Equine Veterinary Journal (EQUINE VET J )

Publisher: British Equine Veterinary Association

Description

This unrivalled international scientific journal was first published in 1968 when there were four issues each year. It now appears bi-monthly with around 88 pages per issue containing articles with original and potentially important findings. Contributions are received from sources worldwide, including North America, Europe and Australia. EVJ has also produced a number of Special Issues, which generally appear as an additional 7th issue devoted to a specific topic, including Immunology, Colic, Evidence-Based Medicine and Laminitis. These extra journals are distributed free to all subscribers, and are available to purchase from the EVJ Online Bookshop. All papers published in the journal are subjected to peer review and once articles have been accepted for publication they should appear in the journal within six to eight months. They present new developments in research being carried out by universities, veterinary schools and institutes devoted to equine and/or comparative physiology, pathology, medicine or surgery and from workers in practice. The journal strives to publish clinically orientated work and categorises articles into General Articles, Clinical Evidence Articles, Short Communications, Case Reports and Review Articles. General Articles are often accompanied by an Editorial Leader which gives the reader a further insight into a particular topic and provides further reference information. The Clinical Evidence category was introduced in 2003, for articles in which the objective is to answer questions of clinical importance in a controlled manner based on data obtainable in practice.

  • Impact factor
    2.29
  • 5-year impact
    2.19
  • Cited half-life
    0.00
  • Immediacy index
    1.06
  • Eigenfactor
    0.01
  • Article influence
    0.43
  • Website
    Equine Veterinary Journal website
  • ISSN
    2042-3306
  • OCLC
    225017606
  • Material type
    Periodical
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • Equine Veterinary Journal 11/2014; 46(6).
  • Equine Veterinary Journal 11/2014; 46(6).
  • Equine Veterinary Journal 11/2014; 46(6).
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    ABSTRACT: Relatively few journals publish their annual acceptance rate, although this figure is of scientific and academic interest.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Lamellar perfusion is thought to be affected by weight bearing and limb load cycling; this may be critical in the development of supporting limb laminitis.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Lungeing is often part of the clinical lameness examination. The difference in movement symmetry - a commonly employed lameness measure - has not been quantified between surfaces.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing the studyValidated non-invasive detection methods for early osteoarthritis (OA) are required for OA prevention and early intervention treatment strategies.Objectives To evaluate radiography and low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the detection of early stage OA osteochondral lesions in equine centrodistal joints using microscopy as the reference standard.Study designProspective imaging of live horses and imaging and microscopy of cadaver tarsal joints.Methods Centrodistal (distal intertarsal) joints of 38 Icelandic research horses aged 27 to 29 months were radiographed. Horses were euthanased approximately 2 months later and cadaver joints examined with low-field MRI. Osteochondral joint specimens were classified as negative or positive for OA using light microscopy histology or scanning electron microscopy. Radiographs and MRIs were evaluated for osteochondral lesions and results compared to microscopy.ResultsForty-two joints were classified OA positive with microscopy. Associations were detected between microscopic OA and the radiography lesion categories; mineralisation front defect (P<0.0001), joint margin lesion (P<0.0001), central osteophyte (P = 0.03) and the low-field MRI lesion categories; mineralisation front defect (P = 0.01), joint margin lesion (P = 0.02), articular cartilage lesion (P = 0.0003). The most frequent lesion category detected in microscopic OA positive joints was the mineralisation front defect in radiographs (28/42 OA positive joints, specificity 97%, sensitivity 67%). No significant differences were detected between the sensitivity and specificity of radiography and low-field MRI pooled lesion categories but radiography was often superior when individual lesion categories were compared.Conclusions Early stage centrodistal joint OA changes may be detected with radiography and low-field MRI. Detection of mineralisation front defects in radiographs may be a useful screening method for detection of early OA in centrodistal joints of young Icelandic horses.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Reason for performing studyRecent studies indicate a high prevalence of fractures of the palmar processes of the distal phalanx in foals. However, information on the prevalence of such fractures in different breeds and the effect of predisposing factors such as hoof conformation is limited.Objectives To examine the prevalence of distal phalanx palmar process (PP) fractures in foals and report the relationship between distal limb and hoof conformation to the prevalence of fracture.Study designLongitudinal study.Methods Front hooves of 19 Thoroughbred (TB), Quarter Horse (QH) and Arabian (A) foals were examined. Digital radiographic and photographic images of the distal aspect of the forelimbs were taken at approximately 2.5 month intervals. Five radiographic projections of each limb included: lateromedial (LM); horizontal beam dorsopalmar (DP); dorso60°proximal-palmarodistal oblique (Dr60Pr-PaDiO); dorso60°proximo45°lateral-palmarodistomedial oblique (Dr60Pr45L-PaDiMO); and dorso60°proximo45°medial-palmarodistolateral oblique (Dr60Pr45M-PaDiLO). The relationship between measurements and the prevalence of fractures was assessed by three-way ANOVA.ResultsFractures were found in 74% (n = 14) of the foals during the study period. Prevalence of lateral palmar process (LPP) and medial palmar process (MPP) were not significantly different. Several hoof measurements were associated with PP fractures. Larger dorsal length of the distal phalanx was associated with MPP fractures; while smaller lateral angle and shorter lateral palmar length were associated with a higher prevalence of LPP fractures.Conclusions This study revealed a high prevalence of PP fractures in young foals, particularly in TB foals. The hoof conformation may be one of the contributing factors to PP fractures in foals.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing studyKnowledge of the site distribution of ligamentous injuries facilitates clinical diagnosis of suspensory apparatus conditions.Objective To determine if lesions within the suspensory ligament (SL) and distal ligaments of the proximal sesamoid bones (DSLs) were associated with suspensory apparatus failure or metacarpal lateral condylar fracture in California Thoroughbred racehorses.Study designCross-sectional study.Methods Suspensory apparatus specimens from 327 deceased Thoroughbred racehorses were sectioned within the SL body and branches, and oblique and straight DSLs. Purple lesions ≥2 mm in width were categorised as moderate and paler or smaller lesions as mild. Associations between moderate lesions and age, sex, racetrack, and cause of death were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression.ResultsModerate lesions were evident in 16%, and milder lesions in 77% of racehorses. Moderate lesions occurred with similar frequency in SL branches and oblique DSLs. Moderate lesions were more likely to occur in horses that died as a result of suspensory apparatus failure (OR 4.60; 95% CI 1.61-13.13; and p = 0.004) or metacarpal lateral condylar fracture (OR 5.05; 95% CI 1.42-17.93; and p = 0.012) compared with horses that died from non-musculoskeletal causes, and in ≥7-year-old horses compared with 2-year-old horses (OR 5.33; 95% CI 1.44-19.75; and p = 0.012).Conclusions Moderate lesions are common in the SL branches and oblique DSLs of racehorses, and may be associated with risk for suspensory apparatus failure and metacarpal condylar fracture. Monitoring health of the suspensory apparatus ligamentous structures may be a simple means of assessing fatigue in, and preventing more extensive injuries to, the forelimb suspensory apparatus and metacarpal condyles.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing studyExercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH) occurs commonly in Thoroughbred racehorses worldwide. While EIPH is believed to be an important cause of impaired performance in these horses, there is limited evidence from sufficiently powered studies to evaluate this association.Objective To evaluate whether EIPH is associated with finishing position, distance finished behind race winners, and differences in race earning among Thoroughbred horses racing in South Africa.Study designProspective cross-sectional study.Methods1,000 Thoroughbred horses racing in South Africa were enrolled prior to a single race and underwent tracheobronchoscopic examination within 2 hours of racing. Three observers, blinded to the horses’ identity and race performance, independently evaluated EIPH occurrence and severity using video recordings of the examination. Data were analysed using multivariable logistic and linear regression while controlling for important horse and race factors as potential confounding variables.ResultsOverall, 68% of horses had evidence of EIPH (grade ≥1). Horses without evidence of EIPH (severity grade 0), when compared to horses with any evidence of EIPH (grade ≥1), were >2 times more likely to win races (OR = 2.3; 95%CI=1.4–3.7; P = 0.001), finished an average of one length ahead of horses with EIPH (P = 0.03), and were 2.5 times more likely to be in the highest decile in race earnings (OR = 2.5, 95%CI = 1.5-4.1, P<0.001). However, no association was identified regarding finishing in the top 3 positions or earning money when analysed as a continuous variable or analysed as any winnings vs. none.ConclusionsEIPH was associated with impaired performance in Thoroughbred racehorses not medicated with furosemide and not using nasal dilator strips. These findings provide strong corroboration of previous research indicating that the occurrence of EIPH has a major impact on the ability of Thoroughbred racehorses to compete successfully as elite athletes.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing studyConvincing evidence shows that persistent or excessive expression of osteopontin (OPN) is linked to fibroproliferation of various organs in laboratory animals and in man, such that its downregulation is a logical therapeutic objective.Objectives To investigate OPN expression in an equine wound healing model and in clinical specimens of equine exuberant granulation tissue (EGT) and human keloids in an effort to better understand the contribution of this protein to inflammation-associated skin fibrosis.Study designDescription of gene expression in an experimental wound healing model and clinical specimens.Methods Osteopontin gene expression was evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) while protein expression was investigated by means of immunohistochemical staining.ResultsQuantitative PCR showed that the OPN gene is expressed in normal intact skin of horses and continues to be expressed during the wound healing process. An increase in gene expression was observed throughout the phases of wound healing with a final decrease at wound closure. Osteopontin was not detected in normal skin. Keratinocytes of wound edge samples did not express the protein while dermal immunoreactivity was confined to inflammatory cells. Healed wounds were devoid of staining. Equine EGT samples showed immunoreactivity of the surrounding epidermis, infiltrating neutrophils, mononuclear cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts. Human keloids showed OPN immunoreactivity throughout the epidermis as well as in mononuclear cells and scattered fibroblasts.Conclusion Immunohistochemical data show a different pattern of expression between experimental and fibrotic wounds (EGT and keloids) thus suggesting a role in fibroproliferation in horses and humans.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing studyHoof conformation, foot placement and movement asymmetry are routinely assessed as part of the lameness examination. However, to date, few studies have described these parameters, nor the interplay between them, in the general horse population.Objectives To assess foot conformation and foot placement in the forelimbs of a group of general purpose horses and investigate the relationships between foot placement, foot conformation and movement asymmetry.Study designObservational cross-sectional study.Methods Forty-three horses were included in the study. Measurements were taken from photographs of each forelimb to assess foot conformation. Video footage was recorded simultaneously from perpendicular cameras at both walk and trot and used to categorise foot placement. Inertial sensor data was used to assess head movement asymmetry in trot.ResultsThere was a high degree of variation in foot placement between and within horses, but a ‘lateral heel’ placement was most common in walk and a ‘lateral’ placement most common in trot. Foot placement was associated with dorsal and palmar hoof angles but there was no relationship between foot placement and the other conformation parameters, nor with movement asymmetry. Moderate negative correlations were found between several of the conformation parameters and movement asymmetry.ConclusionsA relationship exists between foot conformation and movement asymmetry with decreasing hoof width and hoof length related to increasing amount of movement asymmetry. In the population of horses studied here –deemed to be ‘well functioning’ by their owners/riders – foot placement was found to be independent of movement asymmetry and to a large extent, independent of foot conformation.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing studyCommercial IgE-based tests are available for diagnosis of food allergies and are commonly used in equine practice. However, these tests have been proven unreliable as a screening method in humans and other species, but not critically evaluated in equines. Therefore, a commercially available IgE-based test for horses was evaluated.Objectives To evaluate the consistency of the results obtained with a commercially available IgE-based test for food allergy diagnosis in ponies (Phase I) and to subject ponies to a provocation trial with the presumed allergens (Phase II).Study DesignAllergen screening followed by experimental food provocation trials in healthy ponies.Methods Blood samples of 17 healthy Shetland ponies were taken at 2 different time points, sent blinded to a commercial lab for screening of common food allergens and the results were evaluated for consistency (Phase I). Ponies that were positive for food allergens were consecutively challenged orally with each allergen separately for 14 days (Phase II). A washout period of one week was applied in ponies with multiple positive results. Clinical parameters and serum amyloid A were monitored during the provocation trial.ResultsOnly 7/17 ponies were negative on the IgE-based test at the 2 time points, 3 had positive results twice but only one tested positive twice for the same food allergen. No abnormalities were noted during the provocation trials.Conclusions This study demonstrated that this IgE-based test is not a reliable screening tool for food allergy in healthy equines.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing the studyFurosemide is the most commonly used medication for exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH), however, critical evaluation of the strength of evidence for efficacy of furosemide is lacking and is warranted so that evidence based treatment decisions can be made.Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of furosemide to reduce the severity or frequency of detection of EIPH in Thoroughbred racehorses.Study designSystematic review with meta-analysis.Methods Primary studies were identified via searches of electronic databases, relevant texts and reference lists of published articles. Studies were not restricted by date or publication status. Only studies published in English were eligible for inclusion. Searches were performed using a predetermined search string. Randomised controlled trials and non randomised trials were included. Three authors independently assessed each study using the Cochrane collaboration guidelines and GRADE recommendations of rating quality of evidence. Meta-analysis of studies was performed with pooled data to determine if furosemide reduced the frequency of detection of EIPH (yes or no) as evaluated by tracheobronchoscopy or bronchoalveolar RBC number, or if furosemide reduced the severity of EIPH by at least one tracheobronchoscopic grade.ResultsSeventeen studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The relative risk (RR) of detecting any EIPH by tracheobronchoscopy after administration of furosemide was 0.88 (pooled data from 11 studies, n = 5780; 95% CI 0.79 – 0.97, p = 0.01). When data from only high quality RCTs (2 studies, n = 405) were used, the RR of detecting endoscopically evident EIPH was 0.69 (95% CI 0.61 – 0.76, p<0.001). The proportion of horses previously diagnosed with EIPH having a reduction of at least one EIPH grade after furosemide was 0.68 (2 studies, n = 405; 95% CI 61 – 76%).Conclusions There is high quality evidence, albeit limited, that administration of furosemide reduces the incidence and severity of EIPH in Thoroughbred or Standardbred racehorses.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing studyEquine embryos are cryopreserved by slow-freezing or vitrification. While small embryos (<300 μm) survive cryopreservation reasonably well, larger embryos do not. It is not clear if slow-freezing or vitrification is less damaging to horse embryos.Objectives To compare the type and extent of cellular damage suffered by small and large embryos during cryopreservation by slow-freezing versus vitrification.Study designSixty-three Day 6.5-7 embryos were sub-divided by size and assigned to one of 5 treatments: control, exposure to slow-freezing or vitrification cryoprotectants (CPs), and cryopreservation by either technique.Methods After thawing/CP removal, embryos were stained with fluorescent stains for various parameters of cellular integrity, and assessed by multiphoton microscopy.ResultsExposing large embryos to vitrification CPs resulted in more dead cells (6.8 ± 1.3%: 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.1-10.4%) than exposure to slow-freezing media (0.3 ± 0.1%; 95% CI, 0.0-0.6%: P = 0.001. Cryopreservation by either technique induced cell death and cytoskeleton disruption. Vitrification of small embryos resulted in a higher proportion of cells with fragmented or condensed (apoptotic) nuclei (P = 0.002) than slow-freezing (6.7 ± 1.5%, CI 3.0-10.4% versus 5.0 ± 2.1%, CI -4.0-14.0%). Slow-freezing resulted in a higher incidence of disintegrated embryos (P = 0.01) than vitrification. Mitochondrial activity was low in control embryos, and was not differentially affected by cryopreservation technique, whereas vitrification changed mitochondrial distribution from homogenous crystalline distribution in control embryos to heterogeneous granulated distribution in vitrified embryos (P = 0.05).Conclusion Cryopreservation caused more cellular damage to large embryos than smaller ones. While vitrification is more practical, it is not advisable for large embryos due to a higher incidence of dead cells. The choice is less obvious for small embryos, as vitrification led to occasionally very high percentages of dead or damaged cells, but a lower incidence of embryo disintegration, Modifications that reduce the level of cellular damage induced by vitrification are required before it can be considered the method of choice for cryopreserving equine embryos.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing studyTraditionally, equine parasite control has relied heavily on frequent routine anthelmintic treatments applied with regular intervals year-round. However, current recommendations aim at employing a more surveillance-based approach. It remains unknown to which extent these recommendations are being implemented on US horse farms.Objectives To describe equine parasite control on Kentucky Thoroughbred farms and evaluate respondents’ willingness to pay for various attributes of surveillance-based parasite control strategies.Study designQuestionnaire survey performed among the membership of the Kentucky Thoroughbred Farm Managers’ Club.Methods The survey collected demographic data and information about current parasite control strategies. Further, respondents were asked to choose between hypothetical parasite control strategies described with a combination of different attributes: costs, time efforts needed, hypothetical disease risk levels, and hypothetical risks of anthelmintic resistance. Data were analysed with multivariable logistic analysis.ResultsAbout 26% responded to the survey (N = 112). Most respondents were concerned about anthelmintic resistance and incorporated veterinary advice in defining their deworming program. However, almost 70% were following a traditional rotational deworming program with little or no faecal surveillance. Respondents were willing to pay a premium for a product for which there is no known anthelmintic resistance and provided the highest possible decrease in health risks. The number of young horses on the farm, utilisation of veterinarian advice in developing a deworming program, concern about drug resistance in parasites, and having documented drug resistance on the farm all associated significantly with the type of parasite control program used.Conclusions Traditional approaches for equine parasite control are still widely used in the Kentucky Thoroughbred industry. The data suggest that respondents were only willing to make these changes if they could be provided assurance that the surveillance-based approach would prevent anthelmintic resistance and decrease health risks significantly for the horses.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Reason for Performing StudyTramadol is an analgesic agent used in humans and a number of veterinary species. The pharmacokinetics and behavioural effects of tramadol and its active metabolite have been described in adult horses, but not in young foals.Objectives To characterise the pharmacokinetics, metabolism and some induced behavioural and physiologic responses following i.v. tramadol administration in the same group of foals on 4 different occasions, from a few days after birth to 43 days of age.Study DesignExperimental.Methods Tramadol was administered intravenously (3 mg/kg bwt) to a group of 8 foals on 4 separate occasions at 6-8, 13-15, 20-22 and 40-43 days of age. Blood samples were collected prior to administration and at multiple times until 48 h post administration. Blood samples were analysed for tramadol and metabolite concentrations and pharmacokinetics determined at each age. Behavioural and physiologic effects were also assessed.ResultsThe average volume of distribution was 5.10, 4.63, 4.02 and 3.84 L/kg and clearance 3.44, 3.08 and 3.14 and 2.69 L/h/kg when foals were 6-8, 13-15, 20-22 and 40-43 days of age, respectively. There was not a significant difference in the elimination half-life between age groups (1.52, 1.73, 113 and 1.51 for 6-8, 13-15, 20-22 and 40-43 days of age, respectively). The metabolites produced were the same as in adult horses, however, glucuronidation capabilities, appeared to increase with increasing age. Tramadol administration was well tolerated at all ages studied with sedation noted in the older 3 age groups.Conclusions Tramadol appears to be consistently well-tolerated following intravenous administration of 3 mg/kg bwt to foals ranging in age from 1-6 weeks. Although analgesic concentrations in foals have yet to be established, the results of this study support further study of tramadol for clinical use in foals.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing studyShortening of atrial fibrillation cycle length (AFCL) is a marker of atrial electrical remodelling due to atrial fibrillation (AF).Objectives To investigate the effect of detomidine administration on AFCL measured invasively from an intra-atrial electrogram (AFCLEGM) and non-invasively by tissue Doppler imaging (AFCLTDI). We hypothesised that detomidine would have no effect on AFCL but would improve the ease of TDI measurements and facilitate non-invasive AFCL determination.Study designProspective clinical study.Methods Measurements were performed before and after intravenous administration of 7.5 μg/kg detomidine in 33 episodes of AF in 32 horses (582 ± 64 kg, 10 ± 3 years) referred for electrical cardioversion. AFCLEGM was measured from a right atrial intra-cardiac electrogram. AFCLTDI was measured from atrial colour tissue velocity curves in 5 atrial wall regions. Mean AFCLEGM and AFCLTDI without and with sedation were compared using a repeated measures linear mixed model with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons and calculation of the Bland-Altman mean bias and limits of agreement between AFCLEGM and AFCLTDI.ResultsThe mean AFCL was significantly increased after sedation, however, this increase was very small (mean difference +4 ms). For AFCLTDI measurements, sedation significantly improved the quality of the atrial myocardial velocity curves and the number of AF cycles that could be measured per cardiac cycle. The Bland-Altman bias between AFCLEGM without sedation and AFCLTDI with sedation ranged from –18 ms to +15 ms depending on wall region. Bland-Altman limits of agreement were similar between AFCLEGM without sedation and AFCLTDI without and with sedation. Therefore, non-invasive AFCLTDI measurements with sedation can be used to estimate the atrial fibrillatory rate.Conclusions Sedation facilitates non-invasive AFCL measurements but causes a slight increase in AFCL. Non-invasive AFCL measurements can be used as an indicator of atrial electrical remodelling, to study AF pathophysiology and to investigate the effect of anti-arrhythmic drugs.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 09/2014;
  • Equine Veterinary Journal 09/2014; 46(5).