Equine Veterinary Journal Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: British Equine Veterinary Association, Wiley

Journal description

This unrivalled international scientific journal was first published in 1968 when there were four issues each year. It now appears bi-monthly with around 88 pages per issue containing articles with original and potentially important findings. Contributions are received from sources worldwide, including North America, Europe and Australia. EVJ has also produced a number of Special Issues, which generally appear as an additional 7th issue devoted to a specific topic, including Immunology, Colic, Evidence-Based Medicine and Laminitis. These extra journals are distributed free to all subscribers, and are available to purchase from the EVJ Online Bookshop. All papers published in the journal are subjected to peer review and once articles have been accepted for publication they should appear in the journal within six to eight months. They present new developments in research being carried out by universities, veterinary schools and institutes devoted to equine and/or comparative physiology, pathology, medicine or surgery and from workers in practice. The journal strives to publish clinically orientated work and categorises articles into General Articles, Clinical Evidence Articles, Short Communications, Case Reports and Review Articles. General Articles are often accompanied by an Editorial Leader which gives the reader a further insight into a particular topic and provides further reference information. The Clinical Evidence category was introduced in 2003, for articles in which the objective is to answer questions of clinical importance in a controlled manner based on data obtainable in practice.

Current impact factor: 2.37

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 2.369
2012 Impact Factor 2.286
2011 Impact Factor 1.456
2010 Impact Factor 1.799
2009 Impact Factor 1.837
2008 Impact Factor 2.08
2007 Impact Factor 1.607
2006 Impact Factor 1.73
2005 Impact Factor 1.317
2004 Impact Factor 1.44
2003 Impact Factor 1.496
2002 Impact Factor 1.256
2001 Impact Factor 1.816
2000 Impact Factor 1.479
1999 Impact Factor 1.411
1998 Impact Factor 1.329
1997 Impact Factor 1.58

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.19
Cited half-life 0.00
Immediacy index 1.06
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.43
Website Equine Veterinary Journal website
ISSN 2042-3306
OCLC 225017606
Material type Periodical
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details


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    • Author can archive a pre-print version
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    • 12 months embargo
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    • If OnlineOpen is available, BBSRC, EPSRC, MRC, NERC and STFC authors, may self-archive after 12 months
    • If OnlineOpen is available, AHRC and ESRC authors, may self-archive after 24 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 07/08/2014
    • This policy is an exception to the default policies of 'Wiley'
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • Equine Veterinary Journal 09/2015; 47(5). DOI:10.1111/evj.12468
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    ABSTRACT: Outcomes associated with after arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint in Quarter Horses used for Western performance activities are well documented, little is known regarding outcomes for other types of horses. To identify factors associated with outcomes, including breed and activity, after arthrodesis of the PIP joint in Warmbloods, Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses. Retrospective case series. Surgical case records of 82 Quarter Horses principally engaged in Western performance and Thoroughbred or Warmblood breeds principally engaged in showing, showjumping and dressage, with arthrodesis of the PIP joint were reviewed. Arthrodesis was performed with either 3 transarticular cortex bone screws placed in lag fashion, a dynamic compression plate (DCP) with 2 transarticular cortex bone screws placed in lag fashion, or a locking compression plate (LCP) with 2 transarticular cortex bone screws placed in lag fashion. Demographic data, clinical presentation, radiographic findings, surgical technique, post-operative treatment, and complications were recorded. Long-term follow up was obtained for all 82 horses. Osteoarthritis of the PIP joint was the most common presenting condition requiring arthrodesis, which was performed with either the 3-screw technique (n = 41), DCP fixation (n = 22), or LCP fixation (n = 19). Post-operatively, 23/31 (74%) Warmbloods/Thoroughbreds and 44/51 (87%) Quarter Horses achieved successful outcomes. Thirteen of 23 (57%) Warmbloods/Thoroughbreds and 24 of 38 (63%) Quarter Horses, used for athletic performance, returned to successful competition. Within this sub-group of horses engaged in high-level activity, regardless of breed type, horses undergoing hindlimb arthrodesis were significantly more likely to return to successful competition (73%; 33/45) than those with forelimb arthrodesis (25%; 4/16, P = 0.002). Arthrodesis of the PIP joint in Warmbloods/Thourghbreds and Quarter Horses results in a favourable outcome for return to their intended use and athletic competition. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 08/2015; DOI:10.1111/evj.12503
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing studyRecommendations for prophylactic vaccination against tetanus in horses vary greatly between countries and have scarce scientific support in the peer-reviewed literature. In human medicine, recommended booster vaccination intervals are also very variable, but are considerably longer than for horses. More information is needed about the duration of immunity induced by modern vaccines.Objectives To investigate if the duration of antibody titres previously determined to be protective against tetanus differ from what is indicated by recommended vaccination intervals for horses.Study designProspective seroconversion study.Methods Thirty-four horses were enrolled for basic immunisation with an ISCOM Matrix-combination vaccine (Equilis® Prequenza Te). Horses received the first vaccination at 5-11 months of age, and the second dose 4 weeks later. A third vaccine dose was given 15-17 months after the second dose. Serum tetanus antibody titres were analysed by ToBi ELISA 2 weeks as well as 14-16 months after the second dose. After the third vaccine dose, titres were checked once yearly for 3 years. Results were described by age and level of antibody titre at first sampling.ResultsTwo weeks after the second dose all horses (34/34) had antibody levels that exceeded the limit of detection, 0.04 IU/ml. After 16 months the levels were above 0.04 IU/ml in 28/33 horses, the remaining 5 horses potentially had suboptimal protection against tetanus. After the third vaccine dose antibody levels remained above 0.04 IU/ml in 25/26 horses for one year, 16/16 horses for 2 years, and 8/8 horses for 3 years.Conclusions Horses that undergo basic immunisation with 3 doses of vaccine after the age of 5 months are likely to have serum antibody titres consistent with protection against tetanus for more than 3 years. Current guidelines for tetanus prophylaxis should be revised.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 08/2015; DOI:10.1111/evj.12502
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    ABSTRACT: Knowledge of imaging anatomy, surgical anatomy and disorders affecting the sphenopalatine sinus are currently lacking. To describe the computed tomographic (CT) and surgical anatomy of the sphenopalatine sinus and to describe the diagnosis, treatment and outcome in clinical cases with sphenopalatine sinus disease. Cadaver observational study and retrospective case series. The sphenopalatine sinuses of 10 normal cadaver heads were examined with digital radiography, CT and sinoscopic examination, prior to anatomical sectioning. Sphenopalatine sinus anatomy was described and compared between cadaver specimens across the imaging modalities. Medical records (January 2004 - January 2014) of cases diagnosed with sphenopalatine sinus disease were reviewed. The anatomy of the sphenopalatine sinus was variable. The borders of the sphenopalatine sinus were not identifiable on plain radiographs, whereas CT provided useful anatomical information. The palatine portion of the sphenopalatine sinus was consistently accessible sinoscopically and the sphenoidal portion was accessible in 6/10 cadaver heads. Fourteen cases of sphenopalatine sinus disease were identified, presenting with one or more clinical signs of exophthalmos, blindness, unilateral epistaxis or unilateral nasal discharge. Diagnoses included neoplasia (7), progressive ethmoidal haematoma (4), sinus cyst (2) and empyema (1). CT provided diagnostic information but could not differentiate the nature of soft tissue masses. Standing sinoscopic access to the palatine portion of the sphenopalatine sinus was possible for evaluation, biopsy and resection of abnormal soft tissues. Surgical access to the sphenoidal portion was limited. Eight horses were alive at one year after diagnosis, with a worse outcome associated with CT evidence of bone loss and a diagnosis of neoplasia. Sphenopalatine sinus disease should be considered a rare cause of the clinical signs described. Knowledge of the anatomical variation of the sphenopalatine sinus is vital for interpreting CT images. A combination of CT and sinoscopy provides the most comprehensive approach for diagnosis and treatment of sphenopalatine sinus disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 08/2015; DOI:10.1111/evj.12492
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing studyEquine Viral Arteritis (EVA), a disease caused by infection with the equine arteritis virus (EAV), is present in many European countries. In Spain, the last confirmed outbreak was reported in 1992 and there is a paucity of seroprevalence studies. The disease has a major impact on the equine breeding industry, which is mainly represented by Spanish Purebred (SP) horses in Spain.Objectives To estimate the seroprevalence of EAV in the breeding SP horse population in central Spain, and to identify potential horse- and stud farm-level factors associated with seropositivity to EAV.Study designCross-sectional study.Methods Individual serum samples from 555 SP horses, collected between September 2011 and November 2013 at 35 stud farms, were tested using a commercially available EAV antibody ELISA and seroneutralisation as the OIE reference confirmation test for samples with positive and equivocal results. Data on factors putatively associated with seropositivity to EAV were collected via a questionnaire and examined using random-effects logistic regression for analysis of clustered data.ResultsEAV seroprevalence in the SP breeding population in central Spain standardised for the sex distribution of the reference horse population, was estimated to be 16.8% (95% confidence interval: 5.2-28.5%). Increasing numbers of breeding mares in the stud farm and increasing percentage of mares with reproductive problems during the last 12 months were identified as being positively associated with EAV seropositivity. Mares vaccinated against Equine Herpesvirus-1 and/or -4 were also positively associated with EAV seropositivity.Conclusions These findings are of importance for informing appropriate biosecurity measures for stud farms and could help facilitate the development of an EVA surveillance programme in the SP breeding horse population.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 08/2015; DOI:10.1111/evj.12500
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing studyEmptying the vasculature with an Esmarch bandage before intravenous regional anaesthesia is commonly performed in humans to prevent leakage of the solution under the tourniquet but there is no evidence for its efficacy in horses for antimicrobial intravenous regional limb perfusion (IV-RLP).Objectives To determine the effect of emptying the vasculature before performing the IV-RLP on synovial fluid concentration of amikacin.Study designCross-over experiment.Methods Eight clinically healthy horses underwent two IV-RLP with amikacin in a randomised, cross-over design. Horses received an IV RLP with amikacin with or without exsanguination before applying a pneumatic tourniquet at the level of the forearm. Blood was collected from the jugular vein (before tourniquet removal) and synovial fluid from the radiocarpal and metacarpophalangeal joints (5 min after tourniquet removal and at 24 h) for amikacin determination. The procedure was video recorded to assess horse movement.ResultsThere was no difference on amikacin concentrations in the plasma or synovial fluid from the radiocarpal joint between groups. There was higher concentration of amikacin in the synovial fluid from the metacarpophalangeal joint immediately after tourniquet removal in the group with exsanguination of the limb prior to IV-RLP (mean ± s.d. 49.7 ± 53.7 μg/mL, 257.4 ± 149.7 μg/mL, p = 0.04). Horse movement did not differ significantly between groups.Conclusions Emptying the vasculature with an Esmarch bandage before IV-RLP can improve amikacin concentrations in the metacarpophalangeal joint of horses with no effect in the levels of amikacin in the radiocarpal joint.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 08/2015; DOI:10.1111/evj.12501
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To determine the effects of hypertonic saline on cardiac measurements derived from echocardiography over a period of 90 minutes after infusion in euvolaemic and healthy horses.Study designExperimental study.Methods Five healthy conscious euvolaemic horses were infused with 5 ml/kg hypertonic saline via a jugular catheter over one hour. Immediately prior to infusion and at 0, 20, 40, 60 and 90 minutes after the completion of the infusion, echocardiographic images were obtained from the right parasternal window. The left ventricular internal diameter at end diastole (LVIDd) and left ventricular internal diameter in peak systole (LVIDs) were measured and ventricular volume measurements were calculated by the Teicholz method. Data were analysed using a mixed effects model, which included horse as a random effect. The effect of observation time was assessed accounting for correlation between observations.ResultsFractional shortening (FS) and ejection fraction (EF) increased significantly 40 minutes after completion of infusion. LVIDd, end diastolic volume (EDV) and stroke volume (SV) all followed the same pattern and were increased at 20, 40 and 60 minutes compared to pre-infusion values. There were also significant differences between the 0 and 40, 40 and 90, 60 and 90 time-points. Other parameters did not differ significantly between time-points.Conclusions Hypertonic saline increases end-diastolic and stroke volume for approximately one hour after completion of a 60 minute infusion in euvolaemic horses. This adds to the evidence available to clinicians regarding the duration of action of hypertonic saline.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 08/2015; DOI:10.1111/evj.12496
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing studyThere are no reports on the configuration of equine central tarsal bone fractures based on cross-sectional imaging and clinical and radiographic long-term outcome after internal fixation.Objectives To report clinical, radiographic and computed tomographic findings of equine central tarsal bone fractures and to evaluate the long term outcome of internal fixation.Study designRetrospective case series.Methods All horses diagnosed with a central tarsal bone fracture at our institution between 2009–2013 were included. Computed tomography and internal fixation using lag screw technique was performed in all patients. Medical records and diagnostic images were reviewed retrospectively. A clinical and radiographic follow-up examination was performed at least one year postoperatively.ResultsA central tarsal bone fracture was diagnosed in 6 horses. Five were Warmbloods using for showjumping and one was a Quarter Horse used for reining. All horses had sagittal slab fractures that began dorsally, ran in a plantar or plantaromedial direction and exited the plantar cortex at the plantar or plantaromedial indentation of the central tarsal bone. Marked sclerosis of the central tarsal bone was diagnosed in all patients. At long term follow-up, 5/6 horses were sound and used as intended although mild osteophyte formation at the distal intertarsal joint was commonly observed.Conclusions Central tarsal bone fractures in non-racehorses had a distinct configuration but radiographically subtle additional fracture lines can occur. A chronic stress related aetiology seems likely. Internal fixation of these fractures based on an accurate diagnosis of the individual fracture configuration resulted in a very good prognosis.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 08/2015; DOI:10.1111/evj.12498
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of handler position and perineural anaesthesia in sound horses need investigation to facilitate interpretation of pressure plate analysis in lame horses. To evaluate the effect of handler position and perineural anaesthesia on limb loading and particularly hoof balance in sound horses. Non-randomised crossover study. Six sound horses were walked and trotted over a pressure plate, with the handler on the left and subsequently on the right side, and finally after a bilateral low palmar digital nerve block. One week later, this procedure was repeated before and after a bilateral abaxial sesamoidean nerve block. Peak vertical force (PVF), vertical impulse (VI) and stance time (ST) of 5 hoof prints of both forelimbs were obtained (126 Hz), and toe-heel and medio-lateral hoof balance curves of the vertical force were plotted throughout stance. Limb-loading and timing data and hoof balance data (beginning, middle and end of the stance phase) were statistically compared (handler left compared to right; before compared to after low palmar digital nerve block and abaxial sesamoid nerve block; baseline at first measurement session compared to second). There were no significant effects of handler position and perineural anaesthesia on PVF, VI and ST. Hoof balance curves were not affected by handler position or perineural anaesthesia. The limb loading data and hoof balance curves were comparable for each horse over the one-week interval. Handler position and perineural anaesthesia do not have an effect on limb loading and toe-heel and medio-lateral hoof balance in sound horses, which is of fundamental importance before embarking on pressure plate analysis for lameness diagnosis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 08/2015; DOI:10.1111/evj.12491
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing studyIngestion of sycamore seeds (Acer pseudoplatanus) is the likely source of hypoglycin A in atypical myopathy (AM) but ingestion of seedlings in spring might also contribute to intoxication.Objectives To test for hypoglycin A in seeds and seedlings collected on pastures where AM cases were reported and compare its concentration in serum of affected and healthy horses.Study designField investigation of clinical cases.Methods Whenever present, samaras and/or seedlings were collected from pastures of 8 AM cases and 5 unaffected horses from different premises. Two AM cases were each co-grazing with an apparently healthy horse. Acylcarnitines and hypoglycin A were quantified in blood samples of all horses involved in the study.ResultsHypoglycin A was detected in serum of AM (5.47 ± 1.60 μmol/L) but not in healthy controls at pasturing where A. pseudoplatanus trees were not present. However, hypoglycin A was detected at high concentrations (7.98 μmol/L) in serum of a clinically healthy horse grazing a pasture with seedlings and samaras and also in the two healthy horses co-grazing with AM cases (0.43 ± 0.59 μmol/L). Hypoglycin A was detected in all samples of seeds and spring seedlings of A. pseudoplatanus.ConclusionsAM can be associated with the ingestion of sycamore samaras and also ingestion of seedlings. Hypoglycin A can be detected in the blood of horses with no detectable clinical signs at pasture in which there is A. pseudoplatanus. Determination of hypoglycin A concentration in blood is useful for screening for exposure in suspected cases of AM.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 08/2015; DOI:10.1111/evj.12499
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing the studySesamoiditis is a common radiologic finding in yearling Thoroughbreds. The condition is believed to be associated with suspensory ligament branch insertional injury (SLBI), which is known to affect racing performance. The presence of subclinical suspensory ligament branch change (SSLBC) in untrained yearlings has not been investigated. Associations between sesamoiditis, SSLBC and subsequent suspensory ligament branch injury would allow more accurate prognoses to be made regarding the development of SLBI. They could also provide opportunity for intervention and prevention of SLBI.Objectives To test our hypotheses that untrained yearling Thoroughbreds with sesamoiditis would be more likely to have ultrasonographic findings of subclinical suspensory ligament branch change (SSLBC) and those horses with concurrent sesamoiditis and SSLBC would be more likely to develop clinical suspensory ligament branch injury with training.Study designProspective, cohort, observational study.Methods Yearling Thoroughbreds located at a single training centre were evaluated at the onset of their training careers and for the next 9 months. Radiographic and ultrasonographic examination of bilateral forelimb proximal sesamoid bones and suspensory ligament branches was performed.ResultsFifty horses were eligible, resulting in 200 forelimb sesamoid/suspensory ligament branch pairs. A significant relationship existed between possibly significant sesamoiditis (PS sesamoiditis) and possibly significant suspensory change (PS SSLBC) (P<0.001). The odds ratio of sesamoids with ‘PS-Sesamoiditis’ also demonstrating concurrent PS SSLBC was 5.1 (95% CI 2.68-9.70, p<0.001).A significant relationship also existed between the concurrent presence of PS Sesamoiditis and PS SSLBC and the subsequent development of clinical signs of SLBI (p<0.001, OR 11.7, 95% CI 4.1-33.4).Conclusions The associations identified in this study highlight the importance of ultrasonographic examination of suspensory ligament branches in horses with PS sesamoiditis. This information should allow more accurate prognostic advice regarding potential SLBI development and also provide opportunities for intervention and prevention of clinical SLBI.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 08/2015; DOI:10.1111/evj.12497
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    ABSTRACT: Agreement between airway reactivity measured by flowmetric plethysmography and histamine bronchoprovocation, and lower airway inflammation measured by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytology, has not been studied in horses with suspected inflammatory airway disease (IAD). We tested the hypothesis that airway reactivity is associated with BAL cytology in horses presenting for unexplained poor performance and/or chronic cough. Prospective clinical study. Forty-five horses, predominantly young Standardbred racehorses, presenting for unexplained poor performance or chronic cough, underwent endoscopic evaluation, tracheal wash (TW), flowmetric plethysmography with histamine bronchoprovocation, and BAL. Histamine response was measured by calculating PC35, the concentration of nebulised histamine eliciting an increase in delta flow of 35%. In this population, there was no significant correlation between histamine response and cell populations in BAL cytology. When airway hyperreactivity (AHR) was defined as ≥35% increase in Δflow at a histamine concentration of <6 mg/ml, 24 of the 45 horses (53%) were determined to have AHR. Thirty-three (73%) had either abnormal BAL cytology or AHR, and were diagnosed with IAD on this basis. Of horses diagnosed with IAD, 9 (27%) had an abnormal BAL, 11 (33%) had AHR, and 13 (39%) had both. Airway reactivity and BAL cytology did not show concordance in this population of horses presenting for unexplained poor performance and/or chronic cough. Failure to include tests of airway reactivity may lead to under-diagnosis of IAD in young Standardbred racehorses which present with clinical signs suggestive of IAD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 07/2015; DOI:10.1111/evj.12482
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanism of hyperthermia, a potentially fatal adverse effect of erythromycin treatment of foals, is unknown. To determine the cause of erythromycin-associated hyperthermia. It was hypothesised that the normal sweat response of foals is impaired by treatment with erythromycin. Blinded, crossover study in 10 healthy pony foals. Foals kept in stalls were given either erythromycin (25 mg/kg bwt orally, 3 times daily) or control for 10 days then turned out for a further 10 days. Quantitative intradermal terbutaline sweat tests were performed on Days 1 (baseline), 3, 10 and 20. The effects on terbutaline-induced sweating of erythromycin, terbutaline concentration, and treatment day were analysed by repeated-measures ANOVA with Bonferroni-corrected pairwise post hoc comparisons. Peak temperatures were compared by Wilcoxon Signed Rank and proportions by McNemar's Related Samples tests. Significance was set at P<0.05. There were significant 2-factor interactions for treatment × terbutaline after baseline, treatment × day at every terbutaline concentration, and day × terbutaline for erythromycin (P<0.001) but not control (P = 0.9) treatment. Sweating was significantly reduced from baseline in erythromycin-treated foals at all subsequent days. Erythromycin-treated foals produced less sweat at all time-points compared to control-treated foals (P<0.05). Peak rectal temperatures of erythromycin-treated foals were significantly higher (P = 0.02) than those of controls. During the first 3 days outside more erythromycin- compared to control-treated foals required treatment for hyperthermia (6 vs. 0; P = 0.03). We believe drug-induced anhidrosis is the likely cause of hyperthermia in some foals treated with erythromycin. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 07/2015; DOI:10.1111/evj.12481
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    ABSTRACT: Pain has been neglected in large animals and is inadequately treated. This is probably related to the difficulties in recognition, combined with concern about the potential adverse effects of analgesic drugs. To evaluate the antinociceptive effects of intravenous methadone combined with detomidine or with acepromazine in adult horses. Randomised, blinded, crossover study. Mechanical, thermal and electrical stimuli were applied to the dorsal left and right metacarpus and the coronary band of the left thoracic limb, respectively. A thermal stimulus was applied caudal to the withers. The horses were treated with saline (C) or with a combination of methadone (0.2 mg/kg) and detomidine (10 μg/kg) (MD) or methadone (0.2 mg/kg) and acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg) (MA), at one week intervals. Nociceptive thresholds were measured before and at 15 min intervals until 150 min after treatment. Wilcoxon rank-sum and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to compare the data between groups at each time point and over time within each group, followed by the Bonferroni method to adjust the P value. The mechanical stimulus was the most sensitive test to differentiate the antinociceptive effects of the treatments. Mechanical thresholds were greater after MD than MA between 15 and 30 min and with both MD and MA these thresholds were greater than C from 15 to 60 min. Electrical and thermal limb thresholds were greater after MD than C at 15 and 45 min and at 15, 30, 45, 75 and 105 min, respectively. Thermal limb thresholds were greater with MA than C at 30 min. Thoracic thermal threshold in MD and MA were higher than C at 45, 75, 90 and 120 min and from 30 to 75 min, respectively. MA produced less pronounced mechanical antinociception than MD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 07/2015; DOI:10.1111/evj.12483
  • Equine Veterinary Journal 07/2015; DOI:10.1111/evj.12454