Equine Veterinary Journal Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: British Equine Veterinary Association, Wiley

Journal description

This unrivalled international scientific journal was first published in 1968 when there were four issues each year. It now appears bi-monthly with around 88 pages per issue containing articles with original and potentially important findings. Contributions are received from sources worldwide, including North America, Europe and Australia. EVJ has also produced a number of Special Issues, which generally appear as an additional 7th issue devoted to a specific topic, including Immunology, Colic, Evidence-Based Medicine and Laminitis. These extra journals are distributed free to all subscribers, and are available to purchase from the EVJ Online Bookshop. All papers published in the journal are subjected to peer review and once articles have been accepted for publication they should appear in the journal within six to eight months. They present new developments in research being carried out by universities, veterinary schools and institutes devoted to equine and/or comparative physiology, pathology, medicine or surgery and from workers in practice. The journal strives to publish clinically orientated work and categorises articles into General Articles, Clinical Evidence Articles, Short Communications, Case Reports and Review Articles. General Articles are often accompanied by an Editorial Leader which gives the reader a further insight into a particular topic and provides further reference information. The Clinical Evidence category was introduced in 2003, for articles in which the objective is to answer questions of clinical importance in a controlled manner based on data obtainable in practice.

Current impact factor: 2.37

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 2.374
2013 Impact Factor 2.369
2012 Impact Factor 2.286
2011 Impact Factor 1.456
2010 Impact Factor 1.799
2009 Impact Factor 1.837
2008 Impact Factor 2.08
2007 Impact Factor 1.607
2006 Impact Factor 1.73
2005 Impact Factor 1.317
2004 Impact Factor 1.44
2003 Impact Factor 1.496
2002 Impact Factor 1.256
2001 Impact Factor 1.816
2000 Impact Factor 1.479
1999 Impact Factor 1.411
1998 Impact Factor 1.329
1997 Impact Factor 1.58

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.20
Cited half-life >10.0
Immediacy index 0.88
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.51
Website Equine Veterinary Journal website
ISSN 2042-3306
OCLC 225017606
Material type Periodical
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details


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    • If OnlineOpen is available, AHRC and ESRC authors, may self-archive after 24 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 07/08/2014
    • This policy is an exception to the default policies of 'Wiley'
  • Classification

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Reason for performing study: To evaluate and compare the diagnostic capability of arthroscopy and ultrasonography for the detection of pathologic change in equine stifle joints. Although descriptions of the arthroscopic and ultrasonographic boundaries of the normal femorotibial joint exist, there are few examples in the literature comparing the pathologic changes observed with each imaging modality. Objectives: To evaluate and compare arthroscopic and ultrasonographic examinations for characterising pathologic change in the stifle joint. To describe how the results of arthroscopic and ultrasonographic examinations may differ in characterising the severity of lesions and to evaluate which lesions are best assessed with each modality. Study design: Retrospective review of ultrasonographic and arthroscopic examinations. Methods: The structures of the stifle joint were evaluated and graded for pathological change by scoring arthroscopic and ultrasonographic examinations. The presence and severity of the lesions were then compared between each modality. Results: Medial meniscal lesions were detected more often with ultrasonography than with arthroscopy. Conversely, arthroscopy was better for detection of CrMMTL tearing. Articular cartilage defects were best detected with arthroscopy, and periarticular osteophytes of the medial femoral condyle were best detected with ultrasonography. Four patients had defects within one of the patellar ligaments, all of which were only characterised with ultrasonography. Conclusions: Ultrasonography and arthroscopy should be combined to best evaluate pathology of the stifle, since each modality has its own limitations depending on the location and type of lesion. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 11/2015; DOI:10.1111/evj.12541
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing study: There are limited reports on the efficacy of functional orthodontic correction of overjet or overbite in foals. Objectives: To report the outcome of using orthodontic tension bands in combination with an inclined plane biteplate in the treatment of overjet, with or without concurrent overbite and rates of correction of these two malocclusions and associated complications and to examine factors associated with outcomes. Study design: Retrospective case series. Methods: Clinical records for 73 foals treated at a single clinic, by the same surgeon were analysed. Overall change and rates of change in overjet and overbite were calculated. Associations between potential explanatory variables including age, severity of initial malocclusion and surgeon experience were examined using linear regression. Results: Records for 73 foals (43 colts, 30 fillies) were evaluated. The median number of implant placements per animal was 2 (range 1-4). Of 61 cases with complete records, reduction in overjet and overbite dimensions were achieved in 95% and 90% of foals, respectively, with mean reductions in malocclusions of 9.9 mm and 8.4 mm, respectively. Complete reduction in overjet was achieved in 25% (15/61) and reduction of malocclusion dimensions to ≤5 mm (i.e. functionally corrected) was achieved in 51% (31/61). Increasing animal age was significantly associated with decreased total reduction in overjet and decreased rate of reduction in overbite. Increased original severity of overbite was significantly associated with increased rate of its correction. Short-term complications included intra-operative haemorrhage, transient facial nerve neuropraxia and irritation of the mare's udder by the brace. Longer term complications included cheek teeth diastema formation and incisor discoloration and maleruption. Conclusions: Using this technique, correction or improvement of these malocclusions is rapid, with minimal complications. Often more than one implant is required. Animal age at the start of treatment is associated with rate and amount of correction achievable, so initiating treatment at an early age is recommended. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 11/2015; DOI:10.1111/evj.12540
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing study: Crib-biting is a common oral stereotypy. Although most treatments involve prevention, the efficacy of various anti-crib devices, including surgically implanted gingival rings, has thus far not been empirically tested. Objectives: Demonstrate the effect that 2 anti-crib collars, muzzle, and gingival rings have on crib-biting, other maintenance behaviours, and cortisol levels in established crib-biting horses. Study design: Randomised, crossover clinical trial. Methods: In experiment I, 2 anti-crib collars and a muzzle were used on 8 established crib-biting horses; horses wore each of 3 devices for 7 days, with a 7-day device-free period between treatments. Horses were video recorded for 24 h at least 3 times each week prior to any device placement, and always the day after a device was removed. In experiment II, gingival rings were used in 6 established crib-biting horses; horses were video recorded for 3 days prior to ring implantation and the day after surgery until the rings became ineffective. Plasma cortisol levels were assessed every day during experiment II and on Days 1, 3, and 5 of each week during experiment I. Results: All devices significantly reduced crib-biting compared to control periods. There was no significant difference in crib-bite reduction amongst devices in experiment I, or between pre-device periods and the first day the device was removed. The only increase in plasma cortisol occurred on the day of surgery in experiment II. Conclusions: Common anti-crib devices are effective in reducing crib-biting and significant distress was not evident from our findings. We did not find a post-inhibitory rebound effect. Surgical rings were successful only temporarily and implantation was likely painful to the horses. Because stereotypies involve suboptimal environmental conditions, efforts should be made to improve husbandry factors previously shown to contribute to crib-biting, and research into decreasing horses' motivation to crib-bite should continue. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 11/2015; DOI:10.1111/evj.12534
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing the study: There is a lack of evidence regarding genetic parameters of health traits in Swiss Warmblood horses. Objectives: To estimate heritabilities of equine sarcoid disease, horn quality of the hooves, prognathism and increased filling of talocrural joints as a possible indicator for osteochondrosis in Swiss Warmblood horses examined at the field tests for 3-year-olds between 2005 and 2013. Study design: Retrospective analysis of breed society database. Methods: Swiss Warmblood horses were examined clinically by 13 veterinarians at field tests in Switzerland between 2005 and 2013. The presence of sarcoids, horn quality of the hooves, incisor occlusion and increased joint filling were assessed and recorded. Records of 3715 horses were integrated in a pedigree comprising 217,282 horses. Variance components and heritabilities were estimated on the liability scale using MTGSAM. Results: The prevalences of the examined traits were rather low, ranging from 2.4 to 13.0%. Heritabilities estimated were 0.21 ± 0.07 for the occurrence of sarcoids, 0.04 ± 0.02 for hooves with markedly brittle and friable horn quality, 0.03 ± 0.01 for hooves with marked growth ring formation, 0.06 ± 0.03 for prognathism and 0.08 ± 0.04 for increased filling of the talocrural joint (an indicator of possible osteochondrosis). The influence of the examiner on the variance of these observations was considerable. Conclusions: With the exception of equine sarcoid disease, estimates for the heritabilities for the traits examined here were low. A standardised examination protocol may reduce the variance due to the examiner. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 11/2015; DOI:10.1111/evj.12537
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing study: There is a paucity of information regarding the association between common disorders and outcome over time in a large population of ill equine neonates. Objective: To describe the relative frequency of neonatal disorders in a large population of foals admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit, to determine the disorders and factors associated with non-survival, and to determine if the outcome of ill neonatal foals has improved over time. Study design: Retrospective study. Methods: Cases were selected from equine neonatal (≤14 days of age) admissions between 1982 and 2008. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify the disorders, clinical parameters, and laboratory variables associated with non-survival or natural death, and to assess survival over time after accounting for potential confounding variables. Results: A total of 1065 foals were included in the study. Overall, 775 of 1065 (72.8%) foals survived to be discharged from the hospital and 290 (27.2%) foals were non-survivors. Age at admission, sepsis score, proportion of foals with positive blood cultures, and proportion of survivors were significantly different (P<0.001) between primary disease categories. Variables retained in the multivariable model for non-survival included positive blood culture, neutrophils <2.28 x 10(9) /l, temperature ≤37.6°C, bicarbonate, PCO2 , presence of infectious orthopaedic disorders, and sepsis score. The adjusted odds of survival for foals admitted in the 2000s were approximately 3.4 (95% CI = 1.9 to 6.0, P<0.001) times higher than that of foals admitted in the 1980s. Conclusions: Primary disorders, sepsis, temperature, acid base status, and neutropenia are the main factors that affect outcome in this population of equine neonates. The survival of foals admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit has increased dramatically over a 26 year period. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 11/2015; DOI:10.1111/evj.12536

  • Equine Veterinary Journal 11/2015; 47(6):753-755. DOI:10.1111/evj.12480

  • Equine Veterinary Journal 11/2015; 47(6):633-634. DOI:10.1111/evj.12510

  • Equine Veterinary Journal 11/2015; 47(6):750-752. DOI:10.1111/evj.12485
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing study: Acid-base imbalances observed in human paediatric patients are associated with outcome. Likewise, neonatal foals may have different acid-base imbalances associated with diagnosis or prognosis. Objectives: To determine acid-base imbalances by the quantitative method in ill neonatal foals and to assess their association with diagnosis and prognosis. Study design: Observational prospective clinical study. Methods: This study included 65 ill neonatal foals (32 septic, 33 non-septic) admitted to an equine referral hospital from 2005 to 2011with acid-base parameters determined on admission and a control group of 33 healthy neonatal foals. Blood pH, pCO2 , sodium, potassium, chloride, L-lactate, albumin and phosphate concentrations were determined. Bicarbonate, globulin, measured strong ion difference (SIDm ), non-volatile weak buffer concentrations (Atot ), base excess and its components were calculated. ANCOVA and multiple linear regression statistical analyses were performed. Results are summarised as mean ± s.d. for normally distributed variables and median [25-75th percentiles] for non-normally distributed ones. Results: Sixty-three per cent of ill foals had respiratory alkalosis and 58.5% had SIDm acidosis. The combination of both alterations was detected in 21 of 65 ill foals and abnormal pH was found in 24 of 65. Compared to healthy foals, ill foals had significantly lower SIDm (non-septic 31.6 ± 6.3 (p<0.01) and septic 32.0 ± 6.4 (p<0.01) vs. control 40.3 ± 3.1 mmol/L), potassium (non-septic 3.5 [3.3-3.8] (p<0.01) and septic 3.6 [3.2-4.3] (p = 0.01) vs. control 4.2 [3.8-4.5] mEq/L) and higher L-lactate (non-septic 5.1 ± 4.2 (p = 0.01) and septic 5.0 ± 3.7 (p = 0.03) vs. control 2.5 ± 1.3 mmol/L). Significantly higher L-lactate and venous pCO2 were found in non-surviving (6.4 ± 3.5 mmol/L (p = 0.04) and 51 ± 13 mmHg (p<0.01)) compared to surviving foals. Conclusions: The most common acid-base imbalances observed in ill foals were respiratory alkalosis, SIDm acidosis or mixed respiratory alkalosis with strong ion acidosis. Increased venous pCO2 and blood L-lactate concentration were associated with poor outcome. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 11/2015; DOI:10.1111/evj.12542

  • Equine Veterinary Journal 11/2015; 47(6). DOI:10.1111/evj.12495

  • Equine Veterinary Journal 11/2015; 47(6):747-749. DOI:10.1111/evj.12469
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing this study: Environmental factors contribute to respiratory diseases in horses and humans. During exercise, equine ventilation is increased, potentially increasing exposure of the airways to inhaled particulates. Currently, there is very little information on the quality of air in riding arenas. Objectives: To evaluate air quality and dust particle concentrations in indoor riding arenas before and after use for riding. Study design: Longitudinal study. Methods: Air quality was assessed in 4 indoor riding arenas in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany on a monthly basis for one year. Concentrations of particles in 6 particle fractions from 0.3 to 5.0 μm were measured in air collected at 4 points in the riding arenas approximately at the height of the horses' (1.5 m) and the riders' noses (2.5 m), before and after the arenas were used by one horse performing standardised riding session. Results: There were significant differences in the numbers of particles between the arenas within the months and between the months within the arenas. Particle numbers were significantly influenced by the month and the activities in the arenas (before and after riding). The effect of the month on differences in the dust concentration may relate to surface watering. A significant increase in numbers of particles was observed after the riding session. Significant interactions were found between measuring heights and month within arena (p<0.01) and there was an interaction between measuring height and time points (before and after riding, p = 0.02). Conclusions: The amount of dust dispersed in the air increases during riding in indoor arenas and this appears to be influenced by footing material, direct connections between the arena and stables and season, possibly reflecting surface watering practices. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 10/2015; DOI:10.1111/evj.12528
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing study: Diagnosis of equine grass sickness (EGS) can be challenging. We hypothesised that subgemmal plexus neurons are chromatolytic in EGS. If correct, histopathologic examination of gustatory papillae biopsies could aid pre-mortem diagnosis of EGS, and EGS could represent a spontaneous model of subgemmal neuronal chromatolysis to facilitate study of the pathology of structures involved in taste. Objective: To compare subgemmal plexi and gustatory papillae in EGS and control horses. Study design: Observational study. Methods: Conventional histology and immunohistochemistry were used to compare subgemmal plexi and gustatory papillae in post mortem samples from 10 EGS and 13 control horses. Results: Chromatolytic neurons were present in all 57 EGS sections which had identifiable neurons, and in only one of 57 control sections. Blinded examination of all haematoxylin-eosin stained sections from each horse for chromatolysis facilitated accurate differentiation of EGS and control horses, with a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI 93.7-100) and specificity of 98.2% (90.6-100) for diagnosing EGS, however the presence of chromatolytic neurons in one control section indicated that multiple sections per horse must be analysed to achieve diagnostic accuracy. EGS was not associated with alterations in taste bud density or morphology, proportion of taste buds with neurofilament immunopositive intragemmal axons and proportion of taste buds containing cells undergoing apoptosis, suggesting taste buds had adequate neurotrophic support at the time of sampling. EGS horses had no detectable alteration in lingual gland morphology, but had increased proportions of apoptotic lingual serous gland cells. Conclusions: While identification of chromatolytic subgemmal neurons in post mortem samples correctly differentiated EGS and control horses, further study is required to evaluate this technique for pre-mortem EGS diagnosis. EGS represents a spontaneous model of subgemmal neuronal chromatolysis that facilitates study of the pathology of structures involved in taste. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 10/2015; DOI:10.1111/evj.12530
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing study: The intestinal microbiota is a complex polymicrobial ecosystem that exerts extremely important roles in the development and maintenance of health. Recently, as new sequencing technologies have become more available, there has been a revolution in the understanding of the equine intestinal microbiota. However, studies characterising the pioneer intestinal bacteria colonising foals and its development over time are still limited. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to characterise the intestinal bacterial colonisation of newborn foals and to follow individual animals over time until 9 months of age. Study design: Longitudinal study. Methods: Eleven pregnant mares from one farm were enrolled and faecal samples were collected longitudinally from mares and foals during their first day of life and again periodically until foals were 9 months old. The V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Results: Newborn foals had a rich and diverse bacterial community, which was mainly comprised of the Firmicutes phylum with several low abundant genera being unique at this age. Foals between 2 and 30 days of age had significantly decreased diversity compared to older animals, with the majority of organisms classified as Akkermansia spp. After 60 days of life, the intestinal microbiota structure tended to remain stable, but differences in community membership were still present between 9-month-old animals and adult mares. Several differences at the phylum level were observed between different ages, including a higher abundance of Fibrobacteres after weaning. Conclusions: The intestinal microbiota of the equine newborn is already complex by the first day of life. Microbiota adaptation occurs during the first month and the microbiota of foals older than 60 days resemble the adult's microbiota, although differences in community membership are still present. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 10/2015; DOI:10.1111/evj.12532
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    ABSTRACT: Reason for performing study: The frequent use of intra-articular triamcinolone acetonide (TA) in performance horses warrants further study of the duration of as well as beneficial and detrimental effects on gene expression associated with administration. Objectives: To assess the effects of intra-articular administration of TA on the expression of selected anti and pro inflammatory and structural matrix genes following its administration into joints of exercised Thoroughbred horses and to correlate these effects with plasma and synovial fluid drug concentrations. Study design: Block design experiment. Methods: Eight exercised horses received a single intra-articular administration of 9 mg of TA. Synovial fluid samples were collected prior to and up to 49 days following drug administration from the treated and contralateral joints. Microarray and qRT-PCR analysis were used to assess changes in expression levels of various inflammatory and structural genes post drug administration. Results: Drug concentrations were no longer quantifiable by 6 and 28 days following drug administration in plasma and synovial fluid, respectively. In total, the expression level of 5,490 genes were significantly altered on micro-array analysis, following intra-articular TA administration. Of the genes selected for further study by qRT-PCR, significant changes in inflammatory genes (ANAX1, COX-1 and TSG6) and structural genes, (collagen and aggrecan) were noted. Conclusions: This study supports the use of synovial fluid as a biological matrix for studying the effects of corticosteroids on gene expression. For the majority of genes studied, effects on expression relative to baseline for both inflammatory and matrix genes were prolonged relative to plasma and synovial fluid TA concentrations. Down-regulation of collagen gene expression warrants the careful use of TA in horses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 10/2015; DOI:10.1111/evj.12531
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing study: Equine inertial measurement unit (IMU) gait analysis has gained in popularity for use in horses. Similar transducers are now found in consumer grade smartphones. However, to date there are no scientific data assessing their use for assessment of movement (a)symmetry in the horse. Objectives: To establish limits of agreement (LoA, mean difference ± 2 s.d.) between a validated specialist IMU system and IMU data collected with a consumer grade smartphone for quantification of movement symmetry and range of motion (ROM) of pelvic movement in the trotting horse. Study design: Method comparison study based on quantitative gait data. Methods: Twenty horses were equipped with a specialist IMU (MTw, Xsens) and a consumer grade smartphone (Apple iPhone6), both securely attached immediately in front of one another in the midline over the sacrum. Horses were trotted in-hand and lunged on both reins on a soft arena surface. Median values for movement symmetry and ROM were determined over a series of strides for each exercise condition. Data collection was repeated in 6 horses to determine the effect of medio-lateral sensor positioning on outcome parameters. Results: Valid data from 17 horses resulted in LoA values of -3.7 ± 9.2 mm for MinDiff (difference between left and right hind mid stance), -0.6 ± 6.0 mm for MaxDiff (difference between left and right hind propulsion) and -0.8 ± 7.4 mm for ROM across horses and exercises. LoAs were narrower for straight line exercise and the negative bias was considerably reduced when moving the smartphone to the right of the midline. Conclusions: The consumer grade smartphone provided meaningful gait data in horses: LoAs in particular for in-hand exercise and when adjusting the medio-lateral positioning are similar to published asymmetry thresholds. Due to the sensitivity to medio-lateral positioning, particular care should be taken when placing an IMU over the midline of the horse. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 10/2015; DOI:10.1111/evj.12529
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing study: Hypoventilation or apnoea, caused by the induction of general anaesthesia, may cause hypoxaemia. Pre-oxygenation may lengthen the period before this happens. No scientific studies are published on pre-oxygenation in equine anaesthesia. Objectives: To determine whether supplementation of oxygen at a flow rate of 15 litres per minute for 3 minutes via a nasal cannula before induction of general anaesthesia is effective in elevating the arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2 ) directly after induction. Study design: Randomised, prospective clinical trial. Methods: Eighteen adult horses, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1 or 2, undergoing elective anaesthesia were randomly allocated to one of 2 groups. The first group (control group) received no oxygen supplementation before induction of general anaesthesia, whereas the second group (oxygen group) did. All horses were anaesthetised with intravenous detomidine, butorphanol, ketamine, midazolam and isoflurane. Directly after induction (T = 0) and 30 min later (T = 30) an arterial blood sample was taken for blood gas analysis. At T = 30 an estimate of intrapulmonary shunt fraction (Qs/Qt) was calculated. Results: At T = 0 arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2 ) was significantly higher in the oxygen group compared to the control group (11.0 ± 2.6 kPa versus 7.4 ± 1.6 kPa; mean ± s.d., p = 0.005), at T = 30 differences were not statistically significant. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2 ) and Qs/Qt did not differ between the groups. Conclusions: Supplementing oxygen by a nasal cannula before induction of general anaesthesia in horses is feasible and does effectively elevate the PaO2 immediately after induction. Future research is needed to determine whether supplementation of oxygen before induction of general anaesthesia in horses will affect outcomes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 10/2015; DOI:10.1111/evj.12526
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing the study: An analysis of the factors leading to equine disease events was used to support the development of international recommendations for mitigating the risk of disease dissemination through sport horse movements (high health, high performance -"HHP" horses). Objectives: A systematic review was undertaken to identify the factors resulting in equine disease events following international movement of horses to draw lessons in support of the development of international recommendations for the safe movements of a specific subpopulation of horses: the HHP sport horses. Study design and methods: The review covered disease events that occurred from 1995 to 2014, identified from the databases of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and international surveillance reports. Results: Overall, 54 disease events were identified, of which 7 were contained in post-arrival quarantine and the others resulted in the introduction of pathogens into importing countries. For 81% of the introductions, the OIE recommendations applicable to the diseases involved had not been complied with. Subclinical infections are a challenge for international trade: 88% of the regulated movements that resulted in introductions involved infected horses that showed no clinical signs at the time of import. Biosecurity and management practices in resident equine populations were identified as important mitigating factors in preventing disease spread to the local horse population. Conclusions: The global increase in international horse movements, if not appropriately regulated and supervised by competent Veterinary Authorities and respective equine industry partners, could potentially lead to increased global spread of infectious equine diseases. Appropriate mitigation measures and compliance with OIE import recommendations for specific diseases can significantly reduce this risk. The recommendations proposed under the HHP approach take into account the mitigation measures identified by this review as important factors in preventing pathogen introduction and spread. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 10/2015; DOI:10.1111/evj.12523
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing study: Horses may adapt to a wide range of temperatures and weather conditions. Humans often interfere with this natural thermoregulation ability by clipping and use of blankets. Objectives: To investigate the effects of different winter weather conditions on shelter seeking behaviour of horses and their preference for additional heat. Study design: Observational study in various environments. Methods: Adult (n = 22) horses were given a free choice test between staying outdoors, going into a heated shelter compartment or into a non-heated shelter compartment. Horse location and behaviour was scored using instantaneous sampling every minute for one hour. Each horse was tested once per day and weather factors were continuously recorded by a local weather station. Results: The weather conditions influenced time spent outdoors, ranging from 52% (of all observations) on days with mild temperatures, wind and rain to 88% on days with <0°C and dry weather. Shivering was only observed during mild temperatures and rain/sleet. Small Warmblood horses were observed to select outdoors less (34% of all observations) than small Coldblood horses (80%). We found significant correlations between hair coat sample weight and number of observations outdoors (ρ = 0,23; P = 0.004). Conclusions: Horses selected shelters the most on days with precipitation and horses changed from a non-heated compartment to a heated compartment as weather changed from calm and dry to wet and windy. Horse breed category affected the use of shelter and body condition score and hair coat weight were associated with voluntary shelter selection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 10/2015; DOI:10.1111/evj.12522
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing the study: The microbiota plays a key role in health and disease. Probiotics are a potential way to therapeutically modify the intestinal microbiota and prevent disease. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of probiotics on the bacterial microbiota of foals during and after administration. Study design: Randomised placebo controlled field trial. Methods: Thirty-eight healthy neonatal foals enrolled in a prior study were selected. The foals had received a multi-strain probiotic (four Lactobacillus spp 3-4x10(3) cfu/g each, Bifidobacterium animalis spp. lactis, 1x 10(3-4) cfu/g) or placebo once daily for 3 weeks. A total of 3 faecal samples were collected from each foal at 2-week intervals and assessed via metagenomic sequencing. The Wilcoxon test was used to compare data between treatment groups. Results: There were no changes on the phylum, order or class level between treatment groups at any age (all p>0.08) but some significant changes in relative abundance of families. Probiotic administration did not result in an increased relative abundance of lactobacilli or bifidobacteria at any age (Lactobacillus: p = 0.95, p = 0.1 and p = 0.2, Bifidobacterium: p = 0.26, p = 0.62 and p = 0.12 for week 2, week 4 and week 6 respectively). Lactobacillus was enriched in the probiotic group at week 6 on LEfSe analysis (LDA0.34, p = 0.016). There was no effect on alpha diversity (all p>0.24) or community structure when parsimony and unifrac analysis were applied (all p>0.65). Conclusions: There were limited effects of probiotic treatment on the bacterial microbiota of foals. The studied probiotic based on lactobacilli and bifidobacteria has a limited potential for therapeutic modification of the gastrointestinal microbiota. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 10/2015; DOI:10.1111/evj.12524