Equine Veterinary Journal (EQUINE VET J )

Publisher: British Equine Veterinary Association

Description

This unrivalled international scientific journal was first published in 1968 when there were four issues each year. It now appears bi-monthly with around 88 pages per issue containing articles with original and potentially important findings. Contributions are received from sources worldwide, including North America, Europe and Australia. EVJ has also produced a number of Special Issues, which generally appear as an additional 7th issue devoted to a specific topic, including Immunology, Colic, Evidence-Based Medicine and Laminitis. These extra journals are distributed free to all subscribers, and are available to purchase from the EVJ Online Bookshop. All papers published in the journal are subjected to peer review and once articles have been accepted for publication they should appear in the journal within six to eight months. They present new developments in research being carried out by universities, veterinary schools and institutes devoted to equine and/or comparative physiology, pathology, medicine or surgery and from workers in practice. The journal strives to publish clinically orientated work and categorises articles into General Articles, Clinical Evidence Articles, Short Communications, Case Reports and Review Articles. General Articles are often accompanied by an Editorial Leader which gives the reader a further insight into a particular topic and provides further reference information. The Clinical Evidence category was introduced in 2003, for articles in which the objective is to answer questions of clinical importance in a controlled manner based on data obtainable in practice.

Impact factor 2.37

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    Impact factor
  • 5-year impact
    2.19
  • Cited half-life
    0.00
  • Immediacy index
    1.06
  • Eigenfactor
    0.01
  • Article influence
    0.43
  • Website
    Equine Veterinary Journal website
  • ISSN
    2042-3306
  • OCLC
    225017606
  • Material type
    Periodical
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing studyStrongylus vulgaris is a pathogenic helminth parasite infecting horses and was once considered to be the primary cause of colic. Migrating larvae cause ischaemia and infarction of intestinal segments. This knowledge is derived from case reports and experimental inoculations of parasite-naïve foals, and it remains unknown to which extent the parasite is associated with different types of colic.Objectives To evaluate the role of S. vulgaris as a risk factor for different types of colic in horses.Study designA retrospective case-control study among horses referred with abdominal pain to the University of Copenhagen Large Animal Teaching Hospital during 2009-2011.Methods Each colic case was matched with a patient of the same type (pony, warmblooded, coldblooded), age, sex, and admitted in the same month and year, but for problems unrelated to the gastrointestinal tract. Serum samples were analysed for antibodies to migrating S. vulgaris larvae using a recently developed ELISA. Four case definitions were used; colic sensu lato i.e. all horses presenting with colic (n = 274), with further sub-groups i.e. undiagnosed colics (n = 48), strangulating obstructions (n = 76), and non-strangulating infarctions (n = 20).ResultsStrongylus vulgaris antibody levels were similar to controls in colics sensu lato and horses with undiagnosed colic. In contrast, non-strangulating intestinal infarctions associated significantly with positive S. vulgaris ELISAs (OR = 5.33, 95%CI 1.03-27.76, P = 0.05). Also, horses with non-strangulating infarctions had a significantly higher occurrence of positive ELISAs than patients with strangulating obstructions (OR = 3.79, 95%CI 1.34-10.68 P = 0.01) and the colic sensu lato group (OR = 3.09, 95%CI, 1.20-8.01, P = 0.02).Conclusions Non-strangulating intestinal infarction associated strongly with S. vulgaris-specific antibodies whereas the broader defined colic categories were not associated with positive ELISA results. Thus, the ELISA holds potential to become a helpful adjunct in diagnosis and management of horses with colic.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Survey data on equine tumours are sparse compared with other species and may have changed over time. To describe the most frequently diagnosed equine tumours recorded by a diagnostic pathology laboratory over 29 years, to identify signalment factors associated with tumour type, and to identify any changes in the tumours diagnosed or the signalment of cases submitted during the study period. Observational; cross sectional analysis of records of a diagnostic pathology laboratory. The records of all neoplastic equine histology submissions to the University of Bristol (January 1982 - December 2010) were accessed from a database, and a list of diagnoses compiled. The 6 most commonly diagnosed tumour types were analysed using logistic regression to identify signalment factors associated with tumour type. The overall population of equine tumour submissions and the relative frequency of diagnosis of the most common tumour types were compared between decades. 964 cases were included. The most frequently diagnosed tumours were: sarcoid (24% cases), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (19%), lymphoma (14%), melanoma (6%), gonadal stromal tumour (6%) and mast cell tumour (MCT) (4%). With sarcoid, Thoroughbred/Thoroughbred X and gelding as reference categories: increasing age was significantly associated with the odds of each of the other tumour types, mares were at reduced risk of SCC, Arab/ArabX had a higher risk of MCT, Cob/CobX had an increased risk of SCC and MCT, and Ponies had an increased risk of melanoma. The mean age of submissions increased in each successive decade and the breed composition became broader. Sarcoids and lymphoma formed a smaller proportion of diagnoses in later decades. The types of tumours submitted to this laboratory have changed over the last 3 decades. Current data informs clinicians and researchers and further studies are warranted to follow trends. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Reference values for quantitative electromyography (QEMG) in shoulder and hindlimb muscles of horses are limited. To determine normative data on quantitative electromyography (QEMG) analysis of Supraspinatus (SS), Infraspinatus (IS), Deltoideus (DT) and Biceps femoris (BF) muscles. Experimental observational study and retrospective case series. Seven adult healthy Royal Dutch Sport horses underwent quantitative motor unit action potential (QMUAP) analysis of each muscle using commercial electromyography equipment. Measurements were made according to published methods. One-way ANOVA was used to compare QMUAP variables between muscles and posthoc testing according to Bonferroni, with p-value set at <0.05. QEMG and clinical information from horses with lower motor neuron disorders (n = 7) or myopathy (n = 4) were summarised retrospectively. 95% confidence intervals of duration, amplitude, phases, turns, area, and size index (SI) of QMUAP were 8.7-10.4 ms, 651-867 μV, 3.2-3.7, 3.7-4.7, 1054-1457 μV·ms, and 1.1-1.5 for SS muscle, 9.6-11.0 ms, 779-1082 μV, 3.3-3.7, 3.8-4.7, 1349-2204 μV·ms, and 1.4-1.9 for IS muscle, 6.0-9.1 ms, 370-691 μV, 2.9-3.7, 2.8-4.5, 380-1374 μV·ms, and 0.3-1.3 for DT muscle, and 5.7-7.8 ms, 265-385 μV, 2.7-3.2, 2.6-3.1, 296-484 μV·ms, and 0.2-0.5 for BF muscle, respectively. Mean duration, amplitude, number of phases and turns, area and SI were significantly (P<0.01) higher in SS and IS than DT and BF muscles. In addition, 4 of 7 normal horses had >15% polyphasic motor unit action potentials in SS and IS muscles. Differences between muscles should be taken into account when performing QEMG in order to be able to distinguish normal horses from horses with suspected neurogenic or myogenic disorders. These normal data provide the basis for objective QEMG assessment of shoulder and hindlimb muscles. QEMG appears to be helpful in diagnosing neuropathies and discriminating these from myopathies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Failure of lamellar energy metabolism, with or without ischaemia, may be important in the pathophysiology of sepsis-associated laminitis. To examine lamellar perfusion and energy balance during laminitis development in the oligofructose model using tissue microdialysis. In vivo experiment. Six Standardbred horses underwent laminitis induction using the oligofructose model (OFT) and 6 horses were untreated controls (CON). Microdialysis probes were placed in the lamellar tissue of one forelimb (all horses) as well as the skin dermis of the tail in OFT horses. Dialysate and plasma samples were collected every 2 h for 24 h and concentrations of energy metabolites (glucose, lactate, pyruvate) and standard indices of energy metabolism (lactate to glucose ratio [L:G], and lactate to pyruvate ratio [L:P]) were determined. Microdialysis urea clearance was used to estimate changes in tissue perfusion. Data were analysed non-parametrically. Median glucose concentration decreased to <30% of baseline by 8 h in OFT lamellar (p = <0.01) and skin (p<0.01) dialysate. Lactate increased mildly in skin dialysate (p = 0.04) and plasma (p = 0.05), but not lamellar dialysate in OFT horses. Median pyruvate concentration decreased to <50% of baseline in OFT lamellar dialysate (p = 0.03). A >5-fold increase in median L:G compared to baseline occurred in OFT lamellar and skin dialysate (p<0.03). From a baseline of <20, median L:P increased to a peak of 80 in OFT skin and 38.7 in OFT lamellar dialysates (p<0.02), however OFT lamellar dialysate L:P was not significantly different from CON. Urea concentration decreased significantly in OFT lamellar dialysate (increased urea clearance) but not in OFT skin or CON lamellar dialysate. Increased lamellar perfusion occurred during the development of sepsis-associated laminitis in the oligofructose model. Glucose concentrations in the lamellar interstitium decreased, suggesting increased glucose consumption, but there was no definitive evidence of lamellar energy failure. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing studyThere are few studies on the correlations between radiographic measurements of the foot and abnormalities of specific structures found with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).Objectives To document the relationship between radiographic measurements of the equine foot and the presence of lesions in the foot on MRI. We hypothesised that different radiographic measurements would be associated with specific lesions detected by MRI.Study designRetrospective analysis of radiographs and MRI studies.Methods Seventy-four feet from 52 lame horses were included Twenty parameters were measured on radiographs and signal intensity, homogeneity, and size of each structure in the foot were evaluated on magnetic resonance images. The data were analysed using simple linear correlation analysis and classification and regression trees (CARTs).ResultsLinear correlations were found between the navicular bone (NB) compacta thickness and injuries of deep digital flexor tendon, collateral sesamoidean ligament, navicular spongiosa, and NB proximal border. Long-toed horses had a high incidence of lesions involving the spongiosa and proximal border of the navicular bone. Elongation of the navicular bone was associated with proximal and distal border injuries. A reduced palmar angle and increased angle between the middle and distal phalanx were observed in horses with alterations of collateral ligaments (CLs) of the distal interphalangeal joint (DIPJ) and navicular bone spongiosa, respectively. For each structure under investigation, CARTs predicting the presence of MRI pathology based on radiographic measurements had excellent performance, with >80% correct classification of cases, when using one of 3 data sources.Conclusions This study demonstrated a relationship between radiographic measurements of the foot and the presence of lesions detected on MRI, while CARTs illustrated that different radiographic measurements were associated with different MRI lesions.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: The equine limb has evolved for efficient locomotion and high-speed performance, with adaptations of bone, tendon and muscle. However, the system lacks the ability seen in some species to dynamically adapt to different circumstances.The mechanical interaction of the limb and the ground is influenced by internal and external factors including fore-hind mass distribution, lead limb, moving on a curve, shoeing and surface properties. It is unclear which of the components of limb loading have the largest effect on injury and performance but peak load, impact and vibration all play a role. Factors related to the foot-ground interface that limit performance are poorly understood. Peak performance varies vastly between disciplines, but at high speeds - such as racing and polo - force and grip are key limits to performance.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 01/2015;
  • Equine Veterinary Journal 01/2015; 47(1).
  • Equine Veterinary Journal 01/2015; 47(1):3-5.
  • Equine Veterinary Journal 01/2015; 47(1):10-3.
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing studyPrevious surveys have reported mare and foal survival after correction of uterine torsion varies from 60-84% and 30-54%, respectively. Furthermore, resolution via a standing flank laparotomy (SFL) has been associated with better foal, but not mare, survival.Objectives To compare the success of SFL with other correction methods (e.g. midline or flank laparotomy under general anaesthesia; correction per vaginam).Study designRetrospective analysis of clinical records.Methods Data on correction technique, stage of gestation, degree of rotation, survival and subsequent fertility for 189 mares treated for uterine torsion (UT) at 3 equine referral hospitals in the Netherlands during 1987-2007 were analysed.ResultsMean stage of gestation at diagnosis was 283 days (range 153-369) with the majority of UTs (77.5%) occurring before Day 320 of gestation. After UT correction, 90.5% of mares and 82.3% of foals survived to hospital discharge, between 3 and 39 days later, and to foaling. Multivariable logistic regression indicated that correction method and stage of gestation at UT affected survival of foals and mares. For foals, survival was 88.7% after SFL compared to 35.0% after other methods (P = 0.001). When UT occurred at <320 days, 90.6% of foals survived, compared to 56.1% at ≥320 days (P = 0.007). For mare survival, an interaction between stage of gestation and correction method was detected (P = 0.02), with higher survival after SFL (97.1%) than other methods (50.0%) at <320 days of gestation (P<0.01). When UT occurred at ≥320 days, mare survival did not differ between techniques (76.0% vs. 68.8; P = 0.6). Of 123 mares that were bred again, 93.5% became pregnant; fertility did not differ between mares treated by SFL (93.9%) and other techniques (87.5%; P = 0.9).ConclusionsSFL is the surgical technique of choice for resolving uncomplicated (i.e. no co-existing gastrointestinal lesions) equine UT except when the stage of gestation exceeds 320 days.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: The equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV), which belongs to the Retroviridae family, infects equids almost worldwide. Every year, sporadic EIAV cases are detected in Slovenia. To phylogenetically characterise the Slovenian EIAV strains in the p15 gag gene region in order to compare the Slovenian EIAV strains with EIAV strains from abroad, especially with the recently published European strains. Cross-sectional study using material derived from post-mortem examination. In total, 29 EIAV serologically positive horses from 18 different farms were examined in this study. Primers were designed to amplify the p15 gag gene region. Amplicons of 28 PCRs were subjected to direct DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Altogether, 28 EIAV sequences were obtained from 17 different farms and were distributed between four separate monophyletic groups and nine branches upon phylogenetic analysis. Among EIAV strains from abroad, the closest relatives to Slovenian EIAV strains are European EIAV strains from Italy. Phylogenetic analysis also showed that some animals from distantly located farms were most likely infected with the same EIAV strains, as well as animals from the same farm and animals from farms located in the same geographic region. This is the first report of such high genetic diversity of EIAV strains from one country. This led to speculation that there is a potential virus reservoir among the populations of riding horses, horses kept for pleasure and horses for meat production, with some farmers or horse owners not following legislation thus enabling the spread of infection with EIAV. The low sensitivity of the agar gel immunodiffusion test may also contribute to the spread of infection with EIAV, as some infected horses might have escaped detection. The results of the phylogenetic analysis also provide additional knowledge about the highly heterogeneous nature of the EIAV genome. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Slow waves are rhythmic pacemaker currents generated by the gastrointestinal pacemaker cells, the interstitial cells of Cajal, and represent the rate-limiting step for small intestinal smooth muscle contractions. Therefore, factors that affect slow wave activity may also influence contractile activity. It is not known how temperature changes may influence slow wave activity in the horse. This could be of relevance during colic surgery if cooling of exposed intestine resulted in reduced slow wave activity potentially exacerbating post-operative ileus. To evaluate the effect of temperature changes on in vitro slow wave activity of normal equine ileum using intracellular recording techniques. In vitro experimental study. A segment of ileum was collected immediately following euthanasia from 9 horses, euthanased for reasons unrelated to the gastrointestinal tract. Intracellular recordings of membrane potentials were made from individual smooth muscle cells. The temperature of the tissue bath was altered during the course of each experiment across a range of 27-41°C. All data were recorded and stored using a computer-interfaced acquisition system. A software package was used to analyse slow waves frequency, duration, amplitude and resting membrane potential. In all 9 horses, slow wave frequency was highly temperature sensitive and approximately linearly related to the temperature over the range studied, increasing by 0.5 cycles/min for each one degree increase in temperature (p<0.001). The initial slow wave frequency resumed when the temperature was returned to 37°C. The recovery time appeared to be directly related to the duration for which the temperature had been changed. Slow wave frequency in the equine ileum is highly temperature sensitive. As post-operative ileus is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the horse, the negative effect of lower temperatures on slow wave, and therefore contractile activity, should be considered. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Transient post-breeding endometritis is a normal physiological reaction in the mare, as it is believed that an inflammatory response is necessary for the effective removal of contaminating bacteria and excess spermatozoa introduced into the uterus. While most mares can clear endometritis within a reasonable amount of time, persistent endometritis caused by either bacteria or spermatozoa can threaten the success of a pregnancy. A subpopulation of mares is susceptible to persistent endometritis, and these mares are a concern in equine reproductive medicine. Research has identified several factors that contribute to susceptibility, however the exact mechanisms of the progression of the disease are still being elucidated. Current research focuses on endometrial gene expression during endometritis in an attempt to understand the timing of specific inflammatory processes involved with the development of susceptibility to persistent endometritis. With an increased understanding of the mechanisms involved with the disease, current treatments can be improved upon, and new treatments can be developed to target affected pathways. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: There are no consistently safe and effective methods for the treatment of trigeminal-mediated headshaking in horses. In affected horses, the trigeminal nerve is sensitised, appearing to result in neuropathic pain. Percutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (PENS) therapy(1) is a minimally invasive neuromodulatory treatment used in people to manage neuropathic pain. To determine whether PENS therapy is safe, tolerated and effective for the management of trigeminal-mediated headshaking in horses. Descriptive case series. Seven horses diagnosed with trigeminal-mediated headshaking and currently showing clinical signs were studied. All procedures were carried out in sedated horses with a needle-prick sized area of skin desensitised with local anaesthetic(2) to facilitate probe insertion. A disposable PENS probe(1) was advanced subcutaneously adjacent to the nerve, rostral to the infraorbital foramen under ultrasonographic guidance. The nerve was stimulated for 25 min following a protocol of alternating frequencies and a perception threshold based on human clinical data. The probe was removed and the procedure repeated on the contralateral side. The protocol used comprised a series of 3 or 4 treatments, with treatments being repeated when signs of headshaking recurred. All horses tolerated the procedure well. Three horses developed a haematoma at the site on one occasion and 2 had increased clinical signs for up to 3 days following first treatment. Six horses demonstrated a positive response to their first treatment, returning to ridden work at the same level as prior to onset of headshaking, with 5 continuing to respond. Median remission time for first treatment was 3.8 days (range 0-8 days, n = 7), second treatment 2.5 weeks (0-8 weeks, n = 7), third treatment 15.5 weeks (0-24 weeks, n = 5) and fourth treatment 20 weeks (12-28 weeks ongoing, n = 2). PENS therapy is a safe, well-tolerated, minimally invasive, repeatable management option for trigeminal-mediated headshaking, with encouraging efficacy for amelioration of clinical signs in the short to medium term. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: There are scant data on the incidence of the different anatomical variants of equine caudal cervical spine, despite interest in cervical pathology. To identify morphological radiographic variation in the sixth and seventh cervical vertebrae and the first thoracic vertebra in horses of different breeds and to determine whether there are breed and sex-related differences. Retrospective descriptive study. Radiographs of the cervical spine of 270 horses were assessed retrospectively. Chi-square test, or Fisher's exact test when appropriate, were used to test for associations between radiographic findings and sex or breed, and residual analysis was performed to localise differences. Chi-square tests and calculation of phi coefficient (φ) were used to test for associations between different types of radiological variation. Three variants were identified in the spinous process of the seventh cervical vertebra and 2 variants were identified in the spinous process of the first thoracic vertebra. The presence of the spinous process of the seventh cervical vertebra was associated with breed, and transposition of the ventral process of the sixth cervical vertebra onto the ventral aspect of the seventh cervical vertebra was associated with sex. The shape of the spinous process of first thoracic vertebra was associated with the shape of the spinous process of the seventh cervical vertebra and with the presence of transposition of the ventral process of the sixth cervical vertebra onto the ventral aspect of the seventh. A large number of anatomical variants can be detected radiographically at the level of the caudal cervical area; some of these have a higher frequency depending on sex and breed. Knowledge of the different shapes is very important in avoiding misdiagnosis of periarticular new bone formation. The spinous process of the first thoracic vertebra has 2 morphological variants. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing studyEquine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis is an infrequent and under-diagnosed form of severe dental disease in horses that can affect quality of life. The study was performed to compare the clinical, radiographic, histologic and prognostic findings specific to equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis (EOTRH) in horses. Removal of affected teeth is currently the best treatment.Objectives The goals are to report salient clinical and histological features of the disease, and its management in a case series describing an under-reported syndrome in horses and the long-term prognosis.Study DesignRetrospective case series.Methods Medical records from New Bolton Center, University of Pennsylvania from 2000-January 2012 were reviewed from horses that had a ‘cementoma’ or ‘hypercementosis’ diagnosis, and any associated dental-related diagnosis affecting the teeth and oral cavity. Radiographic, surgical and histologic reports were collated and the clinical cases compared and tabulated to better describe the equine disease.ResultsA total of 18 cases were identified, 17 of which were geldings and one of which was a nonbreeding stallion; no mares had the disease. The mean age at diagnosis was 24 years old with a range of 17-29 years. There was no breed predilection and varied clinical signs referred to the mouth were found. Some teeth involved had only radiographic changes of disease and not gross clinical evidence. The mandibular incisors were generally affected earlier than the maxillary incisors, however, the disease is progressive and eventually all of the incisors and sometimes the canines are involved. No pre-molars or molars were affected in this case series.Conclusions Based on this case series, all teeth, and particularly the incisors, should be examined for signs of gingivitis and hypercementosis and subsequently radiographed for an early diagnosis and management. When compared to our hospital population, older geldings were more likely to be affected with cementoma formation and its accompanying resorptive process. Removal of clinically and radiographically affected teeth carries a good prognosis for improved quality of life.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing studyInjection of the navicular bursa is commonly performed from the palmar aspect of the limb, which results in penetration of the deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT).Objectives To report a radiographic guided injection from the lateral aspect of the limb that avoids puncture of the DDFT and to assess synovial and soft tissue penetration from the needle.Study designProspective clinical and cadaveric study.Methods Prospective analysis of cadaver limbs and clinical cases in which the navicular bursa was injected from the lateral aspect. Cadaver limbs were placed in a stand to simulate weight bearing and injection was performed in limbs without synovial distension or with distension of either the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint, digital flexor tendon sheath (DFTS) or navicular bursa. In cadaver and clinical limbs, contrast was injected and needle position assessed with radiographs. Cadaver (but not clinical) limbs were also examined using magnetic resonance imaging with the needle in situ.ResultsSuccessful navicular bursal injection was achieved in all limbs (n = 71). Relative risk of DIP joint puncture was 19 times higher (95%CI 1.3 to 285.4, p<0.001) when the DIP joint was distended (9 of 10 limbs) compared to normal limbs (0 of 10 limbs). Relative risk of DFTS puncture was 2.7 times higher (95%CI 1.0 to 7.2, p = 0.06) when the DFTS was distended (8 of 10 limbs) compared to normal limbs (3 of 7 limbs). Synovial fluid was aspirated from 47% of bursae from clinical cases.Conclusions The lateral injection technique for the navicular bursa avoids penetration of the DDFT although risk of synovial penetration must be considered when there is potential DIP joint or DFTS infection.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Reason for performing studyNavigational ultrasound imaging, or fusion imaging, is a novel technology that allows real time ultrasound imaging to be correlated with a previously acquired CT or MRI study. It has been used in humans to aid interventional therapies and has been shown to be valuable for sampling and assessing lesions diagnosed with MRI or CT that are equivocal on ultrasonography. To date, there are no reports of the use of this modality in veterinary medicine.Objectives To assess whether navigational ultrasound imaging can be used to assist commonly performed interventional therapies for the treatment of equine musculoskeletal injuries diagnosed with MRI and to determine the appropriateness of regional anatomic landmarks as registration sites.Study designRetrospective, descriptive clinical study.Methods Horses with musculoskeletal injuries of the distal limb diagnosed with MRI that were scheduled for ultrasound guided interventional therapies were evaluated (n = 17 horses with a total of 29 lesions). Anatomical landmarks that were used for image registration for the navigational procedure were documented. Accuracy of lesion location and success of the procedure were assessed subjectively and described using a grading scale.ResultsAll procedures were accurately registered using regional anatomic landmarks and were considered successful based on our criteria. Anatomic landmarks were described for each lesion type. The addition of navigational imaging was considered to greatly aid the procedures in 59% of cases and added information to the remainder of the procedures. The technique was considered to improve the precision of these interventional procedures.Conclusions Navigational ultrasound imaging is a complementary imaging modality that can be used for the treatment of equine soft tissue musculoskeletal injuries diagnosed with MRI.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing studyCaptive breeding has played a crucial role in the conservation of threatened equid species. Ruminants and rhinoceros in captivity have less abrasion-dominated tooth wear than their free-ranging conspecifics, with potential negative consequences for their health. However, a similar study on wild equids in captivity is missing.Objectives The aim was to establish if different tooth wear patterns are exhibited by free-ranging and captive equids.Study designCross-sectional study of museum specimens comparing free-ranging and captive equids.Methods Dental casts of maxillary cheek teeth of 228 museum specimens (122 from free-ranging and 106 from captive individuals) of 7 wild equid species were analysed using the extended mesowear method. Although teeth showing specific abnormalities were not scored, the presence of focal overgrowths (hooks) of the rostral premolars (106, 206) was recorded.ResultsCaptive Equus ferus przewalskii, E. grevyi, E. hemionus, E. quagga boehmi and E. zebra hartmannae have less-abrasion dominated tooth wear on their premolars than their free-ranging conspecifics (p<0.001). Fewer differences were exhibited between populations in the molars. No differences were exhibited in the distal cusp of the molars (110, 210) between populations, except in a small sample of E. kiang. Captive equids exhibited more homogeneous wear along the tooth row whereas free-ranging equids exhibited a tooth wear gradient, with more abrasion on premolars than molars. There were more rostral hooks on the premolars (106, 206) in the captive than the free-ranging population (p = 0.02).Conclusions Captive equids did experience less abrasion-dominated tooth wear than their free-ranging conspecifics, but the differences in tooth wear were less pronounced than those between captive and free-ranging wild ruminant and rhinoceros species. This indicates that feeding regimes for captive equids deviate less from natural diets than those for captive ruminants and rhinoceros, but that factors leading to hook formation, in particular feeding height, should receive special attention.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Reasons for performing studyThe haemorrhagic anovulatory follicle (HAF) is the most common pathological anovulatory condition in the mare, but its cause remains unknown. An experimental model to induce luteinised unruptured follicles (LUF) with flunixin-meglumine (FM) has been developed. The LUF share similar morphological and hormonal characteristics with the HAF.Objectives To test the effect of Intrafollicular administration of PGE2 and PGF2α during the periovulatory period on ovulation and pregnancy in FM-treated mares.Study designIn vivo experiment in a crossover design.Methods Five mares were followed during 2 oestrous cycles each. All mares were given FM at 1.7 mg/kg bwt i.v. every 12 h from Hour 0 (Hour 0 = hCG treatment) to Hour 36. In treatment cycles (n = 5), at Hour 32 the preovulatory follicle was punctured and 0.5 ml of a solution containing 500 μg of PGE2 and 125 μg of PGF2α was deposited within the follicle. In control cycles, water for injection was administered into the follicle at the same time. In 3 control and 3 treatment cycles, mares were also inseminated at Hour 24. Diagnosis of ovulation/LUF formation and pregnancy was performed by ultrasound examination between Hours 36 and 72 and 14 days after ovulation/LUF formation, respectively.ResultsDuring the treatment cycles, all mares ovulated normally (100% ovulation rate) between 36 and 48 h after hCG, while in 4 of 5 control cycles, the mares developed a LUF (80%, P<0.05). All 3 inseminated mares became pregnant in the treatment cycles, but not in the control cycles.Conclusions Intrafollicular treatment with PGE2 and PGF2α overcame the anovulatory effect of FM. This sheds new insights into the knowledge on the possible therapeutic options for ovulatory failure in the mare.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 12/2014;