AIDS research and treatment (AIDS Res Treat)
Publications in this journal
AIDS research and treatment 02/2013;
Article: Orthotopic liver transplantation in human-immunodeficiency-virus-positive patients in Germany.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objectives. This summary evaluates the outcomes of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) of HIV-positive patients in Germany. Methods. Retrospective chart analysis of HIV-positive patients, who had been liver-transplanted in Germany between July 1997 and July 2011. Results. 38 transplantations were performed in 32 patients at 9 German transplant centres. The reasons for OLT were end-stage liver disease (ESLD) and/or liver failure due to hepatitis C (HCV) (n = 19), hepatitis B (HBV) (n = 10), multiple viral infections of the liver (n = 2) and Budd-Chiari-Syndrome. In July 2011 19/32 (60%) of the transplanted patients were still alive with a median survival of 61 months (IQR (interquartile range): 41-86 months). 6 patients had died in the early post-transplantation period from septicaemia (n = 4), primary graft dysfunction (n = 1), and intrathoracal hemorrhage (n = 1). Later on 7 patients had died from septicaemia (n = 2), delayed graft failure (n = 2), recurrent HCC (n = 2), and renal failure (n = 1). Recurrent HBV infection was efficiently prevented in 11/12 patients; HCV reinfection occurred in all patients and contributed considerably to the overall mortality. Conclusions. Overall OLT is a feasible approach in HIV-infected patients with acceptable survival rates in Germany. Reinfection with HCV still remains a major clinical challenge in HIV/HCV coinfection after OLT.AIDS research and treatment 01/2012; 2012:197501.
Article: A Qualitative Exploration of the Economic and Social Effects of Microcredit among People Living with HIV/AIDS in Uganda.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: HIV medical care, including antiretroviral therapy (ART), is often successful in restoring physical health and functioning. But in developing countries, HIV medical care is often insufficient to achieve social and economic health, and hence innovative economic support programs are much needed. We conducted semistructured interviews with 30 adults receiving ART and microcredit loans operated by Uganda Cares. Using content analysis, we explored the impact of the microcredit loans on the economic, social, and psychological well-being of respondents. Most respondents indicated that the microcredit loans played a positive role in their lives, helped them to keep their children in school and sustain their families, and improved their self-esteem and status in the community. In addition, we also found significant positive knowledge spill-over and network effects in the program with regard to business management and support. However, more than half of the participants indicated experiencing repayment problems either personally or with other group members due to unexpected emergencies and sickness. These findings highlight that microcredit programs have the potential of being an economic support system for HIV clients trying to reestablish their livelihoods, especially in resource-constrained settings, though more research is needed to determine the overall economic viability of such programs.AIDS research and treatment 01/2012; 2012:318957.
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ABSTRACT: As more US HIV surveillance programs routinely use late HIV diagnosis to monitor and characterize HIV testing patterns, there is an increasing need to standardize how late HIV diagnosis is measured. In this study, we compared two measures of late HIV diagnosis, one based on time between HIV and AIDS, the other based on initial CD4(+) results. Using data from Washington's HIV/AIDS Reporting System, we used multivariate logistic regression to identify predictors of late HIV diagnosis. We also conducted tests for trend to determine whether the proportion of cases diagnosed late has changed over time. Both measures lead us to similar conclusions about late HIV diagnosis, suggesting that being male, older, foreign-born, or heterosexual increase the likelihood of late HIV diagnosis. Our findings reaffirm the validity of a time-based definition of late HIV diagnosis, while at the same time demonstrating the potential value of a lab-based measure.AIDS research and treatment 01/2012; 2012:182672.
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ABSTRACT: HIV-infected individuals are at risk for decreased bone mineral density (BMD). The known risk factors for bone loss do not fully explain the increased risk in this population. There is emerging evidence that leptin, a hormone secreted by adipocytes, plays an important role in bone metabolism. Several studies have assessed the relationship between leptin and bone density in healthy adults, but there are few such studies in HIV-infected individuals. Furthermore, HIV infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy are at increased risk for altered fat distribution, which may impact the relationship between leptin and BMD. In a cross-sectional analysis of data in 107 HIV-infected men, we determined whether serum leptin levels were associated with whole-body BMD and bone mineral content measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), after adjusting for confounders including body fat distribution. We found an inverse association between leptin and bone density in those with peripheral lipoatrophy, defined objectively as <3 kg appendicular fat by DEXA, but no such relationship was seen in those with >3 kg appendicular fat. This result suggests that fat distribution may modify the relationship between leptin and bone density.AIDS research and treatment 01/2012; 2012:103072.
Article: Women's Health Care Utilization among Harder-to-Reach HIV-Infected Women ever on Antiretroviral Therapy in British Columbia.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background. HIV-infected women are disproportionately burdened by gynaecological complications, psychological disorders, and certain sexually transmitted infections that may not be adequately addressed by HIV-specific care. We estimate the prevalence and covariates of women's health care (WHC) utilization among harder-to-reach, treatment-experienced HIV-infected women in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Methods. We used survey data from 231 HIV-infected, treatment-experienced women enrolled in the Longitudinal Investigations into Supportive and Ancillary Health Services (LISA) study, which recruited harder-to-reach populations, including aboriginal people and individuals using injection drugs. Independent covariates of interest included sociodemographic, psychosocial, behavioural, individual health status, structural factors, and HIV clinical variables. Logistic regression was used to generate adjusted estimates of associations between use of WHC and covariates of interest. Results. Overall, 77% of women reported regularly utilizing WHC. WHC utilization varied significantly by region of residence (P value <0.01). In addition, women with lower annual income (AOR (95% CI) = 0.14 (0.04-0.54)), who used illicit drugs (AOR (95% CI) = 0.42 (0.19-0.92)) and who had lower provider trust (AOR (95% CI) = 0.97 (0.95-0.99)), were significantly less likely to report using WHC. Conclusion. A health service gap exists along geographical and social axes for harder-to-reach HIV-infected women in BC. Women-centered WHC and HIV-specific care should be streamlined and integrated to better address women's holistic health.AIDS research and treatment 01/2012; 2012:560361.
Article: Challenges in Providing Treatment and Care for Viral Hepatitis among Individuals Co-Infected with HIV in Resource-Limited Settings.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B and C infections are prevalent among HIV-infected individuals with different epidemiologic profiles, modes of transmission, natural histories, and treatments. Southeast Asian countries are classified as "highly prevalent zones," with a rate of hepatitis B and C coinfection in people living with HIV/AIDS of approximately 3.2-11%. Majority of hepatitis B coinfection is of genotype C. Most of the patients infected with hepatitis C in Thailand have genotype 3 which is significantly related to intravenous drug use whereas, in Vietnam, it is genotype 6. The options for antiretroviral drugs are limited and rely on global funds and research facilities. Only HBV treatment is available for free through the national health scheme. Screening tests for HBV and HCV prior to commencing antiretroviral treatment are low. Insufficient concern on hepatitis-virus-related liver malignancy and long-term hepatic morbidities is noted. Cost-effective HCV treatment can be incorporated into the national health program for those who need it by utilizing data obtained from clinical research studies. For example, patients infected with HCV genotype 2/3 with a certain IL-28B polymorphism can be treated with a shorter course of interferon and ribavirin which can also help reduce costs.AIDS research and treatment 01/2012; 2012:948059.
Article: High Initial HIV/AIDS-Related Mortality and -Its Predictors among Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy in the Kagera Region of Tanzania: A Five-Year Retrospective Cohort Study.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We examined mortality rates and its predictors from a five years retrospective cohort data of HIV/AIDs patients attending care and treatment clinic in Biharamulo Tanzania. Cox regression analysis was used to identify predictors of mortality. Of the 546 patient records retrieved, the mean age was 37 years with median CD4 count of 156 cells. The mortality rate was 4.32/100 person years at risk with males having three times higher mortality compared to females. Starting Antiretroviral treatment with advanced disease state, body weight below 45 kegs, WHO stage 4 disease, and CD4 cells below 50 were main predictors of mortality. Promoting early voluntary counselling and testing should be given a priority to facilitate timely start of treatment.AIDS research and treatment 01/2012; 2012:843598.
Article: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Children and Adolescents.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection incidence has increased in healthy US children. Our objective was to evaluate MRSA incidence and correlates in HIV-infected youth. Methods. The CDC-sponsored LEGACY study is a US multicenter chart abstraction study of HIV-infected youth. We identified MRSA infections among participants with ≥1 visit during 2006. We used bivariate and multivariable analyses to compare sociodemographic and HIV clinical factors between MRSA cases and noncases. Results. Fourteen MRSA infections (1 invasive, 12 soft tissue, 1 indeterminate) occurred among 1,813 subjects (11.1 infections/1,000 patient-years (PY), 95% CI: 11.06-11.14). Most (86%) isolates were clindamycin susceptible. Compared with noncases, MRSA cases were more likely older (17 versus 14 years), black (100% versus 69%), behaviorally HIV infected (43% versus 17%), and in Maryland (43% versus 7%) and had viral loads (VL) >1000 copies/mL (86% versus 51%) and lower mean CD4% (18% versus 27%) (all P < 0.05). In multivariate analysis, independent risk factors were Maryland care site (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 9.0), VL >1000 copies/mL (aOR = 5.9), and black race (aOR undefined). Conclusions. MRSA occurred at a rate of 11.1 infections/1,000 PY in HIV-infected youth but invasive disease was uncommon. Geographic location, black race, and increased VL, but not immunosuppression, were independently associated with MRSA risk.AIDS research and treatment 01/2012; 2012:627974.
Article: The Changing Epidemiology of Oropharyngeal Candidiasis in Patients with HIV/AIDS in the Era of Antiretroviral Therapy.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on opportunistic conditions in HIV patients continues to evolve. We specifically studied the changing epidemiology of oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) in 215 HIV/AIDS patients. Status of yeast colonization was assessed from oral rinse samples, and preliminary yeast identification was made using CHROMagar Candida and confirmed with standard microbiological techniques and/or molecular sequencing. Susceptibility to fluconazole was determined by CHROMagar Candida agar dilution screening and CLSI broth microdilution. 176 (82%) patients were colonized and 59 (27%) patients had symptomatic OPC. Candida albicans was the most prevalent species, though C. glabrata and C. dubliniensis were detected in 29% of isolates. Decreased fluconazole susceptibility occurred in 10% of isolates. Previous ART reduced the risk of OPC, while smoking increased the risk of colonization. Oral yeast colonization and symptomatic infection remain common even with advances in HIV therapy. C. albicans is the most common species, but other yeasts are prevalent and may have decreased susceptibility to fluconazole.AIDS research and treatment 01/2012; 2012:262471.
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