Food & Function

Description

  • Impact factor
    2.69
  • 5-year impact
    2.70
  • Cited half-life
    1.60
  • Immediacy index
    0.55
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.60
  • ISSN
    2042-6496

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the digestive tract in humans, bioactive peptides, i.e. protein fragments impacting the physiological activity of the body, may be released during the digestion of food proteins, including those of fish. The aim of the study was to establish the method of human ex vivo digestion of carp muscle tissue and evaluate the angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities of hydrolysates obtained after digestion. It was found that the hydrolysates of carp muscle tissue obtained with the three-stage method of simulated ex vivo digestion showed ACE inhibitory as well as antioxidative activities. It was demonstrated that the degree of hydrolysis depended on the duration of individual stages and the degree of comminution of the examined material. Although the applied gastric juices initiated the process of hydrolysis of carp muscle tissue, the duodenal juices caused a rapid increase in the amount of hydrolysed polypeptide bonds. The antihypertensive and antioxidative activities of the hydrolysates of carp muscle tissue increased together with progressive protein degradation. However, the high degree of protein hydrolysis does not favour an increase in the activity of free radical scavenging. The presented results are an example of the first preliminary screening of the potential health-promoting biological activity of carp muscle tissue in an ex vivo study.
    Food & Function 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The cell walls (dietary fibre) of edible plants, which consist of mainly non-starch polysaccharides, play an important role in regulating nutrient bioaccessibility (release) during digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Recent studies have shown that structurally-intact cell walls hinder lipid release from the parenchyma cells of almond seeds. A theoretical model was developed to predict the bioaccessibility of lipid using simple geometry and data on cell dimensions and particle size for calculating the number of ruptured cells in cut almond cubes. Cubes (2 mm) and finely-ground flour of low and high lipid bioaccessibility, respectively, were prepared from almond cotyledon. The model predictions were compared with data from in vitro gastric and duodenal digestion of almond cubes and flour. The model showed that lipid bioaccessibility is highly dependent on particle size and cell diameter. Only a modified version of the model (the Extended Theoretical Model, ETM), in which the cells at the edges and corners were counted once only, was acceptable for the full range of particle sizes. Lipid release values predicted from the ETM were 5.7% for almond cubes and 42% for almond flour. In vitro digestion of cubes and flour showed that lipid released from ruptured cells was available for hydrolysis and resulted in lipid losses of 9.9 and 39.3%, respectively. The ETM shows considerable potential for predicting lipid release in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Further work is warranted to evaluate the efficacy of this model to accurately predict nutrient bioaccessibility in a broad range of edible plants.
    Food & Function 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: An emulsified gel of (+)-catechin was developed and evaluated topically against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-promoted (DMBA-induced and TPA-promoted) squamous cell carcinoma of the skin in BALB/c mice. The biological evaluation outcome indicated that the (+)-catechin emulsified gel increased the activity of oxidative stress biomarkers glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), whereas it decreased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA). The mechanistic study showed that genes implicated in the inflammation and cancer, such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), and inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS), were down-regulated by (+)-catechin emulsified gel while inhibiting an inflammatory mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The (+)-catechin emulsified gel further suppressed the activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines, viz. tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The in vitro permeation study revealed that release of (+)-catechin from an emulsified gel base reached a steady state after 6 h, while pH of the entire emulsified gel was found to be between 6.2 and 6.5 that falls well within the normal pH range of the skin.
    Food & Function 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Pitanga, Eugenia uniflora L., is a tropical fruit, which may be consumed as juice. While beneficial health effects of Eugenia uniflora L. leaf extracts have extensively been studied, limited data are available on an anti-inflammatory potential of pitanga juice. The aim of the presented study was to investigate anti-inflammatory properties of pitanga juice with regards to a prevention of inflammation-related periodontal diseases. For this purpose, six healthy volunteers swirled pitanga juice, containing 35% pitanga pulp, for 10 min. Thereafter, oral gum epithelial cells were harvested using a sterile brush and stimulated with lipopolysaccharides from Porphyromonas gingivalis (PG-LPS) for 6 h. Furthermore, human gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1) were used to elucidate the anti-inflammatory potential of pitanga juice constituents, cyanidin-3-glucoside and oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one, in juice representative concentrations of 119 μg ml(-1) and 30 μg ml(-1), respectively. For the first time, an anti-inflammatory impact of pitanga juice on gingival epithelial cells was shown by means of an attenuation of IL-8 release by 55 ± 8.2% and 52 ± 11% in non-stimulated and PG-LPS-stimulated cells, respectively. In addition, both cyanidin-3-glucoside and oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one reduced the LPS-stimulated CXCL8 mRNA expression by 50 ± 15% and 37 ± 18% and IL-8 release by 52 ± 9.9% and 45 ± 3.7% in HGF-1 cells, when concomitantly incubated with 10 μg ml(-1)PG-LPS for 6 h, revealing an anti-inflammatory potential of the volatile compound oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one for the first time.
    Food & Function 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Hovenia dulcis Thunb. is well known as a treatment for liver disease. Several studies have demonstrated that extracts of Hovenia dulcis Thunb. or its purified compounds can serve as detoxifying agents for alcohol poisoning. However, its anti-obesity effect has not been reported thus far. In this study, the anti-obesity effect of water extracts from the fruits or stems of Hovenia dulcis Thunb. was examined in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The cellular lipid contents in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were assessed by Oil Red O staining. Fruits of Hovenia dulcis Thunb. (FHD) significantly inhibit lipid accumulation during adipogenesis in a dose-dependent manner, but not stems of Hovenia dulcis Thunb. FHD (100 μg ml(-1)) significantly down-regulates the expression of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein 2, adiponectin, and resistin, and the inhibition rates were 29.33%, 54.36%, 34.5%, 55.69%, and 60.39%, respectively. In addition, FHD (100 μg ml(-1)) also up-regulates the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-α, liver kinase B1 as a major AMPK kinase, and the downstream substrate acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and the inhibition rates were 43.52%, 38.25%, and 20.39%, respectively. These results indicate that FHD has a significant anti-obesity effect through the modulation of the AMPK pathway, suggesting that FHD has a potential benefit in preventing obesity.
    Food & Function 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We aimed to evaluate the effect of chitosan oligosaccharide (GO2KA1) supplementation on glucose control in subjects with prediabetes. This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Subjects with prediabetes were randomly assigned to the GO2KA1 intervention group or the placebo group for 12 weeks. We assessed the serum levels of glucose, insulin, and C-peptide by a 2 hour value in the 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), HbA1c, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and plasma adiponectin at baseline and after the 12 week intervention. The treatment group showed a significant decrease in the serum glucose level at 30 min (p = 0.013) and at 60 min (p = 0.028). The change of the serum glucose level at 60 min was significant in the treatment group compared with the placebo group (p = 0.030). Also, the plasma level of HbA1c (p = 0.023) and the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) were reduced and plasma adiponectin was increased in the GO2KA1 intervention group after the 12 week treatment. However, the placebo group did not show any significant changes in these biomarkers. In subjects with prediabetes, 12 week supplement with GO2KA1 may help control postprandial glucose compared with control.
    Food & Function 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Oil emulsification facilitates digestive lipolysis and subsequent lipid bioaccessibility. This study aimed to understand the effects of emulsification on DHA-rich algal oil digestion and bioaccessibility. An oil/water emulsion (50 : 44 : 6 oil-water-soy lecithin) was subjected to an in vitro digestion model with gastric pH 1.6 or 4.0 and particle size distributions, duodenal stage lipolysis and DHA bioaccessibility were determined. The emulsion was destabilized at gastric pH 1.6, with subsequent slow duodenal lipolysis. With gastric pH 4.0, the emulsion structure remained intact, initial lipolysis proceeded rapidly and DHA bioaccessibility was higher than for bulk oil, a mixture of oil, water and soy lecithin, and the gastric pH 1.6 destabilized emulsion (p < 0.05). However, the extent of lipolysis was not affected by emulsification or gastric pH. Therefore, the presence of an intact emulsion at the start of duodenal digestion, while not impacting the extent of lipolysis, did impact the initial lipolysis and DHA bioaccessibility.
    Food & Function 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are a group of harmful compounds produced either endogenously or during thermal food processing. Once absorbed by humans via food intake, AGEs can cause oxidative cell damage and contribute to pathological development of various diseases. The AGE-inhibitory activity of dietary polyphenols in vitro has been extensively reported before, but the current study is pioneering in examining the antiglycation activity of five selected dietary polyphenols (phloretin, naringenin, epicatechin, chlorogenic acid, and rosmarinic acid) during the thermal protein glycation process. When added into the glucose-casein glycation model heated at 120 °C for 2 h, these polyphenols were capable of inhibiting the formation of both total fluorescent AGEs and nonfluorescent carboxymethyllysine (CML). The thermal stability and transformation of polyphenols are likely important factors affecting their antioxidant activity and inhibitory efficacy of reactive carbonyl species formation. Treatment with epicatechin would lower not only AGE formation but also AGE-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress to human retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cells.
    Food & Function 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Soy protein was known to have renal-protective effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different doses of soybean β-conglycinin, one of the main storage proteins in soy, on diabetic nephropathy in the rat. We used 40 Wistar rats with eight rats in each group. Diabetes mellitus was induced in rats by an intravenous injection of streptozotocin. The groups included a control group (Ctrl) fed with the standard AIN93-M diet, while other groups were fed with AIN-93M with the addition of NaCl to induce diabetic nephropathy (DN). DN rats were divided into the DN control (DN) group, the soy protein (DN + SP) group, the low-dose β-conglycinin (DN + B) group, and the high-dose β-conglycinin (DN + 2B) group. After a 27 weeks experimental period, we found that soy protein and β-conglycinin decreased blood glucose via increasing the insulin sensitivity, with an enhanced cholesterol-lowering effect of β-conglycinin-mediated hepatic LDL receptor protein expression. Otherwise, there were beneficial effects of soy protein and β-conglycinin on renal function markers. Through the inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), soy protein and β-conglycinin retarded the progression of diabetic nephropathy by decreasing the blood pressure and histological changes. In conclusion, soy protein and β-conglycinin may retard the progression of diabetic nephropathy by increasing insulin sensitivity, regulating lipid metabolism, improving renal function markers, and inhibiting ACE activity.
    Food & Function 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In the present work, phenolic composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of twenty four samples of naturally fermented table olives from Northeast of Portugal were evaluated. The analysis of phenolics composition was performed by HPLC/DAD, and ten compounds were identified, being hydroxytyrosol, verbascoside derivate and hydroxytyrosol glycol the most abundant. Total phenolics content varied between 2.37 and 64.17 µg/mg of extract. The IC50 values from the antioxidant activity methods tested varied between 0.30 and 1.66 mg/mL for reducing power, and between 0.13 and 0.83mg/mL for DPPH. The results obtained in the antioxidant activity were extremely significantly correlated with the main phenolic compounds as well as with total phenolics content. A principal component analysis allowed grouping samples according to their phenolic composition and antioxidant potential. Table olives extracts were able to inhibit some pathogenic microorganisms, mainly Gram-positive bacteria. Higher antimicrobial inhibition was recorded in the extracts rich in phenolic compounds and higher antioxidant potential.
    Food & Function 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Plants contain a wide range of non-nutritive phytochemicals, many of which have protective or preventive properties for human diseases. The aim of the present work has been to investigate the nutraceutical properties of sweet chestnut flour extracts obtained from fruits collected from 7 geographic areas of Tuscany (Italy), and their ability in modulating skeletal muscle atrophy. We found that the cultivars from different geographic areas are characterized by the composition and quantity of various nutrients and specific bioactive components, such as tocopherols, polyphenols and sphingolipids. The nutraceutical properties of chestnut sweet flours have been evaluated in C2C12 myotubes induced to atrophy by serum deprivation or dexamethasone. We found that the pretreatment with both total extracts of tocopherols and sphingolipids is able to counterbalance cell atrophy, reducing the decrease in myotube size and myonuclei number, and attenuating protein degradation and the increase in expression of MAFbx/atrogin-1 (a muscle-specific atrophy marker). By contrast, polyphenol extracts were not able to prevent atrophy. Since we also found that γ-tocopherol is the major form of tocopherol in sweet flour and its content differs depending on the procedure of sweet flour preparation, the mechanisms by which γ-tocopherol as well as sphingolipids affect skeletal muscle cell atrophy have been also investigated. This is the first evidence that chestnut sweet flour is a natural source of specific bioactive components with a relevant role in the prevention of cell degeneration and maintenance of skeletal muscle mass, opening important implications in designing appropriate nutritional therapeutic approaches to skeletal muscle atrophy.
    Food & Function 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates have increased over the past years. The purpose of the present study was to examine the molecular mechanism underlying the chemopreventive effects of quercetin on prostate cancer in an in vivo model. Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into four groups, Group I: vehicle control (propylene glycol), Group II: chemically induced cancer model (MNU + T); Group III: chemically induced cancer model + quercetin (200 mg per kg b.w.); Group IV: quercetin (200 mg per kg b.w.). Serum levels of quercetin were assessed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). EGFR, PI3K/Akt protein levels were significantly increased in chemically induced cancer rats, which were brought back to normalcy in both DLP & VP (dorsolateral prostate & ventral prostate) by quercetin supplementation. Also, the protein expression levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), N-cadherin, vimentin, and cyclin D1 exhibited a significant increase in both DLP & VP of chemically induced cancer rats. However, simultaneous quercetin supplementation significantly decreased PCNA, N-cadherin, vimentin, and cyclin D1 protein levels compared to chemically induced cancer rats. The E-cadherin expression was decreased in chemically induced cancer animals. Simultaneous quercetin supplementation prevented it. Real time PCR was used to study the mRNA expression of snail, slug and twist. Quercetin significantly decreased snail, slug, and twist mRNA levels in chemically induced cancer rats. To conclude from the present study, quercetin was effective in preventing prostate cancer progression by inhibiting the EGFR signaling pathway and by regulating cell adhesion molecules in Sprague Dawley rats.
    Food & Function 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The consumption of polyphenols in green tea has been associated with beneficial health effects. Although polyphenols are unstable in the intestinal environment, they may be protected by interactions with dairy proteins during digestion. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of a green tea extract on the digestibility of different dairy matrices and to monitor the antioxidant activity of these matrices with or without the green tea extract during digestion in a simulated gastrointestinal environment. Milk, yogurt and cheese with similar fat-to-protein ratios were subjected to simulated digestion. Matrix degradation, protein and fat hydrolysis, polyphenol concentration and radical scavenging activity were analyzed during gastric and intestinal digestion phases. Cheese was the matrix most resistant to protein and fat digestion. The addition of the green tea extract significantly decreased proteolysis in the gastric phase but had no effect in the intestinal phase. The kinetics of fatty acid release was reduced by the presence of the green tea extract. Transition from the gastric phase to the intestinal phase induced a 50% decrease in the antioxidant activity of the control (tea extract dispersed in water) due to the degradation of polyphenols. The presence of dairy matrices significantly improved polyphenol stability in the intestinal phase and increased the antioxidant activity by 29% (cheese) to 42% (milk) compared to the control. These results suggest that simultaneous consumption of green tea and dairy products helps to maintain the integrity and antioxidant activity of polyphenols during digestion.
    Food & Function 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Among aminoacidopathies, phenylketonuria (PKU) is the most prevailing one. Early diagnosis in the neonatal period with a prompt nutritional therapy (low natural-protein and phenylalanine diet, supplemented with phenylalanine-free amino acid mixtures and special low-protein foods) remains the mainstay of the treatment. Data considering nutrient contents of cooked dishes is lacking. In this study, fourteen dishes specifically prepared for PKU individuals were analysed, regarding the lipid profile, and iron and zinc contents. These dishes are poor sources of essential nutrients like Fe, Zn or n-3 fatty acids, reinforcing the need of adequate supplementation to cover individual patients' needs. This study can contribute for a more accurate adjustment of PKU diets and supplementation, in order to prevent eventual nutritional deficiencies. This study contributes to a better understanding of nutrients intake from PKU patients’ meals, showing the need of dietary supplementation.
    Food & Function 08/2014;