Food & Function

Description

  • Impact factor
    2.69
  • 5-year impact
    2.70
  • Cited half-life
    1.60
  • Immediacy index
    0.55
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.60
  • ISSN
    2042-6496

Publications in this journal

  • A Vlassopoulos, M E J Lean, E Combet
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    ABSTRACT: Background: while antiglycative capacity has been attributed to (poly)phenols, the exact mechanism of action remains unclear. Studies so far are often relying on supra-physiological concentrations and use of non-bioavailable compounds. Methods: to inform the design of a physiologically relevant in vitro study, we carried out a systematic literature review of dietary interventions reporting plasma concentrations of polyphenol metabolites. Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) was pre-treated prior to in vitro glycation: either no treatment (native), pre-oxidised (incubated with 10 nM H2O2, for 8 hours) or incubated with a mixture of phenolic acids at physiologically relevant concentrations, for 8 hours). In vitro glycation was carried out in the presence of (i) glucose only (0, 5 or 10 mM), (ii) glucose (0, 5 or 10 mM) plus H2O2 (10 nM), or (iii) glucose (0, 5 or 10 mM) plus phenolic acids (10-160 nM). Fructosamine was measured using the nitro blue tetrazolium method. Results: following (high) dietary polyphenol intake, 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid is the most abundant phenolic acid in peripheral blood (up to 338 μM) with concentrations of other phenolic acids ranging from 13 nM to 200 μM. The presence of six phenolic acids with BSA during in vitro glycation did not lower fructosamine formation. However, when BSA was pre-incubated with phenolic acids, significantly lower concentration of fructosamine was detected under glycoxidative conditions (glucose 5 or 10 mM plus H2O2 10 nM) (p < 0.001 vs. native BSA). Conclusion: protein pre-treatment, either with oxidants or phenolic acids, is an important regulator of subsequent glycation in a physiologically relevant system. High quality in vitro studies under conditions closer to physiology are feasible and should be employed more frequently.
    Food & Function 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates have increased over the past years. The purpose of the present study was to examine the molecular mechanism underlying the chemopreventive effects of quercetin on prostate cancer in an in vivo model. Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into four groups, Group I: vehicle control (propylene glycol), Group II: chemically induced cancer model (MNU + T); Group III: chemically induced cancer model + quercetin (200 mg per kg b.w.); Group IV: quercetin (200 mg per kg b.w.). Serum levels of quercetin were assessed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). EGFR, PI3K/Akt protein levels were significantly increased in chemically induced cancer rats, which were brought back to normalcy in both DLP & VP (dorsolateral prostate & ventral prostate) by quercetin supplementation. Also, the protein expression levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), N-cadherin, vimentin, and cyclin D1 exhibited a significant increase in both DLP & VP of chemically induced cancer rats. However, simultaneous quercetin supplementation significantly decreased PCNA, N-cadherin, vimentin, and cyclin D1 protein levels compared to chemically induced cancer rats. The E-cadherin expression was decreased in chemically induced cancer animals. Simultaneous quercetin supplementation prevented it. Real time PCR was used to study the mRNA expression of snail, slug and twist. Quercetin significantly decreased snail, slug, and twist mRNA levels in chemically induced cancer rats. To conclude from the present study, quercetin was effective in preventing prostate cancer progression by inhibiting the EGFR signaling pathway and by regulating cell adhesion molecules in Sprague Dawley rats.
    Food & Function 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The consumption of polyphenols in green tea has been associated with beneficial health effects. Although polyphenols are unstable in the intestinal environment, they may be protected by interactions with dairy proteins during digestion. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of a green tea extract on the digestibility of different dairy matrices and to monitor the antioxidant activity of these matrices with or without the green tea extract during digestion in a simulated gastrointestinal environment. Milk, yogurt and cheese with similar fat-to-protein ratios were subjected to simulated digestion. Matrix degradation, protein and fat hydrolysis, polyphenol concentration and radical scavenging activity were analyzed during gastric and intestinal digestion phases. Cheese was the matrix most resistant to protein and fat digestion. The addition of the green tea extract significantly decreased proteolysis in the gastric phase but had no effect in the intestinal phase. The kinetics of fatty acid release was reduced by the presence of the green tea extract. Transition from the gastric phase to the intestinal phase induced a 50% decrease in the antioxidant activity of the control (tea extract dispersed in water) due to the degradation of polyphenols. The presence of dairy matrices significantly improved polyphenol stability in the intestinal phase and increased the antioxidant activity by 29% (cheese) to 42% (milk) compared to the control. These results suggest that simultaneous consumption of green tea and dairy products helps to maintain the integrity and antioxidant activity of polyphenols during digestion.
    Food & Function 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Among aminoacidopathies, phenylketonuria (PKU) is the most prevailing one. Early diagnosis in the neonatal period with a prompt nutritional therapy (low natural-protein and phenylalanine diet, supplemented with phenylalanine-free amino acid mixtures and special low-protein foods) remains the mainstay of the treatment. Data considering nutrient contents of cooked dishes is lacking. In this study, fourteen dishes specifically prepared for PKU individuals were analysed, regarding the lipid profile, and iron and zinc contents. These dishes are poor sources of essential nutrients like Fe, Zn or n-3 fatty acids, reinforcing the need of adequate supplementation to cover individual patients' needs. This study can contribute for a more accurate adjustment of PKU diets and supplementation, in order to prevent eventual nutritional deficiencies. This study contributes to a better understanding of nutrients intake from PKU patients’ meals, showing the need of dietary supplementation.
    Food & Function 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: High intake of dietary fructose exerts a number of adverse metabolic effects. The present study investigates the preventive effects of Pleurotus eryngii polysaccharides (PEP), which showed powerful antioxidant activity in vitro, on insulin resistance and oxidative stress in mice fed a high-fructose diet. PEP was identified by HPLC as the heteropolysaccharides with d-glucose (62.8%, mol%), d-galactose (24.4%) and d-mannose (9.8%) being the main component monosaccharides. Mice fed 20% fructose in drinking water for 6 weeks significantly displayed hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia and liver oxidative stress with impaired insulin sensitivity (p < 0.05). The administration of PEP at 400 and 800 mg kg(-1) bw significantly reduced the fasting serum glucose and insulin concentrations and lipid deposition in HF-fed mice, and caused the reduction of liver lipid peroxidation and the elevation of the hepatic antioxidant system. The histopathology of the liver by conventional H&E and oil red O staining confirmed the liver steatosis induced by a HF diet and the hepatoprotective effect of PEP. These results suggest that Pleurotus eryngii is a potential source of polysaccharides, and might be regarded as a novel preventive and therapeutic product for the mitigation of insulin resistance, oxidative stress and liver dysfunction.
    Food & Function 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Laetiporus sulphureus is an edible wood-rooting basidiomycete. The nutritional and medicinal properties of this mushroom have long been known to traditional practitioners. The aim of this study was to determine the proximate composition, total phenols antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial activities of different extracts of L. sulphureus. Different extraction methodologies, including high energy techniques, were employed and their effect was examined on the activity of the extracts. Optimum extraction methodologies (classical and ultrasound-assisted) provided one fraction containing neutral and polar lipids and the other fungal carotenoids and pigments. Fatty acid analysis indicated a predominant level of polyunsaturated fatty acids followed by saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids. Both the aqueous methanolic and water extracts contained higher TPC and showed better antioxidant capacity than the ethanolic extracts. Irrespectively of the type of extraction applied. L. sulphureus showed good antimicrobial activity against all bacteria, while it also exhibited strong antifungal activity, which at cases, was even better than the tested antibiotics and mycotics. Therefore, this edible mushroom could be considered as a positive candidate to be utilised by the food industry, not only for obtaining bioactive compounds to be used as natural antioxidants/antimicrobial agents, but possibly also for its nutritional value and health benefits.
    Food & Function 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: α-Glucosidase inhibitors are important agents for decreasing postprandial hyperglycemia. The current study examined the inhibitory effects of octaphlorethol A (OPA) isolated from Ishige foliacea, a brown alga, on α-glucosidase, and analyzed the inhibitor's binding modes using the crystal structure of α-glucosidase. The effects of OPA on postprandial blood glucose levels after meals were also investigated. The IC50 value of OPA against α-glucosidase was 0.11 mM, which is higher than that of the commercial inhibitor acarbose. For further insights, we predicted the 3D structure of α-glucosidase and used a docking algorithm to simulate binding between α-glucosidase and OPA. These molecular modeling studies were successful, and indicated that OPA interacts with Phe575, His600, Arg526, Met444, Asp542, Tyr605, Ser448, Asp203, Lys480, and Phe450. Furthermore, increases in postprandial blood glucose levels were significantly suppressed in the OPA-treated group compared with those in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic or normal mice. Additionally, the area under the curve was significantly reduced following OPA administration (907 versus 1034 mg h dL(-1)) in the diabetic mice, along with a delay in the absorption of dietary carbohydrates. Collectively, these results indicated that OPA is a potent inhibitor of α-glucosidase, and shows potential to be used as an anti-diabetic agent.
    Food & Function 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The inhibitory effects of flavonoids on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) have attracted great interest among researchers. However, few reports have focused on the structure-activity relationship for AChE inhibition of flavonoids. This work mainly concerns the structural aspects of inhibitory activities and binding affinities of flavonoids as AChE inhibitors. The results show that hydroxyl groups in the A ring of flavonoids are favorable for inhibiting AChE, and the hydroxylation increases the affinities for AChE. However, methoxylation may decrease or increase the activities depending on the class of flavonoids. The glycosylation decreases the AChE inhibitory activities of flavonoids and lowers the affinities for AChE by 1 to 5 times depending on the conjunction site and the type of sugar moiety. The hydrogenation of the C2-C3 double bond of apigenin decreases both the affinity for AChE and AChE inhibition. The molecular property-affinity relationship reveals that the hydrogen bond force plays an important role in binding flavonoids to AChE. The AChE inhibitions generally increase with the increasing affinities of flavonoids within the class, especially for flavones and flavonols.
    Food & Function 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The current study assesses the impact on appetite and food intake of a novel co-processed ingredient containing a viscous fibre and whole-grain high-amylose corn flour, a source of type 1 and type 2 resistant starch (HAM-RS). Ninety adults completed a crossover, placebo-controlled study comparing two doses of the ingredient (20 and 30 g) to a maltodextrin control in a fruit-based smoothie served with breakfast. Ad libitum food intake was measured over the day and visual analogue scales were used to assess subjective appetite sensations. Subjects consumed 7% less energy intake at dinner following the 30 g dose (p = 0.02) compared to control. In addition, a trend for lower lunch intake (5% less weight of food) was observed for the 20 g dose (p = 0.10). Reductions were also observed for the two meals combined, with 3% lower energy intake for the 20 g dose (p = 0.04) and 5% less weight of food consumed for the 30 g dose (p = 0.04). Lower ratings of hunger were reported at 3 h after breakfast for both doses and also at 2 and 3 h after lunch for the 30 g dose. With ratings combined to compute an overall appetite score, a trend for lower appetite scores at 3 h after breakfast was found for both doses. Consistent with this, significant reductions in AUC hunger and prospective consumption were identified in the 30 g condition. A similar pattern of results was observed for fullness and desire to eat. The results of this study show that a new composite satiety ingredient comprised of a viscous fibre and whole-grain corn flour can affect acute satiety responses in men and women.
    Food & Function 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Quercetin, a bioflavonoid found in plant foods, has a wide range of therapeutic effects. In order to examine the therapeutic potential of quercetin in teratocarcinoma, we used the human teratocarcinoma cell line NT2/D1 as an in vitro model. We have shown that quercetin inhibits the proliferation, adhesion and migration of NT2/D1 cells and downregulates the expression of pluripotency factors SOX2, Oct4 and Nanog. Our results further suggest that the anticancer effect of quercetin against human teratocarcinoma cells is mediated by targeting the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. Quercetin antagonized the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in NT2/D1 cells by inhibiting β-catenin nuclear translocation and the consequent downregulation of β-catenin-dependent transcription. These data suggest that quercetin as a potent inhibitor of Wnt signaling may be an effective therapeutic agent in cancers with aberrant activation of the Wnt pathway.
    Food & Function 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Cordyceps guangdongensis T. H. Li, Q. Y. Lin & B. Song (Cordycipitaceae) is a novel food approved by the Ministry of Public Health of China in 2013. Preliminary studies revealed that this novel food has multiple pharmacological activities such as anti-fatigue effect, antioxidant ability, prolonging life, anti-avian influenza virus activity, and therapeutic effect on chronic renal failure. However, the anti-inflammatory effect on chronic bronchitis and the effective constituent are still unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate both the anti-inflammatory effect of the edible fungus on experimental rats with chronic bronchitis induced by tobacco smoking, and the pilot effective constituent. Test rats were intragastrically administered with 3 doses of hot-water extract from C. guangdongensis (0.325, 0.65 and 1.30 g kg(-1) bw daily for low, middle and high dose, respectively) for 26 days. Biochemical indices and histological examinations in rats with chronic bronchitis induced by tobacco smoking were determined. The content and molecular weights of the polysaccharide from the hot-water extract were detected by the phenol-sulfuric acid method and gel permeation chromatography, respectively. Biochemical indices in the low, middle and high-dose groups with the hot-water extract of C. guangdongensis were only 53.4%, 46.0% and 40.4% of those in the model control group (total leukocytes), respectively; 70.7%, 60.3% and 58.1% (macrophages); 33.0%, 26.8% and 16.1% (neutrophils); and 22.2%, 23.5% and 13.6% (lymphocytes) of those in the model control group. The bronchial lesions and inflammatory cell infiltration were significantly alleviated in all groups with hot-water extract of C. guangdongensis. This study indicates that the hot-water extract from C. guangdongensis has a significant anti-inflammatory effect on chronic bronchitis. The content of the polysaccharide was 6.92%; the molecular weights of the 3 polysaccharide components were respectively 1.28 × 10(6), 2.36 × 10(4) and 5.21 × 10(3) Da.
    Food & Function 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Defect in intestinal epithelial structure is a critical etiological factor of several intestinal diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of grape seed extract (GSE), which contains a mixture of polyphenols, on ileal mucosal structure and inflammation in interleukin (IL)-10-deficient mice, a common model for studying inflammatory bowel disease. Wild-type and IL-10-deficient mice were fed GSE at 0 or 1% (based on dry feed weight) for 16 weeks. GSE supplementation decreased crypt depth and increased (P < 0.05) the ratio of villus/crypt length in the terminal ileum. Consistently, the dietary GSE decreased (P < 0.05) proliferation and enhanced (P < 0.05) differentiation of epithelial cells. These changes in gut epithelium were associated with the suppression of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cell (NF-κB) signaling. Furthermore, compared with WT mice, IL-10 deletion promoted beclin-1 and AMPK expression, both of which were decreased to normal by GSE supplementation. These changes were associated with alterations in epithelial barrier function as indicated by reduced pore forming claudin-2 protein expression and increased barrier forming claudin-1 protein expression in the ileum of GSE supplemented mice. In summary, our data indicates that GSE exerts protective effects to the ileal epithelial structure in IL-10-deficient mice possibly through the suppression of inflammatory response.
    Food & Function 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the available data regarding antimicrobial activity of phenolic acids, studies dealing with the effects of their metabolites or derivatives are scarce. Therefore, the antimicrobial and demelanizing activities of Coprinopsis atramentaria extract, its organic acids, and methylated and glucuronated derivatives were evaluated. The antifungal activity was stronger than the antibacterial effects. In general, individual compounds (mostly organic acids) exhibited higher activity than the extract and even higher than the standards used in the assays. Methylated derivatives presented the highest demelanizing activity toward Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus and Penicillium verrucosum var. cyclopium. The inclusion of methyl groups in the parental compound (CoAM1, CoAM2 and CoAM3) strongly increased antibacterial and antifungal activities of CoA, while the inclusion of acetyl groups (CoAGP) increased the antifungal activity but the antibacterial properties were maintained. For HA and CA, the inclusion of methyl groups (HAM1, HAM2, HAM3 and CAM) increased the demelanizing activity, but decreased the antimicrobial properties. The present work contributes to the knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the antimicrobial properties of organic acids namely, phenolic acids, usually present in mushrooms. Organic acids, and methylated and glucuronated derivatives could be used as antimicrobial agents.
    Food & Function 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Potatoes are a popular source of dietary carbohydrate worldwide and are generally considered to be a high glycemic index (GI) food. Potato starch characteristics play a key role in determining their rate of digestion and resulting glycemic response. Starches isolated from seven potato cultivars with different GI values, including a low GI cultivar (Carisma), were examined for relative crystallinity, granule size distribution, amylopectin chain length, and thermal and pasting properties. Starch from the Carisma cultivar was more thermally stable and more resistant to gelatinization, with significantly higher (p < 0.05) pasting temperature and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) gelatinization onset, peak and conclusion temperatures, compared to the other cultivars. Differences between the potatoes in the other properties measured did not align with the GI ranking. Thermal analysis and starch pasting properties may be useful indicators for preliminary identification of potato cultivars that are digested slowly and have a lower GI.
    Food & Function 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Oligonol is a low-molecular weight polyphenol that possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, nothing is known regarding the impact of Oligonol on sudomotor activity. This study investigated the effects of Oligonol supplementation on sudomotor activity during heat load in humans. Initially, we conducted a placebo-controlled, cross-over trial where participants took a daily dose of Oligonol 200 mg or placebo for one week. After a 2 week washout period, the subjects were switched to the other study arm. As a heat load, half-body immersion into hot water (42 ± 0.5 °C for 30 min) was performed in an automated climate chamber. Tympanic and skin temperatures were measured. Sudomotor activity, including onset time, sweat rate (SR) and volume (SV), active sweat gland density (ASGD), and sweat gland output (SGO), was tested in four or eight areas of skin. When compared with placebo, Oligonol attenuated increases in tympanic and skin temperatures after the heat load. There was an increasing trend in local sweat onset time, but there was a decrease in local SR, SV, ASGD, and SGO for Oligonol compared to placebo. The mean ASGD was significantly higher in the Oligonol group than in the placebo group for 10, 20, and 30 min. This study demonstrates that Oligonol appears to be worthy of consideration as a natural supplement to support more economical use of body fluids against heat stress.
    Food & Function 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Chemokines play important roles in the pathogenesis of asthmatic inflammation. Sesamin, a class of phytoestrogen isolated from sesame seed Sesamum indicum, is recently regarded as an anti-inflammatory agent. However, the effects of sesamin on asthma-related chemokines are unknown. To this end, we investigated the effects of sesamin on the expression interferon-γ-inducible protein-10 (IP-10/CXCL10), macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC/CCL22), growth-related oncogene-α (GRO-α/CXCL1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in human monocytes. Methods: Cells were pretreated with sesamin before lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. IP-10, MDC, GRO-α and TNF-α were measured by ELISA. Involved receptors and intracellular signaling were investigated by receptor antagonists, pathway inhibitors, western blotting and chromatin immunoprecipitation. Results: Sesamin suppressed LPS-induced MDC in THP-1 and human primary monocytes. Sesamin suppressed LPS-induced IP-10 in THP-1 cells, but not human primary monocytes. Sesamin had no effects on LPS-induced GRO-α and TNF-α expression in THP-1 and human primary monocytes. The suppressive effect of sesamin on MDC was reversed by the estrogen receptor (ER) and peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α antagonists. Sesamin suppressed LPS-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-p38 and nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB)-p65. Sesamin suppressed histone H3/H4 acetylation in the MDC promoter region. Conclusion: Sesamin suppressed LPS-induced MDC expression via the ER, the PPAR-α, the MAPK-p38 pathway, the NFκB-p65 pathway and the epigenetic regulation. Sesamin may have therapeutic potential in preventing and treating asthma.
    Food & Function 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Cadmium, a well-known environmental pollutant and a toxic transitional metal causes severe damage to many organs, such as liver, kidney, lungs, heart, etc. The current study has been designed to assess the impact of p-coumaric acid, a common dietary polyphenol on cadmium chloride-induced renal toxicity in rats. Therefore, the activities of membrane bound ATPases, mitochondrial TCA cycle and electron transport chain enzymes, gluconeogenic and glycolytic enzymes, and glycogen content were estimated in kidney tissue homogenates of control and experimental rats. In addition, the serum levels of glucose and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-1β were also estimated. The cadmium chloride administered rats (3 mg per kg per b. wt per s.c.) showed significant decrease in the levels of membrane bound ATPases, mitochondrial TCA cycle and electron transport chain enzymes, glycolytic enzymes, and glycogen content as compared with controls. Conversely, the levels of glucose, gluconeogenic enzymes and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, and IL-1β) were found to be increased. However, the administration of p-coumaric acid (100 mg per kg per b. wt per s.c.) along with the cadmium chloride significantly modulated these biochemical and immunological changes to near normal, as compared to cadmium chloride treated rats. Thus, the results provide strong evidence that p-coumaric acid has a protective action against cadmium-induced renal toxicity in rats.
    Food & Function 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the ameliorative effect of black rice anthocyanin (BACN) in senescent mice induced by D-galactose. The male mice were randomly divided into five groups, namely the normal group, the model group and dosage groups (15, 30 and 60 mg/kg). The model group and three dosage groups were injected subcutaneously with D-galactose continuously. The results suggested that superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were significantly increased upon black rice anthocyanin treatment, while MDA and the activity of monoamine oxidase (MAO) significantly decreased. The expressions of superoxide dismutase genes (SOD1 and SOD2) in liver were up-regulated in black rice anthocyanin group, while the expression of MAO-B gene was down-regulated. These findings demonstrated that the ameliorative effect of BACN might be achieved partly by altering endogenous antioxidant enzymatic and aging-related enzymatic activities and regulating SOD1, SOD2 and MAO-B gene expressions.
    Food & Function 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The plant polyphenol, resveratrol (Resv, 3,4,5-trihydroxystilbene), naturally occurring in a number of fruits and other food products, has been extensively studied over the last two decades for its beneficial properties. Recently, its possible topical use in ameliorating skin conditions has also been proposed; however, its role in preventing cigarette smoke (CS)-induced keratinocyte damage has not been investigated yet. Because of its peculiar location, cutaneous tissue is constantly exposed to several environmental stressors, such as CS. Many compounds presented in CS, have been shown to induce, directly or indirectly, cellular oxidative stress (OS) and inflammation via the production of ROS and lipid peroxidation compounds, among which 4HNE has been shown to be one of the most reactive. In this study, we have shown that resveratrol (at a dose of 10 μM) can decrease CS-induced ROS and carbonyl formation in human keratinocytes. In addition, pre-treatment with resveratrol prevented the induction of TRPA1 expression (mRNA and protein levels), a known receptor involved in cellular differentiation and inflammation, which has been recently shown to be activated by 4HNE. Finally, in keratinocytes, resveratrol could increase the expression of MsrA, enzyme involved in cell defence against oxidative protein damage. The present study further confirms the idea that the topical use of resveratrol can provide a good defence against CS-induced skin damage.
    Food & Function 08/2014;

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