fe hydrogenase (from the bacterium Desufovibrio gigas) was reported.…Ni/Fe hydrogenases are among the oldest enzymes (3.8 billion years old), demonstrating early life forms had developed an effective way to active molecular hydrogen at ambient temperature and pH.…(BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITION OF HYDROGEN, NATURE, 385, 126, 1997)

    The above paper implies that early life forms should have developed hydrogenases to produce atomic hydrogen or ‘active hydrogen’ , in order to scavenge active oxygen species which might threaten their existence.
  • Siddhartha Taritla · Indian Institute of Science
    sorry, Yves Van Assche i cant get u, please explain.
  • Yves Van Assche · TotalEnergeticWellness
    Full explaination is added as pdf..... Just open file mitchell lecture
  • Yves Van Assche · TotalEnergeticWellness
    The birth of the earth is supposed to have come about by means of a "big bang" that occurred between 10 and 20 billion years ago. It is also believed that the first living organisms came out into existence in the water of this planet some four billion years ago. In other words, if water had not been present on the earth some four billion years ago, living organisms would not have emerged and survived on the earth.

    Therefore the presence of water on the earth was the great prerequisite for the genesis and survival of all living organisms.Everyone knows that water is a compound of hydrogen and oxygen. The bonding of hydrogen and oxygen in a 2 to 1 ratio produces water, which is expressed with the chemical formula H2O.

    The fact that water is a compound of hydrogen and oxygen signifies that hydrogen and oxygen attract one another.In other words, if hydrogen and oxygen did not have this attraction, water would never have come into existence. Moreover, without the genesis of water, living organisms would not have come into existence either. There is an energy that works to draw these atoms to each other (covalent bond energy), and it is thanks to this energy that water was able to come into existence.

    Because water is what is generated by means of this covalent bond energy, the hydrogen in the water can not exist alone and independently in a form that is separate form the oxygen. Not only that, when water is infused with hydrogen gas taken from something like a compressed gas cylinder, or when hydrogen gas is generated by electrolysis to produce water with increased hydrogen(electrolyzed cathodic water), the hydrogen simply escapes into the air immediately because it is the lightest gas in the universe. This is why, as we learned in high school chemistry, there is hardly any hydrogen in water.

    As such the water we are familiar with is all water that contains hardly any Hydrogen gas. In short, the water that exists in nature, the tap water produced by processing it, bottled water and so forth all have one big common characteristic: they are all "water that contains hardly any hydrogen."

    Recognizing and understanding this fact from the beginning is of the utmost importance for the actualization of your good health and longevity.
  • Ana María Sánchez Peralta · University of Granada
    AMP, ADP to ATP needs many things, not only H.
  • Yves Van Assche · TotalEnergeticWellness
    Sorry Ana but when I see that someone gets a Nobel Prize for Bio Chemistry for the proof that our body only recognizes one element and that is H ...can't help that medicine nor other researchers did not use this crucial information.
    that will be oxidized in 7 steps to reduce power stored in one ....
    Hydrogen is the fuel and of course there happens a lot in these steps ..... still is the only fuel
  • Yves Van Assche · TotalEnergeticWellness
    Recommend you read the lecture from Mitchell regarding Chemiosmosis that explains it all....
    Nobel prize 1978 biochemistry...!!
  • Yves Van Assche · TotalEnergeticWellness
    Water that Cures Disease

    We have seen that water that produces disease refers to hydrogen poor water.
    On the other hand, water that prevents and cures disease refers to water that
    contains a lot of hydrogen, namely, Hydrogen Enriched Water. ( Please note that
    "hydrogen poor and hydrogen enriched water are terms I have coined.)
    The basis for this, in brief, is that the abundant hydrogen found in Hydrogen
    Enriched Water becomes active hydrogen in the body and removes the active oxygen
    that is considered to be the cause of all kinds of diseases.
    In recent times practically everyone has seen or heard, on television, radio,
    newspapers and health magazines, the expression " active oxygen is the cause of
    all kinds of diseases." Active oxygen is exactly what the words include: oxygen
    that is active.
    The action of oxygen is oxidation, which means that it burns
    things up or produces rust on metals such as iron and copper. Active oxygen thus
    means oxygen with a particularly strong oxidizing action.
    Expressed metaphorically, if we compare the oxygen we normally breathe to
    kerosine, active oxygen would correspond to gasoline. A simple explanation of the expression "active oxygen is the cause of all kinds of diseases" is that because
    active oxygen has a particularly strong oxidizing action ( oxidative damage ) on
    genes(DNA),it damages the genes and causes diseases.
    Life is maintained in our body by the metabolism in which the oxygen we breathe in
    through our lungs burns up the food we take in through our mouths, and the byproduct
    of this process is active oxygen, which is emitted as a kind of combustion gas.
    Let us describe this reaction, in which the air we take in through our lungs
    " oxidizes" our food, from the viewpoint of the food. What happens is that the food
    "reduces" the oxygen. The ordinary oxygen that is reduced by the food becomes active oxygen.
    We maintain our lives by breathing oxygen ; however, since it is believed that
    around two percent of the oxygen we breathe in is transformed into active oxygen, we
    cannot avoid producing active oxygen as long as we are alive.
    Therefore to preserve our health it is necessary to suppress the active oxygen that
    we are constantly producing and trump card doing this is hydrogen enriched water.
  • Yves Van Assche · TotalEnergeticWellness
    Water Regulating Theory

    (1) When oxygen( O2 ) breathed in through the lungs oxidizes food taken by mouth, it is reduced by the
    food and produces active oxygen O2- ( superoxide anion radical ).
    (2) O2- is further reduced by hydrogen atom H ( active hydrogen radical ), producing
    active oxygen H2O2 ( hydrogen peroxide ).
    (3) H2O2 is further reduced, producing active oxygen HO・( hydroxyl radical ) and
    hydroxide anion ( HO- ).
    (4) HO・ is reduced by hydrogen atom, producing water ( H2O )
    (5) HO- is also reduced by proton ( H+ ), producing water.
    CONCLUSION
    Oxygen from the lungs keeps producing active oxygen species ( O2-, H2O2, HO・)
    in the body, but these kinds of active oxygen species are reduced successively
    through bonding with atomic hydrogen( active hydrogen ) and eventually revert back
    to the original water.

    (1) O2 + e- → O2-
    (2) O2- +H・+H+ → H2O2
    (3) H2O2 +e- → HO・+ HO-
    (4) HO・ +H・ → H2O
    (5) HO- +H+ → H2O
  • I think it becomes even more basic; movement of pairs of electrons in and out of bonds. The energy moves with those electrons. ATP synthesis requires the least energy of the other nucleotides and is unregulated. As Yves demonstrates they sometimes picked up by oxygen. The redox intermediates and SODs are crucial to diverting these electrons elswehere!
  • Yves Van Assche · TotalEnergeticWellness
    become a "Nike" man (or woman)...... just do it !!!!! and you will experience first hand ..... no longer needed to quote "other people's ideas" ... will become your own experience ..... which is the only way to learn ....
  • Ana María Sánchez Peralta · University of Granada
    Yves, I don't stand you. The body is a complex mix of proteins, enzymes, receptor, molecules, necessary for the transporting of information, electrons, H+, energy, etc. All is necessary, the inclination of the covalent bond of the Fe in the hemo group of hemoglobin is necessary for the correct transportation of O2. All details are necessary.
  • Yves Van Assche · TotalEnergeticWellness
    Ana Maria Sanchez...

    It is all to simple to understand, once you have the basic requirements, our body is smart enough to do the rest..... I know a body is an extreme complex system and all is needed, only this happens automatically when you give the body what it needs and that is free active hydrogen. Does a healthy person need to know what a healthy weight is, does he need to know what a perfect body temperature is, does he need to know what a healthy blood pressure is, does he need to know what a good sugar level is ?????? NO all is happening as it is meant to be....
    Some people are masters in making things complicated ..... I go for simple logic .....the way nature planned it ....
    Each and every person who followed my suggestions came to perfect weight .. NO DIET
    Each and every person who was diabetic type II has reversed his condition back to normal ..NO DIET ...NO PILLS
    There is a scientific congress for the last four years in Japan where all scientist gather to share their experiences with only hydrogen as therapy .... they all understand it ....
    Here again a link from Janpanese cardiologist who cured many different "uncureable diseases" just with hydrogen...!!!!
    http://www.water-institute.org/world/index.html

    I use the same principle with the same success rate .... period !
  • Ana María Sánchez Peralta · University of Granada
    Your skin and your eyes are different, and you need both to write here.
  • Yves Van Assche · TotalEnergeticWellness
    Sorry is new to me.... Know a lot of blind people who are perfect in writing on computers....
  • Yves Van Assche · TotalEnergeticWellness
    "When we hold onto past beliefs that make us firm and unbendable, we are unable to grow. It is like planting a seed in a container with a lid on it; yes the seed may grow, however it will only grow as big as the container allows. This is the same as if we deny ourselves the experience to grow by holding onto our own limiting beliefs. We place a lid on our own life experiences."
    -Marcia Johnson
  • subramani.t dr · Bangalore University
    In fact we can classify the organisms into aerobic and anaerobic organisms in universe, based on whether they consume oxygen or not in both the cases fermentation ( anaerobic respiration) is common that is Glycolysis ( 10 steps) except first and last, all other steps are phosphorylated few of these intermediates can easily transfer their phosphate groups to its most acceptor ADP to form ATP by Substrate level phosphorylation. The ATP( Mg bound ATP as a substrate for the hexo kinase or glucokinase where as free ATP are leaked out of the cell membrane or Atpases immediately hydrolysis the ATP, and the negative charge to inside the cell by phosphate ions) metabolism is very important for the generation of heat ( 7.3 kcal/ hydrolysis of gamma phosphate/ mol) to maintain temperature ~ 37 C for the cell and cellular activity that is ~ provided by ATP BY ITS METABOLISM. During AEROBIC METABOLISM (RESPIRATION) THE PROTON GENERATED BY reducing equivalent such as NADH+H and FADH+H, transport their Proton to the inner mitochondrial membrane ( IMPERMEABLE FOR PROTON) by ETC and generating proton gradient ( HEAT ENERGY ~ EQUAL TO ENERGY REQUIRED FOR ATP SYNTHESIS ) in intermitochondrial space which drives the movement of protons into mitochondrial matrix through FoF1 ATPASES, stimulating ATP synthesis.Hence the 7.3 Kcal of energy is yielded during ATP hydrolysis.
  • Yves Van Assche · TotalEnergeticWellness
    Hello dr subramani
    As attachment the full lecture about ATP.... still grey area for some ....
  • Yves Van Assche · TotalEnergeticWellness
    Abstract
    Oxidative stress is recognized widely as being associated with various disorders including diabetes, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. It is well established that hydrogen has a reducing action. We therefore investigated the effects of hydrogen-rich water intake on lipid and glucose metabolism in patients with either type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 30 patients with T2DM controlled by diet and exercise therapy and 6 patients with IGT. The patients consumed either 900 mL/d of hydrogen-rich pure water or 900 mL of placebo pure water for 8 weeks, with a 12-week washout period. Several biomarkers of oxidative stress, insulin resistance, and glucose metabolism, assessed by an oral glucose tolerance test, were evaluated at baseline and at 8 weeks. Intake of hydrogen-rich water was associated with significant decreases in the levels of modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (ie, modifications that increase the net negative charge of LDL), small dense LDL, and urinary 8-isoprostanes by 15.5% (P < .01), 5.7% (P < .05), and 6.6% (P < .05), respectively. Hydrogen-rich water intake was also associated with a trend of decreased serum concentrations of oxidized LDL and free fatty acids, and increased plasma levels of adiponectin and extracellular-superoxide dismutase. In 4 of 6 patients with IGT, intake of hydrogen-rich water normalized the oral glucose tolerance test. In conclusion, these results suggest that supplementation with hydrogen-rich water may have a beneficial role in prevention of T2DM and insulin resistance.

    From this site : http://www.nrjournal.com/article/S0271-5317(08)00023-7/abstract
  • Yves Van Assche · TotalEnergeticWellness
    Abstract
    Oxidative stress is recognized widely as being associated with various disorders including diabetes, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. It is well established that hydrogen has a reducing action. We therefore investigated the effects of hydrogen-rich water intake on lipid and glucose metabolism in patients with either type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 30 patients with T2DM controlled by diet and exercise therapy and 6 patients with IGT. The patients consumed either 900 mL/d of hydrogen-rich pure water or 900 mL of placebo pure water for 8 weeks, with a 12-week washout period. Several biomarkers of oxidative stress, insulin resistance, and glucose metabolism, assessed by an oral glucose tolerance test, were evaluated at baseline and at 8 weeks. Intake of hydrogen-rich water was associated with significant decreases in the levels of modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (ie, modifications that increase the net negative charge of LDL), small dense LDL, and urinary 8-isoprostanes by 15.5% (P < .01), 5.7% (P < .05), and 6.6% (P < .05), respectively. Hydrogen-rich water intake was also associated with a trend of decreased serum concentrations of oxidized LDL and free fatty acids, and increased plasma levels of adiponectin and extracellular-superoxide dismutase. In 4 of 6 patients with IGT, intake of hydrogen-rich water normalized the oral glucose tolerance test. In conclusion, these results suggest that supplementation with hydrogen-rich water may have a beneficial role in prevention of T2DM and insulin resistance.

    Copy and paste from : http://www.nrjournal.com/article/S0271-5317(08)00023-7/abstract
  • Ana María Sánchez Peralta · University of Granada
    Oxidative stress is bad for all illness. Antioxidant vitamins and food are very good to prevent all kind of illness, aging and cancer. Protons must be good.
  • Yves Van Assche · TotalEnergeticWellness
    This scientific research program has nothing to do with vitamins or any kind of food ..... only explains the power of one single element : H Why would you recommend expensive, totally overpriced vitamins when a cheap solution is available.
    Vitamin pills that are loaded with buffer material, preservatives, another source of oxidative stress......if you can get a product that once oxidized turns into water ????????
  • Tofayel Mallick · Dhaka Medical College
    We should remember that prevention is better than cure.
  • Ana María Sánchez Peralta · University of Granada
    Ja. You want to be a proton...
  • Isabella Panfoli · Università degli Studi di Genova
    don't forget Inorganic polyphosphate ... it's interesting

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