Equine Veterinary Journal Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: British Equine Veterinary Association, Wiley

Journal description

This unrivalled international scientific journal was first published in 1968 when there were four issues each year. It now appears bi-monthly with around 88 pages per issue containing articles with original and potentially important findings. Contributions are received from sources worldwide, including North America, Europe and Australia. EVJ has also produced a number of Special Issues, which generally appear as an additional 7th issue devoted to a specific topic, including Immunology, Colic, Evidence-Based Medicine and Laminitis. These extra journals are distributed free to all subscribers, and are available to purchase from the EVJ Online Bookshop. All papers published in the journal are subjected to peer review and once articles have been accepted for publication they should appear in the journal within six to eight months. They present new developments in research being carried out by universities, veterinary schools and institutes devoted to equine and/or comparative physiology, pathology, medicine or surgery and from workers in practice. The journal strives to publish clinically orientated work and categorises articles into General Articles, Clinical Evidence Articles, Short Communications, Case Reports and Review Articles. General Articles are often accompanied by an Editorial Leader which gives the reader a further insight into a particular topic and provides further reference information. The Clinical Evidence category was introduced in 2003, for articles in which the objective is to answer questions of clinical importance in a controlled manner based on data obtainable in practice.

Current impact factor: 2.37

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 2.374
2013 Impact Factor 2.369
2012 Impact Factor 2.286
2011 Impact Factor 1.456
2010 Impact Factor 1.799
2009 Impact Factor 1.837
2008 Impact Factor 2.08
2007 Impact Factor 1.607
2006 Impact Factor 1.73
2005 Impact Factor 1.317
2004 Impact Factor 1.44
2003 Impact Factor 1.496
2002 Impact Factor 1.256
2001 Impact Factor 1.816
2000 Impact Factor 1.479
1999 Impact Factor 1.411
1998 Impact Factor 1.329
1997 Impact Factor 1.58

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.20
Cited half-life >10.0
Immediacy index 0.88
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.51
Website Equine Veterinary Journal website
ISSN 2042-3306
OCLC 225017606
Material type Periodical
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details


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    • If OnlineOpen is available, AHRC and ESRC authors, may self-archive after 24 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 07/08/2014
    • This policy is an exception to the default policies of 'Wiley'
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing the study: Racetrack injuries are of welfare concern and prevention of injuries is an important goal in many racing jurisdictions. Over the years this has led to more detailed recording of clinical events on racecourses. However, risk factor analyses of clinical events at race meetings have never been reported for Switzerland OBJECTIVE: To identify discipline-specific factors that influence the occurrence of clinical events during race meetings with the ultimate aim to improve the monitoring and safety on racetracks in Switzerland and optimise racehorse welfare. Study design: Retrospective study of horse race data collected by the Swiss horse racing association. Methods: All race starts (n = 17,670, including 6,198 flat, 1,257 obstacle and 10,215 trot race starts) recorded over a period of four years (2009-2012) were analysed in multivariable mixed effect logistic regression models including horse and racecourse related data. The models were designed to identify discipline specific factors influencing the occurrence of clinical events on racecourses in Switzerland. Results: Factors influencing the risk of clinical events during races were different for each discipline. The risk of a clinical event in trot racing was lower for racing on a Porphyre-sand track than on grass tracks. Horses whose driver was also their trainer had an approximately two times higher risk for clinical events. In obstacle races, longer distances (2401-3300 m and 3301-5400 m respectively) had a protective effect compared to racing over shorter distances. In flat racing, five racecourses reported significantly less clinical events. In all three disciplines, finishing 8(th) place or later was associated with clinical events. Conclusions: Changes in management that aim to improve the safety and welfare of racehorses, such as racetrack adaptations, need to be individualised for each discipline. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 09/2015; DOI:10.1111/evj.12515
  • Equine Veterinary Journal 09/2015; 47 Suppl 48:1. DOI:10.1111/evj.12486_1
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing study: New therapeutic strategies to modulate immune responses in human and equine allergic airway diseases are under extensive investigation. Stimulation of Treg cells with immune modulating agents is a novel therapeutic option. Objectives: The aim of this field study was to compare the effects of a nebulised nanoparticulate CpG immunotherapy (CpG-GNP) with and without specific allergens. Study design: Longitudinal clinical study comparing 2 therapeutic options. Methods: Twenty RAO-affected horses were divided into 2 treatment groups (CpG alone and CpG with allergens). Two specific allergens were selected for each horse according to anamnesis and a functional in vitro test. Treatments were given by nebulisation 7 times and the horses were examined 3 times: baseline (I), after the treatment course (II), and after 6 weeks later (III). Clinical parameters, indirect intrapleural measurement, arterial blood gas, amount of tracheal mucus and neutrophil percentage were evaluated. Results: CpG alone resulted in a significant improvement in clinical parameters and a significant reduction of tracheal mucus after treatment and at 6 weeks post treatment. After CpG plus specific allergens, there was significant improvement of 70% of examined parameters. However, there were no significant differences in the results compared with CpG-GNP treatment alone. Conclusions: There were no significant differences between treatment groups. CpG-GNP immunotherapy alone produced a potent and persistent effect on allergic and inflammatory parameters and may have potential as for treatment of equine and human allergic inflammatory airway diseases. Ethical animal research: The study was approved by the regional legal agency for animal experiments of the Government of Bavaria, Germany (No. 55.2-1-54-2531-31-10). Owners gave informed consent for their horses' inclusion in the study. Sources of funding: Partly supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) (Germany) (GE'2044/4-1). The AeroNeb Go™ vibrating mesh nebuliser (Aerogen, Galway, Ireland) was sponsored by Inspiration Medical (Bochum, Germany). Competing interests: None declared.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 09/2015; 47 Suppl 48:26. DOI:10.1111/evj.12486_58
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing study: Training and rehabilitation techniques which improve core muscle strength are beneficial for improvement of dynamic stability of the equine vertebral column. The Equiband™ system, consisting of resistance bands attached to a customised saddle pad, is suggested to provide constant proprioceptive feedback during motion to encourage recruitment of abdominal and hindquarter musculature. Objectives: To quantify the effect of the Equiband™ system on back kinematics and movement symmetry. Study design: Longitudinal intervention study. Methods: Quantitative analysis of back movement and gait symmetry before/after a 4-week exercise programme. Inertial sensor data was collected from 7 horses at Weeks 0 and 4 of a fixed exercise protocol. Analysis with and without the Equiband™ system was completed at trot in hand on a hard surface, and for both reins on the lunge on a soft surface. Six back kinematic and 3 movement symmetry parameters were calculated according to published methods. Movement symmetry values were side-corrected to allow comparison between reins on the lunge. A mixed model (P<0.05) evaluated the effects of the Equiband™ system over time, and trotting direction on back kinematic and movement symmetry parameters. Results: The Equiband™ system significantly reduced (all P<0.02) roll, pitch and mediolateral displacement in the cranial-mid thoracic region. Across all horses, back displacement and range of motion values were significantly greater (P<0.01) on the lunge than in a straight line, movement symmetry was consistent with having corrected all horses to be left-sided. Conclusion: Preliminary results suggest the Equiband™ system may aid dynamic stabilisation of the vertebral column. Ethical animal research: This study was authorised by the Ethics and Welfare Committee of the Royal Veterinary College, London (URN Approval Number 1238). Written consent was obtained from the owner/keeper of each animal. Source of funding: Royal Veterinary College. Competing interests: N.C. Stubbs and N. Rombach developed the Equiband™ system. The remaining authors have no competing interests.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 09/2015; 47 Suppl 48:11. DOI:10.1111/evj.12486_23
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing study: Pleural effusion (PE) is reported to occur most commonly secondary to bacterial pneumonia or lung abscesses, with neoplastic effusions contributing the minority of cases. The majority of these reports originate from America and Australia, where long distance transport of horses, a recognised risk factor, appears to occur more frequently. Anecdotally, neoplastic PE is more commonly diagnosed in the UK. Objectives: To describe the causes of PE in horses resident in the UK, and to identify potential markers that can help differentiate between infectious and neoplastic causes of PE. Study design: Retrospective clinical study. Methods: Medical records from 4 referral hospitals in southern England were searched for horses diagnosed with PE. Information gathered from medical records included signalment, diagnosis (infectious vs. neoplastic), admission physical examination and biochemical findings, and characteristics of the effusion (volume, cell count, total protein [TP] concentration). Statistical comparisons were made between the neoplastic and infectious group using appropriate testing. Results: Seventy horses were identified, of which 28 (40%) were neoplastic and 42 were infectious. Horses with infectious effusions were significantly younger (median 7 vs. 13 years; P = 0.002) and had significantly smaller volumes of pleural fluid drained at admission (9.8 vs. 32.3 l; P<0.001). Horses with infectious PE had a significantly higher rectal temperature (38.6 vs. 38.2°C; P = 0.03), fibrinogen concentration (7.8 vs. 5.7 g/l; P = 0.02) and serum amyloid A concentration (223 vs. 104 mg/l; P = 0.02). Pleural fluid characteristics identified a significantly greater cell count and TP concentration in horses with infectious PE (47 x 10(9)/l vs. 3.4 x 10(9)/l; P<0.001; 54 vs. 31 g/l; P = 0.001). Conclusions: These results suggest that in the UK neoplastic effusions account for a greater proportion of PE than previously reported. A large volume of PE in an older horse with a low cell count and TP concentration should increase the index of suspicion of neoplasia. Ethical animal research: This was a retrospective study of clinical cases. Explicit owner informed consent for inclusion of animals in this study was not stated. Source of funding: None. Competing interests: None declared.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 09/2015; 47 Suppl 48:27. DOI:10.1111/evj.12486_61
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing study: Rasping of sharp enamel points (SEPs) is the most common procedure performed at routine dental examinations; however, there is little evidence to prove the true clinical significance of SEPs [1]. Maxillary SEPs are thought to cause buccal ulceration and pain on external palpation of the cheeks. Mandibular SEPs are thought to cause lingual ulceration. Objectives: To examine associations between the presence of SEPs on the cheek teeth rows and the presence of pain on palpation of the cheeks and buccal and/or lingual ulceration. Study design: Retrospective clinical case series. Methods: Clinical records of routine dental examination performed by 8 veterinary surgeons in a single first opinion practice were examined. Presence of SEPs, buccal and/or lingual ulceration and pain on palpation of the cheeks (externally) were recorded. Chi squared tests were used to examine whether horses exhibiting pain on palpation or oral ulceration were significantly more likely to have SEPs present. Results: Prevalence of buccal SEPs was 84.8% and prevalence of lingual SEPs was 84.3%. Five hundred and forty-eight horses (6.0%) had signs of pain on palpation. Prevalence of buccal ulceration was 5.9%. In contrast, only 0.2% of horses had visible lingual ulceration. Buccal ulceration and pain on palpation were significantly associated with presence of buccal SEPs (P<0.001 for both). Lingual ulceration was not significantly associated with lingual SEPs (P<0.0001). Conclusions: Buccal SEPs are common and often result in pain and buccal ulceration. Routine rasping would appear to be justified. Lingual SEPs are common but rarely cause lingual ulceration. The value of routine rasping of lingual SEPs is therefore questionable. Ethical animal research: Research ethics committee oversight not currently required by this conference: retrospective study of clinical records. Explicit owner informed consent for inclusion of animals in this study was not stated. Source of funding: None. Competing interests: None declared.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 09/2015; 47 Suppl 48:10. DOI:10.1111/evj.12486_21
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing study: Triamcinolone is commonly used in equine practice for the treatment of orthopaedic conditions. A serious potential adverse effect of triamcinolone is laminitis. However, evidence for the risk of laminitis associated with triamcinolone use is limited. Objectives: To determine the risk of laminitis within 90 days of triamcinolone administration and compare with the risk of laminitis in a veterinary-attended horse population. Study design: Retrospective study of clinical records. Methods: Text mining and data extraction was performed using content analysis software (SimStat-WordStat v.6) on a database of anonymous digital clinical records from a convenience sample of North American equine practices (n = 9). Medical records were retrieved using a dictionary of keywords for 3 groups of horses: 1) treated with triamcinolone, 2) age and practice matched control population (no triamcinolone) and 3) all laminitic horses. Records of horses within Groups 1 and 2 were mined for evidence of laminitis within a 90-day period of treatment or a random date respectively. Data manipulation and analysis was performed using R v3.0.0 (R Development Core Team). The prevalence of laminitis within all groups was determined and relative risk of developing laminitis determined by single logistic regression. Results: The clinical records of 225,777 horses were examined. Overall prevalence of laminitis within the database was 1.1% (n = 2533). Triamcinolone was administered to 12.4% (n = 27,898) horses and 0.07% of treated horses (n = 20) developed laminitis. In the control population (n = 56,695), 0.2% of horses (n = 134) developed laminitis. The risk of developing laminitis was significantly lower in the triamcinolone treatment group than the control population (OR 0.3 95%CI, 0.18-0.48 P<0.001). Conclusions: Triamcinolone treatment does not increase the overall risk of a horse developing laminitis. However, further investigation of risk factors for laminitis in the 20 horses identified by this preliminary study is warranted to aid development of evidence-based treatment guidelines. Ethical animal research: This study was approved by the Ethics and Welfare Committee of the School of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Glasgow. Owners gave informed consent for their horses' inclusion in the study. Sources of funding: John Crawford Endowment Fund, University of Glasgow. Competing interests: None declared.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 09/2015; 47 Suppl 48:24. DOI:10.1111/evj.12486_54
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing study: Blackthorn (Prunus spinosus) is recognised as causing infections and tissue reactions. Objectives: To describe the presentation, diagnosis, treatment and outcome of blackthorn plant thorn synovitis in the horse. Study design: Case series. Methods: All cases in this prospective study presented with acute onset synovitis within 24 h of thorn penetration, had a standardised clinical assessment, surgical treatment and aftercare. Surgical treatment was performed within 24 h of presentation under general anaesthesia, using a 2-stage procedure: Stage 1: perisynovial technique. Ultrasound guided placement of a 20 gauge 35 mm needle marker that is used as a guide for electrosurgical dissection onto perisynovial thorn fragments. Stage 2: endoscopic technique. Using standard and novel portals to locate and remove thorn fragments and debris from synovial structures. Results: Thirty-five cases met the study inclusion criteria over a 24 month period. Mean lameness score on presentation was 4/5 (range 1-5). The most commonly affected structures were fetlock joints (11/35) and tendon sheaths (10/35). Mean synovial fluid total protein was 50.5 g/l (range 18-116), and TNCC was 158 x 10(9) (range 21-412) on presentation and 12 x 10(9) (range 1-46) at 48 h post operatively. All synovial fluid cultures were negative. All horses were sound (grade 0) at 5 days post operatively and all returned to full work. Conclusions: There are a limited number of case series of blackthorn injury in humans; however, the consensus is that surgical treatment is required for a successful outcome. The 2-stage surgical procedure described, achieved accurate identification and removal of thorn material in all cases. In contrast to previous studies on synovial sepsis, these cases had a positive outcome despite high pre- and post operative synovial fluid total protein and TNCC. These findings suggest that thorn synovitis cases have a different aetiology from synovitis originating from sepsis or contamination. Ethical animal research: The study was reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee, School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham. Owners gave informed consent for their horses' inclusion in the study. Source of funding: None. Competing interests: None declared.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 09/2015; 47 Suppl 48:17. DOI:10.1111/evj.12486_38
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing study: Colic is the most common equine emergency problem, and one of the main causes of equid deaths. The horse owners' ability to recognise colic is a critical first step in determining case outcome. Objectives: To assess equine owners' knowledge and recognition of colic. Study design: Online questionnaire of horse owners. Methods: An online survey was designed to evaluate owners' approach to colic in the horse. The survey included questions on owner demographics, their recognition of colic (including owner's opinions of their ability to recognise colic, their approach, and their recognition of colic using case vignettes), and their knowledge of normal ranges for clinical parameters. Descriptive and chi squared statistical analysis was performed. Results: The survey was completed by 1061 UK respondents. Six per cent of owners thought they could recognise all types of colic, 61% said they could recognise most cases and 30% said they could recognise some but not all cases. Owners said they would assess faecal output (73% of respondents), gastrointestinal sounds (69%), respiratory rate (62%) and heart rate (50%) in horses with suspected colic. One fifth (22%) of owners would call a vet immediately without assessing any parameters. Many respondents either did not know, or provided incorrect estimates of normal values for clinical parameters: 30.4% were 'unsure' of the normal heart rate and 35.5% gave heart rate values which were outside reference ranges; only 24.5% gave appropriate values for normal respiratory rates and only 31% gave normal temperature values. There was no statistical significance between participants' age, educational qualifications, or their experience with horses and their knowledge of normal clinical parameters. Conclusions: Owners varied in their approach and ability to recognise colic, and many had significant gaps in their knowledge of normal parameters. Educational materials and/or training to assist owners could help address these issues. Ethical animal research: The study did not involve animal research. The study was reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee, School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham. The questionnaire was conducted in accordance with the 1998 Data Protection Act, and the British Educational Research Association's Revised Ethical Guidelines for Educational Research (2004). Source of funding: Adelle Bowden's studentship is funded by the School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham. Competing interests: None declared.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 09/2015; 47 Suppl 48:4. DOI:10.1111/evj.12486_8
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing study: Hypoglycin A (HG) appears to cause atypical myopathy (AM), but to our knowledge, detection of HG in affected and unaffected horses and concurrently in plants that they were exposed to has not previously been reported. Objectives: To investigate HG in samples from horses exposed to Acer pseudoplatanus (European sycamore maple) and in such plant material, at the time of clinical cases of AM in the herd. Study design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Blood was collected from 2 horses with AM and 22 clinically healthy co-grazing horses in 2 Swedish farms within one week of onset of signs (May 2014) and one month later, after horses were moved to other pastures. Ten healthy control horses from unaffected farms were sampled once. Samaras, seedlings, flowers and leaves from Acer pseudoplatanus and from Acer platanoides L (Norway maple) were collected from affected pastures. Hypoglycin A was analysed using chemical derivatisation with dansyl chloride (DNS) and ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Hypoglycin A was detected as derivatised compound HG-DNS [M+H]+ with selected reaction monitoring. Results: Hypoglycin A was detected in the horses affected with AM, and also in 20 out of 22 co-grazing horses. One month later, a surviving case horse and 9/20 co-grazing horses were still positive for HG. Controls from other farms were negative for HG. Hypoglycin A was detected in plant material from Acer pseudoplatanus, but not from Acer platanoides L. Conclusions: Horses grazing in pastures with HG-containing Acer pseudoplatanus were positive for HG in blood, and some showed severe signs of myopathy. Ethical animal research: Ethical consent for blood sampling was granted (C113/11) and horse owners gave their informed consent to inclusion of horses in the study. Source of funding: National Veterinary Institute, Sweden. Competing interests: None declared.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 09/2015; 47 Suppl 48:22. DOI:10.1111/evj.12486_49
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing study: Selective 5-HT4 receptor agonists such as prucalopride are used as human prokinetics, since activation of 5-HT4 receptors on intestinal cholinergic neurons facilitates acetylcholine release. 5-HT4 receptors, linked to adenylyl cyclase, act via generation of cAMP. None of the 4 in vitro studies on 5-HT in horses provided evidence for neuronal 5-HT4 receptors, but none used the protocol as described in human studies [1-4]. Objectives: To investigate whether functional 5-HT4 receptors are present in the equine small intestine. Study design and methods: In vitro organ bath set up, applying electrical field stimulation (EFS) in longitudinal and circular smooth muscle strips. Results: Results were similar in both muscle layers. In the presence of 0.3 mmol/l NG-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and 0.3 μmol/l apamine, excluding effects of the inhibitory transmitters NO and ATP, EFS induced voltage-dependent on-contractions; these were neurogenic as they were abolished by 3 μmol/l tetrodotoxin. At a voltage inducing 50% of the maximal amplitude, the submaximal EFS-induced contractions were cholinergic as atropine (1 μmol/l) abolished them. Prucalopride (0.3 μmol/l) did not increase the amplitude of these submaximal EFS-induced contractions. Even in the presence of the nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitor IBMX, previously shown to enhance the effect of neuronal 5-HT4 receptors by inhibiting breakdown of their 2nd messenger cAMP [5], prucalopride (3 μmol/l) had no influence. Also 5-HT (10 μmol/l), a full agonist at 5-HT4 receptors, tested in the presence of methysergide and granisetron to exclude interaction with other 5-HT receptor subtypes, did not enhance EFS-induced submaximal contractions. Conclusions: There is no evidence for presence of 5-HT4 receptors on the cholinergic neurons of the equine small intestine. These results question the application of 5-HT4 prokinetic drugs in horses. Ethical animal research: Research ethics committee oversight not currently required by this conference: the study was performed on material collected at an abattoir. Sources of funding: None. Competing interests: None declared.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 09/2015; 47 Suppl 48:7. DOI:10.1111/evj.12486_14
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing study: Atrial fibrillation is a common equine arrhythmia. Quinidine alone, or with digoxin are common treatments. Studies on outcome in Warmblood populations in which duration of the AF is often unknown are limited. Objectives: To identify the factors that are associated with the success of full treatment cardioversion with oral medication, and establish whether there are differences in these factors between institutions. Study design: Retrospective case series using patient records of Equine University Clinic of Utrecht University and Rossdales Equine Hospital, Newmarket. Methods: Forty-nine horses treated with quinidine were identified (29 Warmbloods, 20 Thorougbreds, 1 Anglo-Arabian). Details of signalment, history, duration physical examination and echocardiography including left atrial size and presence of mitral regurgitation were retrieved. Clinical details including mean weight, age and left atrial size were compared between clinics using independent samples t test. Association between variables and cardioconversion were evaluated in a backwards logistic regression using Akaike's information criterium (AIC) and odds ratios were calculated. Factors were sex, clinic, breed, mitral regurgitation, duration and poor performance. Covariates were age, weight and the size of the left atrium. Significance was set at 0.05. Results: Fifty-one horses (mean age 8.8 s.d. 4.5 years) were treated with quinidine sulfate, 18 also received digoxin. Eighty per cent converted to sinus rhythm. In 8 horses the known duration was less than 3 months. The only factor associated with successful treatment was the use of digoxin in combination with quinidine sulfate (odds ratio 12.4; 95% CI 2.61 and 91.85 according to AIC analysis). Conclusions: In this retrospective case series, there is much potential for bias in the data; however, the use of digoxin in addition to quinidine was associated with improved conversion rates regardless of breed even though AF duration was unknown in most horses. Ethical animal research: Research ethics committee oversight not currently required by this conference: retrospective study of clinical records. Explicit owner informed consent for inclusion of animals in this study was not stated. Source of funding: None. Competing interests: None declared.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 09/2015; 47 Suppl 48:28. DOI:10.1111/evj.12486_63
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing study: Colic remains a life-threatening condition in the horse. Ischaemia and reperfusion following correction of small intestinal strangulation may produce oxidative stress. The ability to withstand oxidative stress depends on antioxidant levels and may be linked to horse survival. Objectives: To measure peripheral antioxidant levels in horses undergoing exploratory laparotomy with small intestinal strangulation. Study design: Case-control study. Methods: Blood and plasma were collected from horses undergoing exploratory laparotomy for small intestinal strangulation and stored at -80°C. Controls involved non-colic horses. Total plasma glutathione was measured spectrophotometrically at 412 nm using the 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB, Ellman's reagent) reaction. Samples containing scavenger (to remove reduced glutathione, GSH) were used to measure oxidised glutathione (GSSG). Glutathione reductase (GR) activity (u/l) was measured as the rate of GSH production at 412 nm. Glutathione peroxidise (GPx) activity (u/l) was measured as the change in optical density (340 nm) following the consumption of NADPH after GSSG production. All assays were purchased from BioAssay Systems (Hayward, California). Clinical data including arterial blood gas analysis were collected on admission. Results: Glutathione reductase activity in horses with strangulating small intestinal lesions was significantly reduced compared to control horses (12.2 ± 1.1 u/l vs. 15.9 ± 0.8 u/l, P = 0.03, n = 6) whereas GPx activity did not significantly differ between colic and control horses (155.7 ± 48.7 u/l vs. 167.3 ± 30.1 u/l, P = 0.84, n = 6). Total glutathione, reduced or oxidised glutathione did not differ significantly between control and colic horses. A positive correlation existed between GR activity and Ca(2+) (r = 0.93) and K(+) (r = 0.75) whereas a strong negative correlation was present between GR activity and HCO3 (-) (r = -0.92) and PaCO2 (r = -0.96). Conclusions: Reduced plasma glutathione reductase activity with small intestinal strangulation indicates oxidative stress and may be related to systemic electrolyte/bicarbonate abnormalities. Ethical animal research: Study approval No. VREC219a. Explicit owner informed consent for inclusion of animals in this study was not stated. Source of funding: Supported by the School of Veterinary Sciences, University of Liverpool. Competing interests: None declared.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 09/2015; 47 Suppl 48:6. DOI:10.1111/evj.12486_12
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing study: Injury to the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) is common in equids, with a high risk of re-injury associated with changes in tendon stiffness. In vivo measurement of limb stiffness has been shown to correlate with tendon stiffness after injury [1] but requires kinematic analysis which is impractical in a clinical setting. We have developed a simple system for measuring limb stiffness statically, which could be used as a tool for monitoring SDFT healing. Objectives: To validate a goniometric measurement of limb stiffness. Study design: Cross sectional study. Methods: Initially, forelimb stiffness indices were determined at the walk for 6 equids using a validated kinematic analysis [1]. Limb stiffness indices were then calculated using portable floor scales to record ground reaction force (GRF), and an electrogoniometer to record metacarpophalangeal joint angle. Goniometric limb stiffness indices were subsequently measured in 11 horses ranging from 2 to 20 years of age, with no clinical evidence of SDFT injury. Strength and significance of correlation and agreement between the measurement methods was assessed and association between limb stiffness, limb (left vs. right), weight and age of horse and were calculated. Results: There were strong positive correlations between GRF and joint angle (R(2) = 0.98) and between the static and kinematic methods (R = 0.78, P<0.01). There was a positive correlation between limb stiffness and weight (R(2) = 0.85, P<0.01), but no association with age or limb. Conclusions: This study validated the measurement of limb stiffness in a clinical setting. The positive correlation of limb stiffness and weight supports the theory of an optimised limb spring [2] for energy-efficient cursorial locomotion which may, in turn, provide a clinically-relevant measure of running efficiency and therefore the quality of tendon healing post injury. Ethical animal research: Owner consent was obtained. Source of funding: None. Competing interests: None declared.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 09/2015; 47 Suppl 48:12. DOI:10.1111/evj.12486_26
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing study: A quantifiable measure of muscle activity related to the cervical spine may provide further understanding and evidence based support for chiropractic techniques. Surface electromyography (sEMG) is a noninvasive method of measuring muscle activity of the splenius muscle when the horse is at rest. Objectives: To determine if there is a relationship between objective measurable muscle parameters and misalignments and muscle tension in the equine cervical spine. Study design: Controlled paired randomised study. Methods: Privately owned horses (n = 14), of mixed sex, age and mean height 157.8 cm were selected and assigned a group by matching work, management regime, age, sex and breed. The treatment group (n = 7) underwent manual chiropractic treatment following palpation. The control group underwent palpation only. A Delsys 4 sensor system was used for data collection. Probes were positioned on the muscle halfway between C1/C2 joint and the crest on the left and right sides, between the tendon insertion and the motor point to maximise signals. sEMG readings were taken at immediately before (0) and after palpation (PP) and 30 min later (30). Data were tested for normality and variance by one-way ANOVA and paired t test. Results: Post treatment, there was a significant decrease (P<0.01) in sEMG activity for treatment group at 0 to 30 and PP to 30. There was a significant decrease (P<0.05) in sEMG for right side for treatment group at 0 to 30 and PP to 30. There were no such significant effects for the control group. The majority (83%) of horses had atlas rotation and tilt to the right. Conclusions: This preliminary study supports use of sEMG as a means of assessing muscle activity of equines and suggests a statistically significant reduction in splenius muscle activity is observed following manual chiropractic treatment although the benefit to the horse is unknown. Ethical animal research: The study protocol was reviewed by the College Research Ethics Committee before commencement of the study. Owners gave informed consent for their horses' inclusion in the study. Source of funding: McTimoney College of Chiropractic assisted with the hiring of the equipment. Competing interests: None declared.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 09/2015; 47 Suppl 48:18. DOI:10.1111/evj.12486_41
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing study: Bronchopneumonia caused by Rhodococcus equi is an important disease of young horses throughout the world. Although early diagnosis and treatment improves the prognosis, this also increases the amount of antimicrobial usage and therefore increases the likelihood of resistance developing. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the level of resistance to commonly prescribed antimicrobial agents of 97 virulent Rhodococcus equi isolates. Study design: Analysis of archived samples. Methods: Virulent Rhodococcus equi isolates were collected between 1991 and 2014 from clinically affected horses and from air samples collected in the breathing zone of foals. Antimicrobial susceptibility of these isolates was assessed using a disc diffusion assay with a panel of agents. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for rifampicin, erythromycin, tetracycline, and neomycin using a novel resazurin-based microtitre assay. Results: Resistance to rifampicin was detected in 3 of the isolates (2 collected in 2013 and one in 2014) by both methods. The MIC for these isolates was 64 μg/ml (n = 2) and 16 μg/ml (n = 1). All isolates collected prior to 2013 had MICs<0.125 μg/ml, which was the limit of detection in this assay. Although no isolates were resistant to tetracycline, there was a general increase in MIC in isolates collected in recent years. No isolates were resistant to either neomycin or erythromycin, with MIC values ranging between 0.25 and 2 μg/ml for neomycin and 0.125-1 μg/ml for erythromycin. Conclusions: The success of the macrolide-rifampicin combination relies on the synergistic action of these 2 agents. Resistance to rifampicin will reduce the therapeutic efficacy of this treatment. It is of serious concern that the resistant isolates were all recently collected. Hopefully, recent research will lead to fewer asymptomatic foals receiving antimicrobials which will in turn reduce the likelihood of ongoing development of resistance. Ethical animal research: All organisms in this study were received by the laboratory from diagnostic accessions. Sources of funding: Funding for the study was provided by Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation and the University of Melbourne. G. Herbert was the recipient of a RN McCarthy scholarship from the Faculty of Veterinary Science. Competing interests: None declared.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 09/2015; 47 Suppl 48:3. DOI:10.1111/evj.12486_6
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing study: Colic is a common reason for owners to seek veterinary treatment for their working equids in Morocco. There is no information available regarding cultural, religious or educational barriers to obtaining treatment or about the typical workload of these animals which may predispose them to colic. Objectives: To characterise the typical workload and feeding regimens of working equids in Morocco; to characterise the ability of owners to recognise the clinical signs and causes of colic; and to identify specific barriers to the veterinary treatment of colic. Study design: Questionnaire-based survey. Methods: A standardised, structured questionnaire was administered, with the assistance of an Arabic speaking interpreter, to the owners of working equids presenting their animals to 2 centres run by SPANA (The Society for the Protection of Animals Abroad). Participation was voluntary and informed consent was obtained prior to the interview. Results: All of the 102 participants that completed questionnaire were male. Ninety-eight owners used their animals for pulling carts, with 12% of animals working 7 days per week. 14% of animals were offered water by their owner once per day and 2% every other day. 25% of animals were loose and allowed free to feed unsupervised when not working. 29% of owners were not able to name any cause of colic and 25% did not recognise any clinical signs; only 12% associated colic with gastrointestinal pain. 83% of owners would not seek veterinary treatment due to financial constraints if free treatment at SPANA centres were not available. Conclusions: Colic remains a common problem amongst working equids in Morocco. Improved knowledge of management factors associated with colic and how to recognise abdominal pain may reduce the incidence of colic and improve prognosis. The findings presented can be used to inform and develop owner education programmes. Ethical animal research: The study was reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee, School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham. Informed consent for participation in the study was obtained from all owners and was delivered in the native language. No details identifying the owner were recorded. Source of funding: None. Competing interests: None declared.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 09/2015; 47 Suppl 48:5. DOI:10.1111/evj.12486_9