Equine Veterinary Journal (EQUINE VET J )

Publisher: British Equine Veterinary Association

Description

This unrivalled international scientific journal was first published in 1968 when there were four issues each year. It now appears bi-monthly with around 88 pages per issue containing articles with original and potentially important findings. Contributions are received from sources worldwide, including North America, Europe and Australia. EVJ has also produced a number of Special Issues, which generally appear as an additional 7th issue devoted to a specific topic, including Immunology, Colic, Evidence-Based Medicine and Laminitis. These extra journals are distributed free to all subscribers, and are available to purchase from the EVJ Online Bookshop. All papers published in the journal are subjected to peer review and once articles have been accepted for publication they should appear in the journal within six to eight months. They present new developments in research being carried out by universities, veterinary schools and institutes devoted to equine and/or comparative physiology, pathology, medicine or surgery and from workers in practice. The journal strives to publish clinically orientated work and categorises articles into General Articles, Clinical Evidence Articles, Short Communications, Case Reports and Review Articles. General Articles are often accompanied by an Editorial Leader which gives the reader a further insight into a particular topic and provides further reference information. The Clinical Evidence category was introduced in 2003, for articles in which the objective is to answer questions of clinical importance in a controlled manner based on data obtainable in practice.

  • Impact factor
    2.29
  • 5-year impact
    2.19
  • Cited half-life
    0.00
  • Immediacy index
    1.06
  • Eigenfactor
    0.01
  • Article influence
    0.43
  • Website
    Equine Veterinary Journal website
  • ISSN
    2042-3306
  • OCLC
    225017606
  • Material type
    Periodical
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There are no consistently safe and effective methods for the treatment of trigeminal-mediated headshaking in horses. In affected horses, the trigeminal nerve is sensitised, appearing to result in neuropathic pain. Percutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (PENS) therapy(1) is a minimally invasive neuromodulatory treatment used in people to manage neuropathic pain. To determine whether PENS therapy is safe, tolerated and effective for the management of trigeminal-mediated headshaking in horses. Descriptive case series. Seven horses diagnosed with trigeminal-mediated headshaking and currently showing clinical signs were studied. All procedures were carried out in sedated horses with a needle-prick sized area of skin desensitised with local anaesthetic(2) to facilitate probe insertion. A disposable PENS probe(1) was advanced subcutaneously adjacent to the nerve, rostral to the infraorbital foramen under ultrasonographic guidance. The nerve was stimulated for 25 min following a protocol of alternating frequencies and a perception threshold based on human clinical data. The probe was removed and the procedure repeated on the contralateral side. The protocol used comprised a series of 3 or 4 treatments, with treatments being repeated when signs of headshaking recurred. All horses tolerated the procedure well. Three horses developed a haematoma at the site on one occasion and 2 had increased clinical signs for up to 3 days following first treatment. Six horses demonstrated a positive response to their first treatment, returning to ridden work at the same level as prior to onset of headshaking, with 5 continuing to respond. Median remission time for first treatment was 3.8 days (range 0-8 days, n = 7), second treatment 2.5 weeks (0-8 weeks, n = 7), third treatment 15.5 weeks (0-24 weeks, n = 5) and fourth treatment 20 weeks (12-28 weeks ongoing, n = 2). PENS therapy is a safe, well-tolerated, minimally invasive, repeatable management option for trigeminal-mediated headshaking, with encouraging efficacy for amelioration of clinical signs in the short to medium term. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: There are scant data on the incidence of the different anatomical variants of equine caudal cervical spine, despite interest in cervical pathology. To identify morphological radiographic variation in the sixth and seventh cervical vertebrae and the first thoracic vertebra in horses of different breeds and to determine whether there are breed and sex-related differences. Retrospective descriptive study. Radiographs of the cervical spine of 270 horses were assessed retrospectively. Chi-square test, or Fisher's exact test when appropriate, were used to test for associations between radiographic findings and sex or breed, and residual analysis was performed to localise differences. Chi-square tests and calculation of phi coefficient (φ) were used to test for associations between different types of radiological variation. Three variants were identified in the spinous process of the seventh cervical vertebra and 2 variants were identified in the spinous process of the first thoracic vertebra. The presence of the spinous process of the seventh cervical vertebra was associated with breed, and transposition of the ventral process of the sixth cervical vertebra onto the ventral aspect of the seventh cervical vertebra was associated with sex. The shape of the spinous process of first thoracic vertebra was associated with the shape of the spinous process of the seventh cervical vertebra and with the presence of transposition of the ventral process of the sixth cervical vertebra onto the ventral aspect of the seventh. A large number of anatomical variants can be detected radiographically at the level of the caudal cervical area; some of these have a higher frequency depending on sex and breed. Knowledge of the different shapes is very important in avoiding misdiagnosis of periarticular new bone formation. The spinous process of the first thoracic vertebra has 2 morphological variants. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing studyThe haemorrhagic anovulatory follicle (HAF) is the most common pathological anovulatory condition in the mare, but its cause remains unknown. An experimental model to induce luteinised unruptured follicles (LUF) with flunixin-meglumine (FM) has been developed. The LUF share similar morphological and hormonal characteristics with the HAF.Objectives To test the effect of Intrafollicular administration of PGE2 and PGF2α during the periovulatory period on ovulation and pregnancy in FM-treated mares.Study designIn vivo experiment in a crossover design.Methods Five mares were followed during 2 oestrous cycles each. All mares were given FM at 1.7 mg/kg bwt i.v. every 12 h from Hour 0 (Hour 0 = hCG treatment) to Hour 36. In treatment cycles (n = 5), at Hour 32 the preovulatory follicle was punctured and 0.5 ml of a solution containing 500 μg of PGE2 and 125 μg of PGF2α was deposited within the follicle. In control cycles, water for injection was administered into the follicle at the same time. In 3 control and 3 treatment cycles, mares were also inseminated at Hour 24. Diagnosis of ovulation/LUF formation and pregnancy was performed by ultrasound examination between Hours 36 and 72 and 14 days after ovulation/LUF formation, respectively.ResultsDuring the treatment cycles, all mares ovulated normally (100% ovulation rate) between 36 and 48 h after hCG, while in 4 of 5 control cycles, the mares developed a LUF (80%, P<0.05). All 3 inseminated mares became pregnant in the treatment cycles, but not in the control cycles.Conclusions Intrafollicular treatment with PGE2 and PGF2α overcame the anovulatory effect of FM. This sheds new insights into the knowledge on the possible therapeutic options for ovulatory failure in the mare.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Critically ill foals often present to veterinary hospitals with impaired organ perfusion, which can be demonstrated by increased blood L-lactate concentrations. As a compensatory mechanism to low blood pressure and electrolyte abnormalities, aldosterone and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are released to restore organ perfusion and function. Several studies have investigated the ability of blood L-lactate concentrations to predict severity of disease and outcome in critically ill humans, adult horses and foals. However, information on the aldosterone and AVP response to hypoperfusion and its association with L-lactate concentrations in neonatal foals is limited. To determine the association between clinical hypoperfusion and endocrine markers of reduced tissue perfusion in normo- and hypoperfused foals. Prospective, multicentre, cross-sectional observational study. Blood samples were collected on admission from 72 clinically hypoperfused, 110 normoperfused (73 hospitalised and 37 healthy) foals of ≤4 days of age. Foals were considered clinically hypoperfused if they had L-lactate concentrations ≥2.5 mmol/L and one of the 3 following findings: heart rate >120 beats/min; packed cell volume (PCV) > 0.44 L/L, or azotaemia (increased creatinine and BUN). Blood concentrations of aldosterone and AVP were determined by radioimmunoassays. Aldosterone, AVP, creatinine, and BUN concentrations and heart rate, PCV, and blood osmolality were higher in clinically hypoperfused compared to normoperfused foals (P<0.05). Risk of hypoperfusion increased with the presence of hypothermic extremities (OR = 5.26) and with each one unit increase in albumin concentrations (OR = 3.5) (P<0.05). The proposed admission L-lactate cutoff value above which non-survival could be reliably predicted in hospitalised foals was 10.6 mmol/L with 82% of sensitivity and 74% of specificity. Hyperaldosteronaemia and hypervasopressinaemia as well as hypothermic extremities and increased albumin concentrations are potent predictors of hypoperfusion in hospitalised foals. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: If equine conditions with high likelihood of jockey injury can be determined and subsequently prevented, jockey safety can be enhanced. To identify racehorse injuries or conditions with greatest risk for jockey falls and injuries. Retrospective correlation of race-day jockey fall and injury data with racehorse fatality data. Thoroughbred (TB) and Quarter Horse (QH) racehorse cause of death and jockey fall and injury data for California flat races were reviewed for a 6-year period. Race and jockey race ride population data were used to determine jockey fall and injury incidence rates relative to cause of racehorse death, and were assessed using Poisson regression. Differences in proportions were assessed using Fisher's exact, Pearson's χ(2) , and Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel tests. 707 racehorses experienced race-related catastrophic injury or sudden death. 199 jockeys had 601 falls with 325 injuries. Jockeys were 162 times more likely to fall (95% CI 137- 192; p<0.001) and 171 times more likely to be injured (95% CI 140 - 208; p<0.001) when jockeys rode a horse that died in a race. We infer that jockeys were more likely to fall or be injured when riding in QH races than in TB races because of a higher incidence of horse fatalities in QH races. Jockey falls occurred with 24% of TB and 36% of QH race-related horse fatalities, and jockey injury occurred in 64% of falls. Jockey falls were most common with TB fetlock injuries and QH carpal, metacarpal, and fetlock injuries; and with axial, bilateral, and multiple injuries compared to appendicular, unilateral, and singular injuries, respectively. Prevention of the most common catastrophic injuries and sudden death of the racehorse, e.g. fetlock injuries, may be most effective at decreasing rates of falls and injuries to horseracing jockeys during racing. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 11/2014;
  • Equine Veterinary Journal 11/2014; 46(6).
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    ABSTRACT: The development of equine immunity from the fetus to adulthood is complex. The foal's immune response and the immune mechanisms that they are equipped along with changes over the first months of life until the immune system becomes adult-like are only partially understood. While several innate immune responses seem to be fully functional from birth, the onset of adaptive immune response is delayed. For some adaptive immune parameters, such as IgG1, IgG3, IgG5 and IgA antibodies, the immune response starts before or at birth and matures within 3 months of life. Other antibody responses, such as IgG4, IgG7 and IgE production, slowly develop within the first year of life until they reach adult levels. Similar differences have been observed for adaptive T cell responses. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) production by T helper 1 (Th1)-cells and cytotoxic T-cells starts shortly after birth with low level production that gradually increases during the first year of life. In contrast, interleukin-4 (IL-4) produced by Th2-cells is almost undetectable in the first 3 months of life. These findings offer some explanation for the increased susceptibility of foals to certain pathogens, such as Rhodococcus equi. The delay in Th-cell development, and in particular Th2 immunity, during the first months of life also provides an explanation for the reduced responsiveness of young horses to most traditional vaccines. In summary, all immune components of adult horses seem to exist in foals but the orchestrating and regulation of the immune response in immature horses is strikingly different. Young foals are fully competent and can perform certain immune responses but many mechanisms have yet to mature. Additional work is needed to improve our understanding of immunity and immune regulation in young horses, to identify the preferred immune pathways that they are using, and to ultimately provide new preventive strategies to protect against infectious disease.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 11/2014;
  • Equine Veterinary Journal 11/2014; 46(6).
  • Equine Veterinary Journal 11/2014; 46(6).
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    ABSTRACT: Reason for performing the studyIncreased serum nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and decreased serum electrolytes are linked to abdomasal displacements in postpartum dairy cattle. Postpartum colic in mares and may be associated with metabolic changes specific to pregnancy and the periparturient period.Objectives Determine if fluctuations in serum NEFA, ionised calcium (iCa) and magnesium (iMg) occurred in periparturient mares and if these alterations were associated with postpartum colic.Methods Mares from 3 farms in central Kentucky were enrolled. Blood samples were collected 14 days prior to the estimated foaling date, within 4 days postparturition, and 14 and 28 days after foaling for batch analysis of serum NEFA, iCa, and iMg. Health information was provided by farm managers and veterinarians. Data were analysed using Kruskal-Wallis X2 statistic for nonparametric data and a matched case/control approach. Repeated measures logistic regression models were developed.ResultsSerum NEFAs were higher at 14 to one day before foaling (mean ± s.d., mmol/L), 0.28 ± 0.08, p = 0.04 and from foaling to 4 days after foaling, 0.29 ± 0.20 p = 0.05 in mares that developed colic compared to those that did not colic, 0.19 ± 0.05 and 0.21 ± 0.14, respectively. Ionised calcium was lower at 15 to 28 days post foaling in mares that showed colic, 1.50 ± 0.17 compared to mares that did not colic, 1.60 ± 0.12 p = 0.02.Risk of colic in postpartum mares increased 38% for each 0.1 mmol/L increase in serum NEFA, (Odds Ratio = 1.38, 95% C.I. 1.06 – 1.81 p = 0.02).Conclusions Mares with postpartum colic had significantly higher serum NEFA and lower iCa prior to the colic episode compared to mares that did not develop colic. Monitoring these metabolic alterations may lead to predictive and preventive colic strategies for postpartum mares.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing studyIntra-articular (IA) injection of corticosteroids with or without hyaluronate (HA) has been used for decades in equine practice for treatment of non-infectious synovitis and (osteo)arthritis. However, to date no large-scale randomised equine field trials have been reported that address the supposed superior clinical efficacy of the combination of corticosteroid + HA compared to IA injection of corticosteroid alone.Objectives To compare the clinical efficacy of IA triamcinolone acetonide (TA, 12 mg) compared to IA TA (12 mg) + high-molecular weight HA (20 mg) in horses with clinical joint disease.Study designProspective, randomised, parallel, open-label, multicentre clinical trial.Methods Eighty client-owned horses from 13 clinics were included. Lameness and effusion scores were assessed at baseline and 3 weeks after IA treatment. A standardised telephone questionnaire was completed between the owner and consulting veterinarian at 3 months. The primary outcome parameter was clinical success rate, defined as ≥2 grades lameness reduction (on a 0-5 scale) at 3 weeks. Chi-square statistics and binary logistic regression to analyse data on an intention-to-treat basis for the 3 week outcome.ResultsThe success rate of IA TA 3 weeks after treatment was 87.8%, while that of TA+HA was 64.1% (P = 0.01). Age >13 years was associated with a reduced success rate for the combination treatment (P = 0.004) at 3 weeks. At 3 months, half the horses in each group had returned to their previous level of performance.Conclusions The combination of triamcinolone with hyaluronate was associated with lower short-term clinical success rate and similar medium term outcome compared to IA triamcinolone, with only half of the horses performing at their previous level of exercise after 3 months regardless of treatment group allocation.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing studyLungeing is an important part of lameness examinations since the circular path may accentuate low-grade lameness. Movement asymmetries related to the circular path, to compensatory movements, and to pain, make the lameness evaluation complex. Scientific studies have shown high inter-rater variation when assessing lameness during straight line movement.Objectives The aim was to estimate inter- and intra-rater agreement of equine veterinarians evaluating lameness from videos of sound and lame horses during lungeing and to investigate the influence of veterinarians′ experience and the objective degree of movement asymmetry on rater agreement.Study designCross-sectional, observational study.Methods Video recordings and quantitative gait analysis with inertial sensors were performed in 23 riding horses of various breeds. The horses were examined at trot on a straight line and during lungeing on soft or hard surfaces in both directions. One video sequence was recorded per condition and the horses were classified as forelimb-lame, hindlimb-lame or sound from objective straight line symmetry measurements. Equine veterinarians (n = 86), including 43 with >5 years of orthopaedic experience, participated in a web-based survey and were asked to identify the lamest limb on 60 videos including 10 repeats. The agreements between (inter-rater) and within (intra-rater) veterinarians were analysed with kappa statistics (Fleiss, Cohens).ResultsInter-rater agreement kappa was 0.31 (0.38/0.25 for experienced/less experienced) and higher for forelimb (0.33) compared to hindlimb lameness (0.11) or soundness (0.08) evaluation. Median intra-rater agreement kappa was 0.57.Conclusions Inter-rater agreement was poor for less experienced raters, and for all raters when evaluating hindlimb lameness. Since identification of the lame limb/limbs is a prerequisite for successful diagnosis, treatment and recovery, the high inter-rater variation when evaluating lameness on the lunge is likely to influence the accuracy and repeatability of lameness examinations and indirectly the efficacy of treatment.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Relatively few journals publish their annual acceptance rate, although this figure is of scientific and academic interest.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Lamellar perfusion is thought to be affected by weight bearing and limb load cycling; this may be critical in the development of supporting limb laminitis.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Lungeing is often part of the clinical lameness examination. The difference in movement symmetry - a commonly employed lameness measure - has not been quantified between surfaces.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing the studyValidated non-invasive detection methods for early osteoarthritis (OA) are required for OA prevention and early intervention treatment strategies.Objectives To evaluate radiography and low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the detection of early stage OA osteochondral lesions in equine centrodistal joints using microscopy as the reference standard.Study designProspective imaging of live horses and imaging and microscopy of cadaver tarsal joints.Methods Centrodistal (distal intertarsal) joints of 38 Icelandic research horses aged 27 to 29 months were radiographed. Horses were euthanased approximately 2 months later and cadaver joints examined with low-field MRI. Osteochondral joint specimens were classified as negative or positive for OA using light microscopy histology or scanning electron microscopy. Radiographs and MRIs were evaluated for osteochondral lesions and results compared to microscopy.ResultsForty-two joints were classified OA positive with microscopy. Associations were detected between microscopic OA and the radiography lesion categories; mineralisation front defect (P<0.0001), joint margin lesion (P<0.0001), central osteophyte (P = 0.03) and the low-field MRI lesion categories; mineralisation front defect (P = 0.01), joint margin lesion (P = 0.02), articular cartilage lesion (P = 0.0003). The most frequent lesion category detected in microscopic OA positive joints was the mineralisation front defect in radiographs (28/42 OA positive joints, specificity 97%, sensitivity 67%). No significant differences were detected between the sensitivity and specificity of radiography and low-field MRI pooled lesion categories but radiography was often superior when individual lesion categories were compared.Conclusions Early stage centrodistal joint OA changes may be detected with radiography and low-field MRI. Detection of mineralisation front defects in radiographs may be a useful screening method for detection of early OA in centrodistal joints of young Icelandic horses.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing the studyFurosemide is the most commonly used medication for exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH), however, critical evaluation of the strength of evidence for efficacy of furosemide is lacking and is warranted so that evidence based treatment decisions can be made.Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of furosemide to reduce the severity or frequency of detection of EIPH in Thoroughbred racehorses.Study designSystematic review with meta-analysis.Methods Primary studies were identified via searches of electronic databases, relevant texts and reference lists of published articles. Studies were not restricted by date or publication status. Only studies published in English were eligible for inclusion. Searches were performed using a predetermined search string. Randomised controlled trials and non randomised trials were included. Three authors independently assessed each study using the Cochrane collaboration guidelines and GRADE recommendations of rating quality of evidence. Meta-analysis of studies was performed with pooled data to determine if furosemide reduced the frequency of detection of EIPH (yes or no) as evaluated by tracheobronchoscopy or bronchoalveolar RBC number, or if furosemide reduced the severity of EIPH by at least one tracheobronchoscopic grade.ResultsSeventeen studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The relative risk (RR) of detecting any EIPH by tracheobronchoscopy after administration of furosemide was 0.88 (pooled data from 11 studies, n = 5780; 95% CI 0.79 – 0.97, p = 0.01). When data from only high quality RCTs (2 studies, n = 405) were used, the RR of detecting endoscopically evident EIPH was 0.69 (95% CI 0.61 – 0.76, p<0.001). The proportion of horses previously diagnosed with EIPH having a reduction of at least one EIPH grade after furosemide was 0.68 (2 studies, n = 405; 95% CI 61 – 76%).Conclusions There is high quality evidence, albeit limited, that administration of furosemide reduces the incidence and severity of EIPH in Thoroughbred or Standardbred racehorses.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing studyConvincing evidence shows that persistent or excessive expression of osteopontin (OPN) is linked to fibroproliferation of various organs in laboratory animals and in man, such that its downregulation is a logical therapeutic objective.Objectives To investigate OPN expression in an equine wound healing model and in clinical specimens of equine exuberant granulation tissue (EGT) and human keloids in an effort to better understand the contribution of this protein to inflammation-associated skin fibrosis.Study designDescription of gene expression in an experimental wound healing model and clinical specimens.Methods Osteopontin gene expression was evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) while protein expression was investigated by means of immunohistochemical staining.ResultsQuantitative PCR showed that the OPN gene is expressed in normal intact skin of horses and continues to be expressed during the wound healing process. An increase in gene expression was observed throughout the phases of wound healing with a final decrease at wound closure. Osteopontin was not detected in normal skin. Keratinocytes of wound edge samples did not express the protein while dermal immunoreactivity was confined to inflammatory cells. Healed wounds were devoid of staining. Equine EGT samples showed immunoreactivity of the surrounding epidermis, infiltrating neutrophils, mononuclear cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts. Human keloids showed OPN immunoreactivity throughout the epidermis as well as in mononuclear cells and scattered fibroblasts.Conclusion Immunohistochemical data show a different pattern of expression between experimental and fibrotic wounds (EGT and keloids) thus suggesting a role in fibroproliferation in horses and humans.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing studyExercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH) occurs commonly in Thoroughbred racehorses worldwide. While EIPH is believed to be an important cause of impaired performance in these horses, there is limited evidence from sufficiently powered studies to evaluate this association.Objective To evaluate whether EIPH is associated with finishing position, distance finished behind race winners, and differences in race earning among Thoroughbred horses racing in South Africa.Study designProspective cross-sectional study.Methods1,000 Thoroughbred horses racing in South Africa were enrolled prior to a single race and underwent tracheobronchoscopic examination within 2 hours of racing. Three observers, blinded to the horses’ identity and race performance, independently evaluated EIPH occurrence and severity using video recordings of the examination. Data were analysed using multivariable logistic and linear regression while controlling for important horse and race factors as potential confounding variables.ResultsOverall, 68% of horses had evidence of EIPH (grade ≥1). Horses without evidence of EIPH (severity grade 0), when compared to horses with any evidence of EIPH (grade ≥1), were >2 times more likely to win races (OR = 2.3; 95%CI=1.4–3.7; P = 0.001), finished an average of one length ahead of horses with EIPH (P = 0.03), and were 2.5 times more likely to be in the highest decile in race earnings (OR = 2.5, 95%CI = 1.5-4.1, P<0.001). However, no association was identified regarding finishing in the top 3 positions or earning money when analysed as a continuous variable or analysed as any winnings vs. none.ConclusionsEIPH was associated with impaired performance in Thoroughbred racehorses not medicated with furosemide and not using nasal dilator strips. These findings provide strong corroboration of previous research indicating that the occurrence of EIPH has a major impact on the ability of Thoroughbred racehorses to compete successfully as elite athletes.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 10/2014;