Food & Function

Description

Impact factor 2.91

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    Impact factor
  • 5-year impact
    2.70
  • Cited half-life
    1.60
  • Immediacy index
    0.55
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.60
  • ISSN
    2042-6496

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The effects of 12 weeks of supplementation with a dieckol-rich extract (AG-dieckol) from brown algae, Ecklonia cava, on glycemic parameters, serum biochemistry, and hematology were investigated in this study. Eighty pre-diabetic male and female adults were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with parallel-group design. Subjects were randomly allocated into two groups designated as placebo and AG-dieckol (1500 mg per day). Compared with the placebo group, the AG-dieckol group showed a significant decrease in postprandial glucose levels after 12 weeks. The AG-dieckol group also showed a significant decrease in insulin and C-peptide levels after 12 weeks, but there was no significant difference between the AG-dieckol and placebo groups. There were no significant adverse events related to the consumption of AG-dieckol, and biochemical and hematological parameters were maintained within the normal range during the intervention period. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that AG-dieckol supplementation significantly contributes to lowering postprandial hyperglycemia and in reducing insulin resistance. Furthermore, we believe that based on these results the consumption of phlorotannin-rich foods such as marine algae may be useful for the treatment of diabetes.
    Food & Function 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects of kaempferol glycoside (KG) fractions which were composed of four kaempferol glycosides and purified from unripe Jindai-soybean (Edamame) leaves in C57BL/6J mice. High fat-fed mice treated with 0.15% dietary KG for 92 days had reduced body weight, adipose tissue and TG levels compared to the high fat-fed control group. KG-treatment also decreased fasting blood glucose, serum HbA1c (hemoglobin A1c) levels and improved insulin resistance. Gene expression analysis of the liver showed that KG decreased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-γ) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP-1c) expression. These results suggest that KG reduced the accumulation of adipose tissue, improving hyperlipidemia as well as diabetes in obese mice by increasing lipid metabolism through the downregulation of PPAR-γ and SREBP-1c. Thus, KG may have an anti-obesity and anti-diabetic potential.
    Food & Function 01/2015;
  • Food & Function 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: The influence of droplet size on the antioxidant activity of oil-in-water emulsions loaded with rosemary extract in mixed emulsion systems was investigated. Firstly, differently sized hexadecane-in-water model emulsions (10% (w/w) hexadecane, 2% (w/w) Tween 80, pH 5 or 7) containing 4000 ppm rosemary extract in the oil phase or without added antioxidant were prepared using a high shear blender and/or high-pressure homogenizer. Secondly, emulsions were mixed with fish oil-in-water emulsions (10% (w/w) fish oil, 2% (w/w) Tween 80, pH 5 or 7) at a mixing ratio of 1 : 1. Optical microscopy and static light scattering measurements indicated that emulsions were physically stable for 21 days, except for the slight aggregation of emulsions with a mean droplet size d43 of 4500 nm. The droplet size of hexadecane-in-water emulsions containing rosemary extract had no influence on the formation of lipid hydroperoxides at pH 5 and 7. Significantly lower concentrations of propanal were observed for the emulsions loaded with rosemary extract with a mean droplet size d43 of 4500 nm from day 12 to 16 at pH 7. Finally, hexadecane-in-water emulsions containing rosemary extract significantly retarded lipid oxidation of fish oil-in-water emulsions in mixed systems, but no differences in antioxidant efficacy between the differently sized emulsions were observed at pH 5.
    Food & Function 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: NaFeEDTA has been applied in many foods as an iron fortificant and is used to prevent iron deficiency in Fe-depleted populations. In China, soy sauce is fortified with NaFeEDTA to control iron deficiency. However, it is unclear whether Fe-fortified soy sauce affects zinc absorption. To investigate whether NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce affects zinc absorption in children, sixty children were enrolled in this study and randomly assigned to three groups (10 male children and 10 female children in each group). All children received daily 3 mg of (67)Zn and 1.2 mg of dysprosium orally, while the children in the three groups were supplemented with NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce (6 mg Fe, NaFeEDTA group), FeSO4-fortified soy sauce (6 mg Fe, FeSO4 group), and no iron-fortified soy sauce (control group), respectively. Fecal samples were collected during the experimental period and analyzed for the Zn content, (67)Zn isotope ratio and dysprosium content. The Fe intake from NaFeEDTA-fortified and FeSO4-fortified groups was significantly higher than that in the control group (P < 0.0001). The daily total Zn intake was not significantly different among the three groups. There were no significant differences in fractional Zn absorption (FZA) (P = 0.3895), dysprosium recovery (P = 0.7498) and Zn absorption (P = 0.5940) among the three groups. Therefore, NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce does not affect Zn bioavailability in children.
    Food & Function 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: The study investigated the effect of pomegranates ellagic acid (PEA) on blood cholesterol and investigated its effects on LXR/RXR/PPAR-ABCA1 nuclear receptors-signaling pathways of cholesterol metabolism on molecular level in hamsters. In this experiment, hamsters were randomly divided into two groups: the first group (NG, n = 9) was always fed the normal diet, whereas the other group (HFG, n = 45) was fed a high fat diet during the first 4 weeks and then fed the normal diet for the last 4 weeks. In HFG, which was divided into five groups (n = 9) during the last 4 weeks, three groups were treated with PEA at 44 mg per kg bw, 88 mg per kg bw and 177 mg per kg bw, one group was treated with simvastatin at 1.77 mg per kg bw, and one was given sterile double-distilled water. The data validated that PEA dose-dependently decreased plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride level accompanied by a greater excretion of fecal bile acid. The result of RT-PCR revealed that PEA up-regulated liver X receptor (LXRα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and their downstream gene ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), with no effect on retinoid X receptor (RXRα). PEA promoted cholesterol removal by enhancing fecal bile acid and up-regulation of the two pathways, LXR/PPAR-ABCA1. Moreover, PEA was stronger than simvastatin in some aspects.
    Food & Function 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: (-)-Epicatechin ((-)-EPI), a naturally occurring flavanol, has emerged as a likely candidate for cocoa-based product reported reductions in cardiometabolic risk. The present study aimed to determine the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of purified (-)-EPI administered to healthy volunteers. In this phase I, open-label, two-part single- and multiple-dose study, subjects received either a single dose (n = 9) of 50, 100 or 200 mg or multiple doses (n = 8) of 50 mg daily (q.d.) or twice daily (b.i.d) for 5 days. Blood was collected at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 6 h after (-)-EPI administration in the single and multiple dose groups (blood collection repeated in day 5). Samples were analyzed by HPLC-HR-ESI-MS for EPI and metabolite quantification. In the q.d. and b.i.d. groups, blood samples were analyzed for NO surrogates and follistatin levels as well as, platelet mitochondrial complexes I, V and citrate synthase activity levels. (-)-EPI was well tolerated and readily absorbed with further phase 2 metabolism. On day 5, in the q.d. and b.i.d. groups, there were significant increases in plasma nitrite of 30% and 17%, respectively. In the q.d. group on day 5 vs. day 1, platelet mitochondrial complexes I, IV and citrate synthase activities demonstrated a significant increase of ∼92, 62 and 8%, respectively. Average day 5 follistatin AUC levels were ∼2.5 fold higher vs. day 1 AUC levels in the b.i.d. group. (-)-EPI was safe to use, with no observed adverse effects, and our findings suggest that increases in NO metabolites, mitochondrial enzyme function and plasma follistatin levels may underlie some of the beneficial effects of cocoa products or (-)-EPI as reported in other studies
    Food & Function 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: In the digestive tract in humans, bioactive peptides, i.e. protein fragments impacting the physiological activity of the body, may be released during the digestion of food proteins, including those of fish. The aim of the study was to establish the method of human ex vivo digestion of carp muscle tissue and evaluate the angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities of hydrolysates obtained after digestion. It was found that the hydrolysates of carp muscle tissue obtained with the three-stage method of simulated ex vivo digestion showed ACE inhibitory as well as antioxidative activities. It was demonstrated that the degree of hydrolysis depended on the duration of individual stages and the degree of comminution of the examined material. Although the applied gastric juices initiated the process of hydrolysis of carp muscle tissue, the duodenal juices caused a rapid increase in the amount of hydrolysed polypeptide bonds. The antihypertensive and antioxidative activities of the hydrolysates of carp muscle tissue increased together with progressive protein degradation. However, the high degree of protein hydrolysis does not favour an increase in the activity of free radical scavenging. The presented results are an example of the first preliminary screening of the potential health-promoting biological activity of carp muscle tissue in an ex vivo study.
    Food & Function 01/2015; 6(1):211-218.
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    ABSTRACT: Ursolic acid (UA), a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid carboxylic acid, is a ubiquitous compound widely distributed in many plants, fruits and medicinal herbs worldwide. A previous study in our laboratory has shown that UA can increase the mitochondrial ATP generation capacity (ATP-GC) and a glutathione-dependent antioxidant response, thereby protecting against oxidant injury in H9c2 cells in vitro and rat hearts ex vivo. However, the mechanism underlying the cellular protective effects induced by UA remains largely unknown. The present study has shown that pre-incubation with UA produces a transient increase in the mitochondrial membrane potential in H9c2 cells, which was accompanied by increases in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Studies using an antioxidant (dimethylthiourea) indicated that the suppression of mitochondrial ROS completely abrogated the UA-induced enhancement of mitochondrial uncoupling and glutathione reductase (GR)-mediated glutathione redox cycling, as well as protection against menadione cytotoxicity in H9c2 cells. Co-incubation with specific inhibitors of uncoupling proteins and GR almost completely prevented the cytoprotection afforded by UA against menadione-induced cytotoxicity in H9c2 cells. The results obtained so far suggest that UA-induced mitochondrial ROS production can elicit mitochondrial uncoupling and glutathione-dependent antioxidant responses, which offer cytoprotection against oxidant injury in H9c2 cells.
    Food & Function 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Protection of asiatic acid (AA) in mice brain against d-galactose (DG) induced aging was examined. AA at 5, 10 or 20 mg kg(-1) per day was supplied to DG treated mice for 8 weeks. AA intake at 10 or 20 mg kg(-1) per day increased its deposit in brain. DG treatment increased Bax, cleaved caspase-3 protein expression and decreased Bcl-2 expression. AA intake at 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) per day declined Bax, cleaved caspase-3 expression, and retained Bcl-2 expression. DG treatment decreased brain glutathione content and glutathione peroxidase activity; increased brain reactive oxygen species and protein carbonyl levels, and enhanced NAPDH oxidase expression. AA intake at test doses reversed these changes. DG treatment up-regulated the expression of advanced glycation end product (AGE), carboxymethyllysine, receptor of AGE (RAGE), mitogen-activated protein kinases and CD11b as well as increasing the interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha release in the brain. AA intake at 5, 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) per day lowered AGE and carboxymethyllysine expression, and at 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) per day reduced RAGE production. AA intake dose-dependently suppressed p-p38 expression and lowered IL-6 and TNF-alpha levels, and at 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) per day down-regulated p-JNK and CD11b expression. DG treatment declined brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) expression and raised glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression. AA intake at 20 mg kg(-1) per day retained BDNF expression and at 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) per day reduced GFAP expression. These findings indicated that the supplement of asiatic acid might be beneficial to the prevention or alleviation of brain aging.
    Food & Function 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) is used as a means to regulate post-prandial serum glucose in type 2 diabetics. The effect of drug (Sitagliptin®)/peptide and binary peptide mixtures on DPP-IV inhibition was studied using an isobole approach. Five peptides (Ile-Pro-Ile-Gln-Tyr, Trp-Lys, Trp-Pro, Trp-Arg and Trp-Leu), having DPP-IV half maximum inhibitory concentration values (IC50) < 60 μM and reported to act through different inhibition mechanisms, were investigated. The dose response relationship of Sitagliptin : peptide (1 : 0, 0 : 1, 1 : 852, 1 : 426 and 1 : 1704 on a molar basis) and binary Ile-Pro-Ile-Gln-Tyr : peptide (1 : 0, 0 : 1, 1 : 1, 1 : 2 and 2 : 1 on a molar basis) mixtures for DPP-IV inhibition was characterised. Isobolographic analysis showed, in most instances, an additive effect on DPP-IV inhibition. However, a synergistic effect was observed with two Sitagliptin : Ile-Pro-Ile-Gln-Tyr (1 : 426 and 1 : 852) mixtures and an antagonistic effect was seen with one Sitagliptin : Trp-Pro (1 : 852) mixture, and three binary peptide mixtures (Ile-Pro-Ile-Gln-Tyr : Trp-Lys (1 : 1 and 2 : 1) and Ile-Pro-Ile-Gln-Tyr : Trp-Leu (1 : 2)). The results show that Sitagliptin and food protein-derived peptides can interact, thereby enhancing overall DPP-IV inhibition. Combination of Sitagliptin with food protein-derived peptides may help in reducing drug dosage and possible associated side-effects.
    Food & Function 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate the effects of Compound Ginkgo biloba (CGB) on alterations in intestinal permeability and inflammation caused by endotoxin in chronic alcohol-induced liver injury. CGB was prepared by Ginkgo biloba extract and Rosa roxburghii in a 1 : 1 proportion. Rats were divided into four groups: control, ethanol, high-dosage CGB (0.6 g kg(-1) d(-1)) and low-dosage CGB (0.2 g kg(-1) d(-1)) group. Rats in the control group ingested a Lieber-DeCarli control liquid diet, while rats in the ethanol and CGB-treated groups ingested a Lieber-DeCarli alcohol liquid diet for eight weeks. CGB was orally administered from the beginning of the third week until the end of the experiment. CGB was observed to significantly reduce the activities of serum ALT, AST, diamine oxidase (DAO) as well as levels of serum TG, d-lactic acid and plasma endotoxin in rats fed with Lieber-DeCarli ethanol liquid. Further, the hepatic steatosis was improved and the damage to intestinal tight junctions was also relieved effectively after CGB administration. Moreover, CGB significantly downregulated the expressions of TNF-α, lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), CD14 and TLR4 in the liver and upregulated the expressions of tight junction proteins including ZO-1, occludin and claudin-1. In summary, this study demonstrated that CGB alleviated alcohol-induced liver injury and hepatic lipopolysaccharide signaling as well as gut barrier dysfunction through restoring tight junctions.
    Food & Function 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This study was carried out to isolate ingredients from the seeds of a Chinese spice (Alpinia galangal) and to evaluate their cytotoxic activity on cancer cell lines. Isolation and purification of the phytochemical constituents were conducted using silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and ODS columns. After extraction using 95% ethanol, the total extracts were re-extracted, resulting in petroleum ether (PE), ethyl acetate (EA) and water fractions, respectively. Activity tests showed that the EA fraction exhibited obvious (p < 0.05) protective effects on H2O2 damaged PC-12 cells at 20 μg mL(-1), and showed much higher (p < 0.05) cytotoxic activity on cancer cell lines than other fractions. Five compounds, 1'-S-1'-acetoxyeugenol acetate (), 1'-S-1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (), 2-propenal, 3-[4-(acetyloxy)-3-methoxyphenyl] (), isocoronarin D () and caryolane-1, 9β-diol (), were obtained from the EA fraction and identified by HPLC, UV, MS, and NMR spectroscopic analyses. Compounds and were isolated from A. galangal for the first time. Moreover, compounds , , and were the main active ingredients for inducing death of the tested cancer cells, and their IC50 values ranged from 60 to 90 μg mL(-1), indicating that these compounds possessed a wide anti-cancer capability. Therefore, A. galangal seeds could be a potential source of healthy food for tumor prevention.
    Food & Function 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We have identified a range of food phytochemicals that inhibit Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2) and Adenosine Monophosphate Kinase (AMPK). A mutated and dysregulated form of JAK2, a tyrosine kinase, is associated with several diseases including Crohn's disease. Using an in vitro, time-resolved fluorescence (TR-FRET) assay, we tested 49 different types of food extracts, plus 10 concentrated fractions of increasing hydrophobicity from each extract, to find foods containing JAK2 inhibitors. The food extracts tested included grains, meat, fish, shellfish, dairy products, herbs, mushrooms, hops, fruits and vegetables. Several fruits were potent inhibitors of JAK2: blackberry, boysenberry, feijoa, pomegranate, rosehip and strawberry, which all contain ellagitannins, known inhibitors of kinases. These fruits are in the Rosales and Myrtales plant orders. No other foods gave >1% of the maximal JAK2 inhibitory activities of these fruits. AMPK, a sensor and regulator of energy metabolism in cells, is a serine-threonine kinase which is reported to be activated by various flavonoid phytochemicals. Using a TR-FRET assay, we tested various fruit extracts for AMPK activation and inhibition. Ellagitannin containing foods scored highly as AMPK inhibitors. Despite several reports of AMPK activation in whole cells by phytochemicals, no extracts or pure compounds activated AMPK in our assay.
    Food & Function 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Coronary artery spasm plays an important role in the pathogenesis of various ischemic heart diseases or serious arrhythmia. The aim of this study is to look for functional foods which have physiologically active substances preventing 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-related vasospastic diseases including peri- and postoperative ischemic complications of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) from ocean resources in Japanese coastal waters. First, we evaluated the effect of water-soluble ocean resource extracts on the response to 5-HT in HEK293 cells which have forcibly expressed cyan fluorescent protein-fused 5-HT2A receptors (5-HT2A-CFP). Among 5 different water-soluble extracts of ocean resources, the crude water-soluble jack-knife prawn extract (WJPE) significantly reduced maximal Ca(2+) influx induced by 0.1 μM 5-HT in a concentration-dependent manner. The Crude WJPE significantly inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, 5-HT-induced constriction of human saphenous vein. 5-HT released from activated platelets plays a crucial roles in the constriction of coronary artery. Next the WJPE was purified for applying the experiment of 5-HT-induced human platelet aggregation. The purified WJPE significantly inhibited 5-HT-induced human platelet aggregation also in a concentration-dependent manner. Based on our findings, jack-knife prawn could be one of a functional food with health-promoting benefits for most people with vasospastic diseases including patients who have gone CABG.
    Food & Function 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The use of natural compounds as antiglycative agent to reduce the load of advanced glycation end products from diet is very promising. Olive mill wastewater is a by-product of the olive oil extraction processes with high content of hydroxytyrosol, hydroxytyrosol derivatives and molecules containing o-dihydroxyl functions such as the verbascoside. Two powders were obtained after ultrafiltration and nanofiltration of olive mill wastewater, and successive spray drying with maltodextrin and acacia fiber. Samples were characterized by phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity. Antiglycative capacity was evaluated by in vitro BSA-glucose and BSA-methylglyoxal assays, formation of Amadori products and direct trapping of reactive dicarbonyls (methylglyoxal and glyoxal). Both ultrafiltrated and nanofiltrated olive mill wastewater powders had an activity comparable to quercetin and hydroxytyrosol against inhibition of protein glycation (IC50 = 0.3 mg mL-1). The antiglycative activity of the powder was further investigated after separation by reverse phase solid extraction. Fractions extracted with methanol content higher than 40% and rich in hydroxytyrosol and verbascoside, exerted the highest reactivity against dicarbonyls. Data confirmed that direct trapping of dicarbonyl compounds is a main route explaining the antiglycative action rather than of the already known antioxidant capacity. Results support further investigations to evaluate the technological feasibility to use olive mill wastewater powders as antiglycative ingredient in foods or in pharmacological preparations in future.
    Food & Function 12/2014;