Korean Journal of Pediatrics

Description

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  • Other titles
    Soakwa
  • ISSN
    2092-7258
  • OCLC
    56584151
  • Material type
    Periodical
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal (GI) hemangiomas are relatively rare benign vascular tumors. The choice of an appropriate diagnostic method depends on patient age, anatomic location, and presenting symptoms. However, GI hemangiomas are not a common suspected cause of GI bleeding in children because of their rarity. Based on medical history, laboratory results, and imaging study findings, the patient could be treated with either medication or surgery. Herein, we report 3 cases of GI hemangioma found in the small bowel, rectum, and GI tract (multiple hemangiomas). Better knowledge and understanding of GI hemangioma could help reduce the delayed diagnosis rate and prevent inappropriate management. Although rare, GI hemangiomas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of GI bleeding.
    Korean Journal of Pediatrics 05/2014; 57(5):245-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD) is a benign disease, which is characterized by a cervical lymphadenopathy with fever, and it often mimics malignant lymphoma (ML). 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) is a powerful imaging modality for the diagnosis, staging and monitoring of ML, with the limitations including the nonspecific FDG uptake in infectious or inflammatory processes. This study compared clinical manifestations and PET/CT findings between KFD and ML patients.
    Korean Journal of Pediatrics 05/2014; 57(5):226-31.
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    ABSTRACT: Pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia (PHP Ia) is a disorder characterized by multiform hormonal resistance including parathyroid hormone (PTH) resistance and Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO). It is caused by heterozygous inactivating mutations within the Gs alpha-encoding GNAS exons. A 9-year-old boy presented with clinical and laboratory abnormalities including hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, PTH resistance, multihormone resistance and AHO (round face, short stature, obesity, brachydactyly and osteoma cutis) which were typical of PHP Ia. He had a history of repeated convulsive episodes that started from the age of 2 months. A cranial computed tomography scan showed bilateral calcifications in the basal ganglia and his intelligence quotient testing indicated mild mental retardation. Family history revealed that the patient's maternal relatives, including his grandmother and 2 of his mother's siblings, had features suggestive of AHO. Sequencing of the GNAS gene of the patient identified a heterozygous nonsense mutation within exon 11 (c.637 C>T). The C>T transversion results in an amino acid substitution from Gln to stop codon at codon 213 (p.Gln213(*)). To our knowledge, this is a novel mutation in GNAS.
    Korean Journal of Pediatrics 05/2014; 57(5):240-4.
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    ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial disease (MD) and Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) are often associated with cardiomyopathy, but the myocardial variability has not been isolated to a specific characteristic. We evaluated the left ventricular (LV) mass by echocardiography to identify the general distribution and functional changes of the myocardium in patients with MD or DMD.
    Korean Journal of Pediatrics 05/2014; 57(5):232-9.
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    ABSTRACT: A recent study analyzing several cytokines reported that long cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time and long aortic cross clamp (ACC) time were accompanied by enhanced postoperative inflammation, which contrasted with the modest influence of the degree of hypothermia. In this present study, we aimed to examine the effect of CPB temperature on the clinical outcome in infants undergoing repair of isolated ventricular septal defect (VSD).
    Korean Journal of Pediatrics 05/2014; 57(5):222-5.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine whether school-aged children with Kawasaki disease (KD) have an increased risk for early atherosclerosis.
    Korean Journal of Pediatrics 05/2014; 57(5):217-21.
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    ABSTRACT: Atopic sensitization is a complex phenomenon that changes dynamically with age throughout childhood; its prevalence increases with age in young children. Additionally, with increasing age, the prevalence of sensitization to inhalant allergens and the prevalence of polysensitization to allergens increase. It is also well established that the development of atopic sensitization is the result of a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors. However, there is considerable heterogeneity in the literature in terms of the effect of different environmental exposures in young children on the subsequent risk of atopic sensitization and allergic diseases. Previous studies on the relationship, in early life, between pet ownership, sex, exposure to secondhand smoke, exposure to traffic-related air pollution components, and atopic sensitization have yielded different results. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of gene-environment interactions, especially during early childhood, on the risk of subsequent atopic sensitization and allergic diseases. Therefore, pediatricians should consider the genetic and environmental determinants of atopic sensitization in infants and young children when diagnosing and treating patients with allergic diseases. Determining ways in which early exposure to these risk factors in young children may be reduced could be beneficial in preventing the likelihood of developing atopic sensitization.
    Korean Journal of Pediatrics 05/2014; 57(5):205-10.
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    ABSTRACT: Asthma comprises a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by airway inflammation, airway obstruction, and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Airway inflammation, which induces AHR and recurrence of asthma, is the main pathophysiology of asthma. The fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) level is a noninvasive, reproducible measurement of eosinophilic airway inflammation that is easy to perform in young children. As airway inflammation precedes asthma attacks and airway obstruction, elevated FeNO levels may be useful as predictive markers for risk of recurrence of asthma. This review discusses FeNO measurements among early-childhood wheezing phenotypes that have been identified in large-scale longitudinal studies. These wheezing phenotypes are classified into three to six categories based on the onset and persistence of wheezing from birth to later childhood. Each phenotype has characteristic findings for atopic sensitization, lung function, AHR, or FeNO. For example, in one birth cohort study, children with asthma and persistent wheezing at 7 years had higher FeNO levels at 4 years compared to children without wheezing, which suggested that FeNO could be a predictive marker for later development of asthma. Preschool-aged children with recurrent wheezing and stringent asthma predictive indices also had higher FeNO levels in the first 4 years of life compared to children with wheezing and loose indices or children with no wheeze, suggesting that FeNO measurements may provide an additional parameter for predicting persistent wheezing in preschool children. Additional large-scale longitudinal studies are required to establish cutoff levels for FeNO as a risk factor for persistent asthma.
    Korean Journal of Pediatrics 05/2014; 57(5):211-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Iatrogenic pseudoaneurysms are extremely rare in children. Conventional management of pseudoaneurysms in adults has included surgical repair, ultrasound-guided compression, and more recently, endovascular embolization. However, in infants and children, there is little information regarding the applicability of such treatment modalities, which have been effective in adults, because of its rarity. Here, we present the case of a 6-month-old infant who developed a postprocedural pseudoaneurysm of the external iliac artery, which was successfully treated with ultrasound-guided percutaneous thrombin injection.
    Korean Journal of Pediatrics 04/2014; 57(4):199-201.
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the autonomic imbalance in syncope by comparing the baseline heart rate variability (HRV) between healthy children and those with vasovagal syncope.
    Korean Journal of Pediatrics 04/2014; 57(4):193-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) among preterm infants is typically due to a quantitative deficiency of pulmonary surfactant. Aside from the degree of prematurity, diverse environmental and genetic factors can affect the development of RDS. The variance of the risk of RDS in various races/ethnicities or monozygotic/dizygotic twins has suggested genetic influences on this disorder. So far, several specific mutations in genes encoding surfactant-associated molecules have confirmed this. Specific genetic variants contributing to the regulation of pulmonary development, its structure and function, or the inflammatory response could be candidate risk factors for the development of RDS. This review summarizes the background that suggests the genetic predisposition of RDS, the identified mutations, and candidate genetic polymorphisms of pulmonary surfactant proteins associated with RDS.
    Korean Journal of Pediatrics 04/2014; 57(4):157-163.
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    ABSTRACT: Influenza causes acute respiratory infections and various complications. Children in the high-risk group have higher complication and hospitalization rates than high-risk elderly individuals. Influenza prevention in children is important, as they can be a source infection spread in their communities. Influenza vaccination is strongly recommended for high-risk children with chronic underlying circulatory and respiratory disease, immature infants, and children receiving long-term immunosuppressant treatment or aspirin. However, vaccination rates in these children are low because of concerns regarding the exacerbation of underlying diseases and vaccine efficacy. To address these concerns, many clinical studies on children with underlying respiratory diseases have been conducted since the 1970s. Most of these reported no differences in immunogenicity or adverse reactions between healthy children and those with underlying respiratory diseases and no adverse effects of the influenza vaccine on the disease course. Further to these studies, the inactivated split-virus influenza vaccine is recommended for children with underlying respiratory disease, in many countries. However, the live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) is not recommended for children younger than 5 years with asthma or recurrent wheezing. Influenza vaccination is contraindicated in patients with severe allergies to egg, chicken, or feathers, because egg-cultivated influenza vaccines may contain ovalbumin. There has been no recent report of serious adverse events after influenza vaccination in children with egg allergy. However, many experts recommend the trivalent influenza vaccine for patients with severe egg allergy, with close observation for 30 minutes after vaccination. LAIV is still not recommended for patients with asthma or egg allergy.
    Korean Journal of Pediatrics 04/2014; 57(4):164-170.
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    ABSTRACT: Eosinophilia is common in premature infants, and its incidence increases with a shorter gestation period. We investigated the clinical significance of eosinophilia in premature infants born at <34 weeks gestation.
    Korean Journal of Pediatrics 04/2014; 57(4):171-7.
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MRMP) has increased worldwide. The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of MRMP in a tertiary hospital in Korea, and to find potential laboratory markers that could be used to predict the efficacy of macrolides in children with MRMP pneumonia.
    Korean Journal of Pediatrics 04/2014; 57(4):186-92.
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    ABSTRACT: Lupus anticoagulant-hypoprothrombinemia syndrome (LAHPS), a very rare disease that is caused by the presence of antifactor II antibodies, is usually counterbalanced by the prothrombotic effect of lupus anticoagulant (LAC). Patients with LAHPS are treated using fresh frozen plasma, steroids, immunosuppressive agents, and immunoglobulins for managing the disease and controlling hemorrhages. Notably, steroids are the important treatment for treating hypoprothrombinemia and controlling the bleeding. However, some patients suffer from severe, life-threatening hemorrhages, when factor II levels remain very low in spite of treatment with steroids. Here, we report a case of LAHPS in a 15-year-old girl who experienced pulmonary hemorrhage with rapid progression. She was referred to our hospital owing to easy bruising and prolonged bleeding. She was diagnosed with LAHPS that presented with pancytopenia, positive antinuclear antibody, proloned prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, positive LAC antibody, and factor II deficiency. Her treatment included massive blood transfusion, high-dose methylprednisolone, vitamin K, and immunoglobulin. However, she died due to uncontrolled pulmonary hemorrhage.
    Korean Journal of Pediatrics 04/2014; 57(4):202-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Blood culture is the most important tool for detecting bacteremia in children with fever. However, blood culture contamination rates range from 0.6% to 6.0% in adults; rates for young children have been considered higher than these, although data are limited, especially in Korea. This study determined the contamination rate and risk factors in pediatric patients visiting the emergency room (ER) or being admitted to the ward.
    Korean Journal of Pediatrics 04/2014; 57(4):178-85.
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    ABSTRACT: Although benign rolandic epilepsy (BRE) is a benign condition, it may be associated with a spectrum of behavioral, psychiatric, and cognitive disorders. This study aimed to assess the cognitive and other neuropsychological profiles of children with BRE. In total, 23 children with BRE were consecutively recruited. All children underwent sleep electroencephalography (EEG) and were assessed on a battery of comprehensive neuropsychological tests including the Korean versions of the Wechsler intelligence scale for children III, frontal executive neuropsychological test, rey complex figure test, Wisconsin card sorting test, attention deficit diagnostic scale, and child behavior checklist scale. The study subjects included 13 boys and 10 girls aged 9.0±1.6 years. Our subjects showed an average monthly seizure frequency of 0.9±0.7, and a majority of them had focal seizures (70%). The spike index (frequency/min) was 4.1±5.3 (right) and 13.1±15.9 (left). Of the 23 subjects, 9 showed frequent spikes (>10/min) on the EEG. The subjects had normal cognitive and frontal executive functions, memory, and other neuropsychological sub-domain scores, even though 8 children (35%) showed some evidence of learning difficulties, attention deficits, and aggressive behavior. Our data have limited predictive value; however, these data demonstrate that although BRE appears to be benign at the onset, children with BRE might develop cognitive, behavioral, and other psychiatric disorders during the active phase of epilepsy, and these problems may even outlast the BRE. Therefore, we recommend scrupulous follow-up for children with BRE.
    Korean Journal of Pediatrics 10/2012; 55(10):383-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) specifically injures podocytes, leading to foot process effacement, actin cytoskeleton disorganization, and abnormal distribution of slit diaphragm proteins. p130Cas is a docking protein connecting F-actin fibers to the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and adapter proteins in glomerular epithelial cells (GEpCs; podocytes). We investigated the changes in the p130Cas expression level in the PAN-induced pathological changes of podocytes in vitro. We observed changes in the p130Cas expression in cultured rat GEpCs and mouse podocytes treated with various concentrations of PAN and antioxidants, including probucol, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and vitamin C. The changes in the p130Cas expression level were analyzed using confocal immunofluorescence imaging, Western blotting, and polymerase chain reaction. In the immunofluorescence study, p130Cas showed a diffuse cytoplasmic distribution with accumulation at distinct sites visible as short stripes and colocalized with P-cadherin. The fluorescences of the p130Cas protein were internalized and became granular by PAN administration in a dose-dependent manner, which had been restored by antioxidants, EGCG and vitamin C. PAN also decreased the protein and mRNA expression levels of p130Cas at high doses and in a longer exposed duration, which had been also reversed by antioxidants. These findings suggest that PAN modulates the quantitative and distributional changes of podocyte p130Cas through oxidative stress resulting in podocyte dysfunction.
    Korean Journal of Pediatrics 10/2012; 55(10):371-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Trisomy 14 mosaicism is a rare chromosome disorder characterized by delayed development, failure to thrive, and facial dysmorphism. Only approximately 30 trisomy 14 mosaicism cases have been reported in the literature because trisomy 14 is associated with early spontaneous abortion. We report a case of a 17-month-old girl with abnormal skin pigmentation, delayed development, facial dysmorphism, and failure to thrive with the 47,XX,+14/46,XX chromosome complement.
    Korean Journal of Pediatrics 10/2012; 55(10):393-6.

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