Equine Veterinary Journal Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: British Equine Veterinary Association, Wiley

Journal description

This unrivalled international scientific journal was first published in 1968 when there were four issues each year. It now appears bi-monthly with around 88 pages per issue containing articles with original and potentially important findings. Contributions are received from sources worldwide, including North America, Europe and Australia. EVJ has also produced a number of Special Issues, which generally appear as an additional 7th issue devoted to a specific topic, including Immunology, Colic, Evidence-Based Medicine and Laminitis. These extra journals are distributed free to all subscribers, and are available to purchase from the EVJ Online Bookshop. All papers published in the journal are subjected to peer review and once articles have been accepted for publication they should appear in the journal within six to eight months. They present new developments in research being carried out by universities, veterinary schools and institutes devoted to equine and/or comparative physiology, pathology, medicine or surgery and from workers in practice. The journal strives to publish clinically orientated work and categorises articles into General Articles, Clinical Evidence Articles, Short Communications, Case Reports and Review Articles. General Articles are often accompanied by an Editorial Leader which gives the reader a further insight into a particular topic and provides further reference information. The Clinical Evidence category was introduced in 2003, for articles in which the objective is to answer questions of clinical importance in a controlled manner based on data obtainable in practice.

Current impact factor: 2.37

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 2.369
2012 Impact Factor 2.286
2011 Impact Factor 1.456
2010 Impact Factor 1.799
2009 Impact Factor 1.837
2008 Impact Factor 2.08
2007 Impact Factor 1.607
2006 Impact Factor 1.73
2005 Impact Factor 1.317
2004 Impact Factor 1.44
2003 Impact Factor 1.496
2002 Impact Factor 1.256
2001 Impact Factor 1.816
2000 Impact Factor 1.479
1999 Impact Factor 1.411
1998 Impact Factor 1.329
1997 Impact Factor 1.58

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.19
Cited half-life 0.00
Immediacy index 1.06
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.43
Website Equine Veterinary Journal website
ISSN 2042-3306
OCLC 225017606
Material type Periodical
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details


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    • If OnlineOpen is available, BBSRC, EPSRC, MRC, NERC and STFC authors, may self-archive after 12 months
    • If OnlineOpen is available, AHRC and ESRC authors, may self-archive after 24 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 07/08/2014
    • This policy is an exception to the default policies of 'Wiley'
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • Equine Veterinary Journal 07/2015; DOI:10.1111/evj.12454
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    ABSTRACT: The intestinal microbiota is important for health and disease. Factors that disturb the equine intestinal microbiota need further investigation. To determine the effects of transport, fasting and anaesthesia on the faecal microbiota of healthy adult horses using next generation sequencing. Experimental trial. Faecal samples were taken from 8 horses at baseline, after transport, 12 h of fasting and 24 h, 48 h and 72 h after a 6-h anaesthesia. Next generation sequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was used to assess the microbial composition of faeces. Alpha diversity, phylogenetic structures and beta diversity were assessed using MOTHUR. There were significant changes in the relative abundances of phyla, classes, orders and families after transport, fasting and anaesthesia. Most notably horses had a significantly lower abundance of Clostridiales after transport compared to baseline (p = 0.03) and a decreased abundance of Rickettsiales after fasting (p = 0.024). Alpha diversity was not significantly different between time points (all p>0.21). When parsimony analysis was applied, anaesthesia had a significant effect on community membership and structure (Jaccard and Yue & Clayton index both p = 0.02). There was some effect of transport, fasting and anaesthesia on the composition and structure of the microbiota of healthy horses. This indicates these are potentially stress factors for the equine intestinal microbiota. Further investigation is required to look at the potential impact of changes in the microbiota on the development of disease in the post-anaesthetic period. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 06/2015; DOI:10.1111/evj.12479
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    ABSTRACT: Parascaris spp. infections can lead to life-threatening small intestinal impactions in foals. Currently available diagnostic techniques cannot estimate the magnitude of an ascarid burden, and hence identify foals potentially at risk of developing impactions. To describe and evaluate an ultrasonographic transabdominal scoring technique for monitoring of ascarid burdens in foals and to perform a cost-benefit analysis of the application of this technique. A transabdominal ultrasonographic technique was validated against ascarid worm counts from 10 foals aged 162-294 days. In a treatment trial, 15 foals were randomly allocated to 3 treatment groups: ivermectin, oxibendazole, and no treatment. Blinded ultrasound examinations were performed daily for 5 consecutive days following treatment. Foals were both examined ultrasonographically twice by the same investigator, and by different investigators for intra- and inter-observer agreement evaluation. Cost-benefit analyses identified threshold values for the probability of ascarid impactions above which the screening method becomes cost-effective. The ultrasound technique used 3 locations along the ventral midline. An ascarid scoring system was established which assessed the magnitude of ascarid burden ranging from 1 to 4. The method was validated against worm burdens of 10 worms and above with calculation of diagnostic specificity, sensitivity, and predictive values. Treatment trial data were evaluated statistically using mixed model analysis. Kappa values were generated for intra- and inter-observer agreement. Two consecutive examinations were found to reliably detect worm burdens larger than 10 ascarids. Ascarid scores declined in response to both anthelmintic treatments, although differences were not statistically significant. Kappa values indicated fair to moderate intra- and inter-observer agreements. The majority of cost-benefit analyses indicated that ultrasound examinations are cost-effective when the probability of ascarid impactions is above a range of 0.0001-0.0082 (i.e. 1 in 10,000 to 8 in 1000 foals). The ultrasonographic screening techniques can be a useful tool for monitoring ascarid burdens in foals. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 06/2015; DOI:10.1111/evj.12478
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    ABSTRACT: Improvement has been reported following intra-articular (IA) injection of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) in several species. These observations have led to use of IA MSC in equine practice with little understanding of the mechanisms by which perceived improvement occurs. To evaluate the effect of IA allogeneic umbilical-cord-blood- (CB-) derived MSC using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced synovitis model. We hypothesised IA CB-MSC would decrease inflammatory response associated with LPS injection. Randomised, blinded experimental study. Feasibility studies evaluated IA LPS or CB-MSC alone into the tarsocrural joint. Principal study middle carpal joint LPS synovitis was induced bilaterally then CB-MSC were injected into one middle carpal joint. Lameness, routine synovial fluid (SF) analysis, and SF biomarkers were evaluated at 0, 8, 24, 48, and 72 h. LPS injection alone resulted in transient lameness and signs of inflammation. In joints untreated with LPS, injection of 30-million CB-MSC resulted in mild synovitis that resolved without treatment. Mild (grade 1-2) lameness in the CB-MSC-treated limb was observed in 2 horses, severe lameness (grade 4) in the third 24h post-injection. Lameness did not correlate with synovitis induced by CB-MSC injection. Simultaneous injection of LPS and CB-MSC resulted in significant reduction in SF total nucleated, neutrophil, and mononuclear cell numbers compared to contralateral LPS-only joints. No difference was detected in other parameters associated with SF analysis or in SF biomarkers. The incidence of lameness was only different from baseline at 8 h, where horses were lame in CB-MSC limbs. Allogeneic CB-MSC reduced SF cell populations and stimulated mild self-limiting inflammation in the synovitis model. Continued evaluation of the effects of IA CB-MSC therapy on synovitis in horses is needed to evaluate anti- and pro-inflammatory properties of CB-MSC. Immediate interests are dose, timing of treatment, and treatment frequency. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 06/2015; DOI:10.1111/evj.12477
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    ABSTRACT: Effective decontamination of animal holding environments is critical for providing high quality patient care and maintaining a safe working environment. Disinfection of animal holding environments is a significant challenge during times of epidemic disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the disinfectant efficacy of 3 strategies for high-volume directed mist application of accelerated hydrogen peroxide and peroxymonosulfate disinfectants; 4.25% accelerated hydrogen peroxide (Accel(®) ; AHP) at a 1:16 dilution and single and double applications of 2% peroxymonosulfate solution (Virkon-S(®) ; VIR-1 and VIR-2) for decontamination of a large animal hospital environment. Experiment. After cleaning and disinfection of the hospital environment, transparencies experimentally contaminated with known concentrations of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were placed on vertical surfaces. Disinfectant solution was applied by directed mist application and, after 30 min of contact time, transparencies were collected and individually placed into tubes containing 10 mL Dey-Engley broth. The process was repeated for each disinfectant. Ten-fold dilutions of each sample were plated onto tryptic soy blood agar with 5% sheep blood. Bacterial counts from transparencies exposed to disinfectants were compared to counts from control transparencies (unexposed to disinfectants) to evaluate reduction in colony forming units. The LSMean reduction (log10) in CFUs for S. aureus and P. aeruginosa was 1.5-2.5 logs and approximately 0.8-1.0 logs S. enterica. Reductions were generally largest for VIR-2 and smallest for AHP, although these differences were not all statistically significant and the magnitude of differences may not be clinically relevant. For the organisms evaluated, all 3 disinfectants applied as a directed mist were effective at reducing CFUs in a veterinary hospital environment. Effective disinfection using this method of application is dependent on adequate cleaning prior to application, and use of adequate volumes of disinfectant. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 06/2015; DOI:10.1111/evj.12476
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    ABSTRACT: The overall rate of sepsis following endoscopic surgery of synovial structures has not previously been documented. Clinical observation has led to the conjecture that tendon sheaths, in particular the carpal flexor tendon sheath, are more prone to post-operative synovial sepsis than other synovial structures. To document and investigate the rate of post-operative synovial sepsis following elective endoscopic surgery. Retrospective case series. The medical records of horses that underwent arthroscopy, tenoscopy or bursoscopy at Donnington Grove Veterinary Surgery between January 1999 and July 2012 were reviewed. The signalment, anatomical structure involved, use of electrosurgery, tourniquet or motorised resector, the presence of a fracture, whether surgery was performed with the horse standing or under general anaesthesia, and the number of structures examined were recorded. Multivariable logistic regression was used to test the association between the selected variables and synovial sepsis. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Level of significance was P<0.05. There were 1,670 horses that underwent endoscopic surgery of 3,159 synovial structures: 2,517 joints, 583 tendon sheaths and 59 bursae. There were 16 cases of post-operative sepsis in 16 horses; therefore, the infection rate was one per 100 horses or 5 per 1000 procedures. Carpal sheath tenoscopy was associated with an OR of developing postoperative synovial sepsis of 14.9 (95% CI 4.8-45.9, p<0.001) compared to other synovial structures. Tendon sheath endoscopy had an OR of developing postoperative synovial sepsis of 5.21 (95% CI 1.24-21.91, p<0.02) compared to other synovial structures. Surgeons should be aware that tendon sheaths, and the carpal sheath in particular, appear to have higher odds of developing sepsis following endoscopic surgery. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 06/2015; DOI:10.1111/evj.12472
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    ABSTRACT: Peri-anaesthetic complications are relatively common in equine patients and further investigations are warranted to identify manageable risk factors. To report morbidity and mortality rates and to identify associated risk factors for horses undergoing general anaesthesia, within a predominantly racing Thoroughbred (TB) population. Single centre retrospective observational study. Anaesthetic and case records of all horses ≥12 months old undergoing general anaesthesia at Newmarket Equine Hospital between August 2010 and April 2012 were analysed; excluding emergency abdominal/dystocia procedures or traumatology cases with cardiovascular compromise. Mortality and morbidity rates were calculated and described. Univariable and multivariable analyses were used to investigate the relationship between the principal complication, post-anaesthetic colic and risk factors. 1,067 anaesthetic records of 1,021 horses were included: 702 (65.8%) were Thoroughbred, 169 horses developed a complication within 7 days of general anaesthesia (15.8%) and 10 horses (0.94%) died as a result. The most prevalent morbidity was post-anaesthetic colic; 111 horses (10.5%) developed colic within 7 days of general anaesthesia. Thoroughbred horses (odds ratio [OR] 2.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.73-4.96) and horses receiving sodium benzyl penicillin (NaBP) (OR 2.77, 95% CI 1.69-4.50) were at increased risk of post-anaesthetic colic. Thoroughbred racehorses were identified as at increased risk of post-anaesthetic colic in this study and might benefit from more critical evaluation of post-anaesthetic gastrointestinal function. An alternative to the administration of NaBP for prophylactic antimicrobial therapy needs to be further investigated, if its role in post-anaesthetic colic is confirmed by other studies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 06/2015; DOI:10.1111/evj.12475
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    ABSTRACT: Hyperinsulinemia is implicated in the pathogenesis of endocrinopathic laminitis. Insulin can bind to different receptors: two insulin receptor isoforms (InsR-A and InsR-B), insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R), and InsR/IGF-1R hybrid receptor (Hybrid). Currently, mRNA expression of these receptors in equine tissues and the influence of body type and dietary carbohydrate intake on expression of these receptors is not known. The study objectives were to characterise InsR-A, InsR-B, IGF-1R and Hybrid expression in lamellar tissue (LT) and insulin responsive tissues from horses and examine the effect of dietary nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) on mRNA expression of these receptors in LT, skeletal muscle, liver and 2 adipose tissue (AT) depots of lean and obese ponies. In vivo experiment. LT samples were evaluated by RT-qPCR for receptor mRNA expression (n = 8) and immunoblotting for protein expression (n = 3). Archived LT, skeletal muscle, liver and AT from lean and obese mixed-breed ponies fed either a low (~7% NSC as dry matter (DM); n = 5 lean, 5 obese) or high NSC diet (~42% NSC as DM; n = 6 lean, 6 obese) for 7 days were evaluated by RT-qPCR to determine the effect of body condition and diet on expression of the receptors in different tissues. Significance was set at P≤0.05. LT expresses both InsR isoforms, IGF-1R and Hybrid. LT IGF-1R gene expression was greater than either InsR isoform and InsR-A expression was greater than InsR-B (P≤0.05). Obesity significantly lowered IGF-1R, InsR-A and InsR-B mRNA expression in LT and InsR-A in tailhead AT. High NSC diet lowered expression of all 3 receptor types in liver; IGF-1R and InsR-A in LT and InsR-A in tailhead AT. LT expresses IGF-1R, InsR isoforms, and Hybrids. The functional characteristics of these receptors and their role in endocrinopathic laminitis warrants further investigation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 06/2015; DOI:10.1111/evj.12474
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    ABSTRACT: Back pain is a common cause of gait alterations and poor performance in horses, but the available imaging modalities are frequently insufficient to isolate the underlying pathology. In people, epidural endoscopy (epiduroscopy) is successfully used to diagnose and treat challenging cases of lower back pain. Endoscopy of the cervical epidural space has previously been reported in anaesthetised horses. To develop a technique for lumbosacral epiduroscopy in standing horses and to describe the endoscopic anatomy of the lumbosacral epidural space. Pilot study to assess the feasibility of lumbosacral epiduroscopy in 5 horse cadavers. The cadavers of 5 horses, weighing 457-694 kg (mean 570 kg), were suspended in an upright position. Vascular dilators of increasing size were inserted between the first 2 moveable vertebrae caudal to the sacrum to create a minimally invasive approach into the epidural space. A flexible videoendoscope was introduced and advanced as far cranially as the length of the endoscope permitted. The lumbosacral epidural space underwent gross necropsy examination following the procedure. The endoscope was successfully inserted into the epidural space in all horses. Saline injection through the working channel of the endoscope allowed the following anatomical structures to be seen: dura mater, left and right lumbosacral spinal nerves, cauda equina, epidural fat, connective tissue and blood vessels. Using the 60 cm working length of the endoscope, the epidural space could be examined as far cranial as L3 to T18, depending on the size of the horse. No gross damage to epidural neurovascular structures was observed on necropsy examination. Lumbosacral epiduroscopy is technically feasible in standing horses and may become a valuable diagnostic tool in horses with caudal back or limb pain of unknown origin. Studies in live horses will be necessary to evaluate safety of the procedure. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 06/2015; DOI:10.1111/evj.12470
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    ABSTRACT: Antimicrobial resistance poses a significant threat to the continued successful use of antimicrobial agents for the treatment of bacterial infections. Whilst the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from humans has been studied extensively, less work has been undertaken in companion animals, particularly horses. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been identified as a cause of infections, with a low prevalence of nasal carriage by horses in the community but higher for hospitalised horses. Molecular characterisation has shown MRSA strains either to be predominantly of types associated with horses or of sequence type ST398. Antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli (including multidrug-resistant and extended spectrum β-lactamase [ESBL]-producing isolates) have caused infections and been documented in faecal carriage by horses, with many significant resistance mechanisms identified. More sporadic reports and molecular characterisation exist for resistance in other bacteria such as enterococci, Salmonella, Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas species. Limited work has been undertaken evaluating risk factors and much of the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from horses remains to be determined. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 06/2015; DOI:10.1111/evj.12471
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    ABSTRACT: Fusion anomalies of the epididymis with the testis may be clinically relevant in horses. However, anatomical variations in epididymal-testicular fusion have not been classified, and their clinical significance is unknown. To describe anatomical variations and clinical significance of epididymal-testicular fusion in stallions. Anatomical study of testes from castrations, and description of 2 clinical cases with atypical epididymal-testicular fusion. One-hundred-and-four testes were obtained from equine castrations. Eight patterns of epididymal-testicular fusion were identified. Two clinical cases with epididymal dislocation were also described. Close attachment of the entire epididymis to the testis was the most common pattern of fusion (40%). 95% of cryptorchid testes and 34% of scrotal testes in the studied sample had elongated proper ligaments of the testes. Dislocation of the epididymal tail was observed in 2 stallions that had atypically long proper ligaments inserted on the dorsal aspect of the testes. Patterns of epididymal-testicular fusion can vary in stallions. Elongated proper ligaments of the testes occur mostly in cryptorchid testes but are also found in stallions with scrotal testes. Epididymal dislocation may develop in stallions with long proper ligaments that are inserted dorsally on the testes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 06/2015; DOI:10.1111/evj.12464
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    ABSTRACT: The role of equid gammaherpesviruses on ocular surface diseases has been disputed, since the diagnosis is usually based on clinical symptoms and detection of viral DNA from samples obtained from live animals. To describe the clinical course, results of PCR analysis, in situ hybridisation, cell culture and pathohistologic findings of select cases in a presumed outbreak of herpesvirus infection in a group of 15 Icelandic horses. Case series. Pooled ocular and nasal swabs and peripheral blood mononuclear cells of horses diagnosed clinically with herpesvirus associated keratoconjunctivitis were analysed for presence of EHV-2 and EHV-5 using realtime PCR. Necropsy specimens from one horse, euthanised due to deterioration of clinical symptoms were examined histopathologically, and analysed for presence of EHV-2 and EHV-5 using realtime PCR. In situ hybridisation and cell culture of select samples were performed. All horses with symptoms of severe keratoconjunctivitis were positive for presence of either EHV-2 and/or EHV-5 using realtime PCR. Assessment of necropsy specimens of the most severely affected case, revealed presence of EHV-2 and/or EHV-5 in several ocular and extraocular anatomical locations. The remaining horses responded favourably to symptomatic treatment. This case series illustrates a severe outbreak of keratoconjunctivitis in a group of Icelandic horses, with suspected gammaherpesvirus involvement. For the first time equid gammaherpesviruses were detected in intraocular anatomical locations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 06/2015; DOI:10.1111/evj.12465
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    ABSTRACT: Diagnostic analgesia is an integral part of equine lameness examinations, but is challenging to perform in uncooperative horses. Using sedation to facilitate this might, because of analgesic and ataxia-inducing effects, interfere with lameness evaluation. To evaluate whether sedation with low-dose xylazine would alter lameness amplitude as measured by body-mounted inertial sensors(a) . Controlled experiment. Forty-four horses were randomly split into 2 groups. Lameness was measured using body-mounted inertial sensors before and after injection of xylazine(b) (0.3 mg/kg) or saline. Sedation was measured at 5, 20 and 60 min following treatment, and lameness evaluations were performed before (time 0) and at 20 and 60 min after treatment. Forelimb lameness was determined by measuring the vector sum (VS) of mean head height maximum difference (Hmax) and mean head height minimum difference (Hmin) between all right and left forelimb strides (n>25) collected with the horse trotting in a straight line. Hindlimb lameness amplitude was determined by measuring mean pelvic height maximum difference (Pmax) and minimum difference (Pmin) between right and left hindlimb strides. Numbers of horses staying the same, improving, or worsening were compared between groups at each time interval. There were no significant differences in head or pelvic movement asymmetry between xylazine and saline treatment groups. However, a few horses with forelimb lameness in the xylazine treatment group showed large decrease in head movement asymmetry (decrease in forelimb lameness) at 60 min following sedation. Low-dose sedation with xylazine may be used about the concern of potential lameness-masking effects for hindlimb lameness evaluation, but caution should be used in some horse with forelimb lameness of mild severity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 06/2015; DOI:10.1111/evj.12463
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    ABSTRACT: The thoracolumbar region is clinically important in horses, however the link between joint mobility and bony joint morphology has not been tested quantitatively. To establish which aspects of vertebral morphology correlate with ex vivo range of motion in the thoracolumbar region of Equus caballus, and demonstrate methodologies for linking vertebral form and function in the vertebral column. Morphometric study of osteological specimens. A digital model was created of a disarticulated thoracolumbar region to examine bone-to-bone interactions during in silico bending. Linear measurements and geometric morphometric landmarks were taken from six vertebrae per specimen (specimen n = 5, vertebrae n = 30), and compared to experimental range of motion in dorsiflexion, ventroflexion, lateroflexion and axial rotation data using Spearman's rank correlation, to test a priori hypotheses regarding thoracolumbar functional anatomy. Decreased sagittal mobility correlates with a tall, heart-shaped vertebral body, though bony interactions restrict dorsiflexion more than ventroflexion. Lateroflexion correlates with a narrow vertebral body, a short transverse process lever arm, and narrowly-placed horizontally-oriented zygapophyses. Lateral joints also restrict lateroflexion in the posterior lumbar region. Axial rotation is related to shape of the zygapophyseal joint. These preliminary data suggest that vertebral joint morphology does determine experimentally-measured range of motion, but patterns depend upon the type of motion. These methods are useful for identifying functionally-relevant morphological variation and suggest osteological features are important in determining motion. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 05/2015; DOI:10.1111/evj.12461
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence suggests there is a link between Equine Atypical Myopathy (EAM) and ingestion of sycamore maple tree seeds. To further evaluate the hypothesis that the ingestion of hypoglycin A (HGA) containing sycamore maple tree seeds causes acquired Multiple Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (MADD) and might be associated with the clinical and pathological signs of EAM. Case report. Necropsy and histopathology, using hematoxylin and eosin and sudan III stains, were performed on a 2.5 year old mare that died following the development of clinical signs of progressive muscles stiffness and recumbency. Prior to death, the animal ingested sycamore maple tree seeds (Acer pseudoplatanus). Detection of metabolites in blood and urine obtained post mortem was performed by rapid ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry. Data from this case were compared with 3 geldings with no clinical history of myopathy. Macroscopic examination revealed fragments of maple tree seeds in the stomach and severe myopathy of several muscle groups including Mm. intercostales, deltoidei and trapezii. Histologically, the affected muscles showed severe, acute rhabdomyolysis with extensive accumulation of finely dispersed fat droplets in the cytoplasm of degenerated skeletal muscle cells not present in controls. Urine and serum concentrations of several acyl carnitines and acyl glycines were increased both contained metabolites of HGA, a toxic amino acid present in sycamore maple tree seeds. The study supports the hypothesis that ingestion of HGA-containing maple tree seeds may cause EAM due to acquired MADD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 05/2015; DOI:10.1111/evj.12460
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    ABSTRACT: The suspensory apparatus of the distal phalanx (SADP) is functionally and clinically important. To investigate SADP form and function and the microanatomy of its insertion zone. Descriptive gross and micro-anatomy. The feet of 6 normal Standardbred horses were sectioned into blocks along the traditional perpendicular transverse axis and along functional axes of the suspensory apparatus of the distal phalanx (SADP), decalcified and processed for staining with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Jone's periodic acid silver methenamine (PASM) or Masson's trichrome stains. In traditional midline toe transverse plane sections SADP collagen bundles were irregular with an unstructured appearance. In sections made transversely along planes (70° and 30°) aligned with the long axis of the SADP, collagen bundles were arranged in linear rows. The linear bundles were continuous from their origin on parietal ridges of the distal phalanx through to the secondary epidermal lamellar basement membrane. At the parietal ridge interface the collagen bundles coalesced into smaller, strongly silver staining, linear structures that penetrated the cortical bone and merged with adjacent osteons. In proximal sagittal sections collagen bundles were also linear, angled at 70° to the ground surface. In distal sagittal sections collagen bundles were also arranged linearly but in a multi-angled, 'spokes of a wheel' arrangement, centred on the distal phalanx apex. Sectioning along functional axes demonstrated the true suspensory nature of the SADP connecting the parietal surface to the lamellar hoof wall. SADP/distal phalanx insertions showed penetrating fibres extending through the chondral-apophyseal interface up to and between distal phalanx osteons. Lamellar measurements made from sections perpendicular to the dorsal aspect of the distal phalanx are underestimations but if made along the longer, functional midline 70° transverse plane would accurately reflect the suspensory function of the lamellae. Laminitis pathophysiology correctly viewed as SADP degradation should inform logical, future therapeutic strategies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 05/2015; DOI:10.1111/evj.12459
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    ABSTRACT: Ambient temperature has been identified as a risk factor for exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH) in racing Thoroughbreds. This warranted a more expansive investigation of climatic conditions on the incidence and severity of EIPH. The impact of other variables, such as the type of bit used, tongue ties, and non-standard shoes, has not been reported and also warrant investigation. To examine the effect of various climatic variables as contributing risk factors for EIPH. Other previously uninvestigated variables, as well as standard track and population factors will also be examined. Cross-sectional study. Thoroughbred racehorses competing at metropolitan racetracks in Perth, Western Australia were examined, 30-200 minutes post race with tracheobronchoscopy. Examination took place at 48 race meetings over a 12-month period. Examinations were graded (0 to 4), independently by 2 experienced veterinarians. Univariable analyses were performed, and variables with a P<0.25 were entered into a multivariable logistic regression analysis. The analysis was performed twice using the presence of blood (EIPH grade 0 vs. grades ≥1) and EIPH grades ≤1 vs. EIPH grades ≥2 as dependent variables. EIPH was diagnosed in 56.6% of observations. Lower ambient temperature was significantly associated with EIPH grades ≥1 (OR 0.95; 95% CI 0.93-0.98) and EIPH grades ≥2 (OR 0.97; 95% CI 0.94-1.0). Bar shoes were significantly associated with EIPH grades ≥1 (OR 6.35; 95% CI 2.17-18.54) and EIPH grades ≥2 (OR 2.72 95% CI 1.3-5.68). Increasing race distance was significantly associated with EIPH grade ≥1, and increasing lifetime starts was significantly associated with EIPH grade ≥2. Ambient temperature is a risk factor for EIPH in Thoroughbred racehorses, with lower temperatures associated with increased risk. Bar shoes are a novel risk factor for EIPH in this population. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 05/2015; DOI:10.1111/evj.12458