Cellular & molecular immunology Journal Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: Zhongguo mian yi xue hui, Nature Publishing Group

Journal description

Current impact factor: 4.11

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 4.112
2013 Impact Factor 4.185
2012 Impact Factor 3.419
2011 Impact Factor 2.992
2010 Impact Factor 2.026
2009 Impact Factor 2.765

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 3.53
Cited half-life 4.60
Immediacy index 1.17
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 1.12
Other titles Cellular and molecular immunology
ISSN 2042-0226
OCLC 60550287
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details

Nature Publishing Group

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 6 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • Authors retain copyright
    • Published source must be acknowledged and DOI cited
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • On author's personal website and institutional repository
    • If funding agency rules apply, authors may post authors version to their relevant funding body's archive, 6 months after publication
    • This policy is an exception to the default policies of 'Nature Publishing Group'
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have identified olfactory ecto-mesenchymal stem cells (OE-MSCs) as a new type of resident stem cell in the olfactory lamina propria. However, it remains unclear whether OE-MSCs possess any immunoregulatory functions. In this study, we found that mouse OE-MSCs expressed higher transforming growth factor-beta and interleukin-10 levels than bone marrow-derived MSCs. In culture, OE-MSCs exerted their immunosuppressive capacity via directly suppressing effector T-cell proliferation and increasing regulatory T (Treg) cell expansion. In mice with collagen-induced arthritis, adoptive transfer of OE-MSCs markedly suppressed arthritis onset and disease severity, which was accompanied by increased Treg cells and reduced Th1/Th17 cell responses in vivo. Taken together, our findings identified a novel function of OE-MSCs in regulating T-cell responses, indicating that OE-MSCs may represent a new cell therapy for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 21 September 2015; doi:10.1038/cmi.2015.82.
    Cellular & molecular immunology 09/2015; DOI:10.1038/cmi.2015.82
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    ABSTRACT: Immune cells, particularly macrophages, play critical roles in the hypoxia-induced inflammatory response. The small GTPase RhoB is usually rapidly induced by a variety of stimuli and has been described as an important regulator of cytoskeletal organization and vesicle and membrane receptor trafficking. However, it is unknown whether RhoB is involved in the hypoxia-induced inflammatory response. Here, we investigated the effect of hypoxia on the expression of RhoB and the mechanism and significance of RhoB expression in macrophages. We found that hypoxia significantly upregulated the expression of RhoB in RAW264.7 cells, mouse peritoneal macrophages, and the spleen of rats. Hypoxia-induced expression of RhoB was significantly blocked by a specific inhibitor of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), or extracellular-signal regulated protein kinase (ERK), indicating that hypoxia-activated HIF-1α, JNK, and ERK are involved in the upregulation of RhoB by hypoxia. Knockdown of RhoB expression not only significantly suppressed basal production of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in normoxia but also more markedly decreased the hypoxia-stimulated production of these cytokines. Furthermore, we showed that RhoB increased nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activity, and the inhibition of NF-κB transcriptional activity significantly decreased the RhoB-increased mRNA levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α. Finally, we demonstrated that RhoB enhanced cell adhesion and inhibited cell migration in normoxia and hypoxia. Taken together, these results suggest that RhoB plays an important role in the hypoxia-induced activation of macrophages and the inflammatory response.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 21 September 2015; doi:10.1038/cmi.2015.78.
    Cellular & molecular immunology 09/2015; DOI:10.1038/cmi.2015.78
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    ABSTRACT: Currently, therapy for squamous cancer (SqC) is unsatisfactory. Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) has strong immune regulatory activity. This study tests the hypothesis that SEB enforces the effect of immunotherapy on SqC growth in a mouse model. C3H/HeN mice and the SqC cell line squamous cell carcinoma VII were used to create an SqC mouse model. Immune cell assessment was performed by flow cytometry. Real-time RT-PCR and western blotting were used to evaluate target molecule expression. An apoptosis assay was used to assess the suppressive effect of T helper-9 (Th9) cells on the SqC cells. The results showed that immunotherapy consisting of SEB plus SqC antigen significantly inhibited SqC growth in the mice. The frequency of Th9 cells was markedly increased in the SqC tissue and mouse spleens after treatment. SEB markedly increased the levels of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 phosphorylation and the expression of histone deacetylase-1 (HDAC1) and PU.1 (the transcription factor of the interleukin 9 (IL-9) gene) in CD4(+) T cells. Exposure to SqC-specific Th9 cells markedly induced SqC cell apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, the administration of SEB induces Th9 cells in SqC-bearing mice, and theseTh9 cells inhibit SqC growth.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 21 September 2015; doi:10.1038/cmi.2015.88.
    Cellular & molecular immunology 09/2015; DOI:10.1038/cmi.2015.88
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    ABSTRACT: The skin of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) has a unique predisposition for colonization by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), which contributes to the inflammation and grim prognosis of AD. Although the mechanism underlying the S. aureus-induced exacerbation of AD remains unclear, recent studies have found a pivotal role for pattern recognition receptors in regulating the inflammatory responses in S. aureus infection. In the present study, we used a typical mouse model of AD-like skin inflammation and found that S. aureus-associated nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) and toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) ligands exacerbated AD-like symptoms, which were further deteriorated by the in vivo expansion of basophils and eosinophils. Subsequent histological analyses revealed that dermal fibroblasts were pervasive in the AD-like skin lesions. Co-culture of human dermal fibroblasts with basophils and eosinophils resulted in a vigorous cytokine/chemokine response to the NOD2/TLR2 ligands and the enhanced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 on the dermal fibroblasts. Basophils and eosinophils were primarily responsible for the AD-related cytokine/chemokine expression in the co-cultures. Direct intercellular contact was necessary for the crosstalk between basophils and dermal fibroblasts, while soluble mediators were sufficient to mediate the eosinophil-fibroblast interactions. Moreover, the intracellular p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathways were essential for NOD2/TLR2 ligand-mediated activation of basophils, eosinophils, and dermal fibroblasts in AD-related inflammation. This study provides the evidence of NOD2/TLR2-mediated exacerbation of AD through activation of innate immune cells and therefore sheds light on a novel mechanistic pathway by which S. aureus contributes to the pathophysiology of AD.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 21 September 2015; doi:10.1038/cmi.2015.77.
    Cellular & molecular immunology 09/2015; DOI:10.1038/cmi.2015.77
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    ABSTRACT: Exosomes are nanoparticles of endocytic origin, secreted by a myriad of cell populations that are attracting increased attention by virtue of their ability to modulate cell-to-cell communications. They are also attracting attention in a variety of immunological issues, including autoimmunity and, in particular, their ability to regulate cytokine and chemokine activation. Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is considered a model autoimmune disease, which has a highly focused cytotoxic response against biliary epithelial cells. We have isolated exosomes from plasma from 29 patients with PBC and 30 healthy controls (HCs), and studied the effect of these exosomes on co-stimulatory molecule expression and cytokine production in mononuclear cell populations using an ex vivo system. We also identified the microRNA (miRNA) populations in PBC compared to HC exosomes. We report herein that although exosomes do not change cytokine production, they do significantly alter co-stimulatory molecule expression on antigen-presenting populations. Further, we demonstrated that CD86 up-regulated expression on CD14(+) monocytes, whereas CD40 up-regulated on CD11c(+) dendritic cells by exosomes from patients with PBC. In addition, there were differences of miRNA expression of circulating exosomes in patients with PBC. These data have significant importance based on observations that co-stimulatory molecules play a differential role in the regulation of T-cell activation. Our observation indicated that aberrant exosomes from PBC selectively induce expression of co-stimulatory molecules in different subset of antigen-presenting cells. These alterations may involve in pathogenesis of autoimmune liver disease.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 21 September 2015; doi:10.1038/cmi.2015.86.
    Cellular & molecular immunology 09/2015; DOI:10.1038/cmi.2015.86
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    ABSTRACT: In recent decades, accumulating evidence from both animal and clinical studies has suggested that a sufficiently activated immune system may strongly augment various types of cancer treatment, including photodynamic therapy (PDT). Through the generation of reactive oxygen species, PDT eradicates tumors by triggering localized tumor damage and inducing anti-tumor immunity. As the major component of anti-tumor immunity, the involvement of a cell-mediated immune response in PDT has been well investigated in the past decade, whereas the role of humoral immunity has remained relatively unexplored. In the present investigation, using the photosensitizer BAM-SiPc and the CT26 tumor-bearing BALB/c mouse model, it was demonstrated that both cell-mediated and humoral adaptive immune components could be involved in PDT. With a vascular PDT (VPDT) regimen, BAM-SiPc could eradicate the tumors of ∼70% of tumor-bearing mice and trigger an anti-tumor immune response that could last for more than 1 year. An elevation of Th2 cytokines was detected ex vivo after VPDT, indicating the potential involvement of a humoral response. An analysis of serum from the VPDT-cured mice also revealed elevated levels of tumor-specific antibodies. Moreover, this serum could effectively hinder tumor growth and protect the mice against further re-challenge in a T-cell-dependent manner. Taken together, these results show that the humoral components induced after BAM-SiPc-VPDT could assist the development of anti-tumor immunity.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 21 September 2015; doi:10.1038/cmi.2015.84.
    Cellular & molecular immunology 09/2015; DOI:10.1038/cmi.2015.84
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin (IL)-15 plays an important role in natural killer (NK) and CD8+ T-cell proliferation and function and is more effective than IL-2 for tumor immunotherapy. The trans-presentation of IL-15 by neighboring cells is more effective for NK cell activation than its soluble IL-15. In this study, the fusion protein dsNKG2D-IL-15, which consisted of two identical extracellular domains of human NKG2D coupled to human IL-15 via a linker, was engineered in Escherichia coli. DsNKG2D-IL-15 could efficiently bind to major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related protein A (MICA) of human tumor cells with the two NKG2D domains and trans-present IL-15 to NK or CD8+ T cells. We transplanted human gastric cancer (SGC-7901) cells into nude mice and mouse melanoma cells with ectopic expression of MICA (B16BL6-MICA) into C57BL/6 mice. Then, we studied the anti-tumor effects mediated by dsNKG2D-IL-15 in the two xenografted tumor models. Human dsNKG2D-IL-15 exhibited higher efficiency than IL-15 in suppressing gastric cancer growth. Exogenous human dsNKG2D-IL-15 was centrally distributed in the mouse tumor tissues based on in vivo live imaging. The frequencies of human CD56+ cells infiltrated into the tumor tissues following the injection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells into nude mice bearing human gastric cancer were significantly increased by human dsNKG2D-IL-15 treatment. Human dsNKG2D-IL-15 also delayed the growth of transplanted melanoma (B16BL6-MICA) by activating and recruiting mouse NK and CD8+ T cells. The anti-melanoma effect of human dsNKG2D-IL-15 in C57BL/6 mice was mostly decreased by the in vivo depletion of mouse NK cells. These data highlight the potential use of human dsNKG2D-IL-15 for tumor therapy.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 14 September 2015; doi:10.1038/cmi.2015.81.
    Cellular & molecular immunology 09/2015; DOI:10.1038/cmi.2015.81
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    ABSTRACT: The IL-33/ST2 axis has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several tissue-specific autoimmune diseases. Celiac disease (CD) is the only autoimmune disease in which both the major genetic factors (HLA-DQ2/DQ8) and etiologic ones (dietary gluten) for susceptibility are known. We have measured serum levels and determined intestinal tissue expression of IL-33 and its receptor soluble ST2 in patients with CD to investigate their association with disease activity. Serum and tissue levels of both IL-33 and sST2 were significantly higher in patients with CD compared with those in control patients without CD. We show that toxic peptides extracted from barley and wheat gliadin significantly stimulate the production of IL-33 and ST2 in cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cell from celiac patients, strongly implicating the IL-33/ST2 axis in the pathogenesis of CD. The higher levels of IL-33 and its receptor ST2 in tissue and serum reflect an active inflammatory state and may represent a potential biomarker for disease activity. A better understanding of IL-33/ST2 release, mode of action, and regulation will be crucial to develop therapeutics that target the IL-33/ST2 pathway to treat CD.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 7 September 2015; doi:10.1038/cmi.2015.85.
    Cellular & molecular immunology 09/2015; DOI:10.1038/cmi.2015.85
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    ABSTRACT: In monocytic cells, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)- and TLR2-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause oxidative stress and inflammatory response; however, the mechanism is not well understood. The present study investigated the role of interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p67phox and Nox-2 in TLR4- and TLR2-induced ROS generation during interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) transcription, processing, and secretion. An IRAK1/4 inhibitor, U0126, PD98059, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor (diphenyleneiodonium (DPI)), and a free radical scavenger (N-acetyl cysteine (NAC))-attenuated TLR4 (lipopolysaccharide (LPS))- and TLR2 (Pam3csk4)-induced ROS generation and IL-1β production in THP-1 and primary human monocytes. An IRAK1/4 inhibitor and siRNA-attenuated LPS- and Pam3csk4-induced ERK-IRAK1 association and ERK phosphorylation and activity. LPS and Pam3csk4 also induced IRAK1/4-, ERK- and ROS-dependent activation of activator protein-1 (AP-1), IL-1β transcription, and IL-1β processing because significant inhibition in AP-1 activity, IL-1β transcription, Pro- and mature IL-β expression, and caspase-1 activity was observed with PD98059, U0126, DPI, NAC, an IRAK1/4 inhibitor, tanshinone IIa, and IRAK1 siRNA treatment. IRAK-dependent ERK-p67phox interaction, p67phox translocation, and p67phox-Nox-2 interaction were observed. Nox-2 siRNA significantly reduced secreted IL-1β, IL-1β transcript, pro- and mature IL-1β expression, and caspase-1 activity indicating a role for Nox-2 in LPS- and Pam3csk4-induced IL-1β production, transcription, and processing. In the present study, we demonstrate that the TLR4- and TLR2-induced IRAK-ERK pathway cross-talks with p67phox-Nox-2 for ROS generation, thus regulating IL-1β transcription and processing in monocytic cells.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 31 August 2015; doi:10.1038/cmi.2015.62.
    Cellular & molecular immunology 08/2015; DOI:10.1038/cmi.2015.62
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    ABSTRACT: Plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) is a key determinant of lipoprotein metabolism, and both animal and human studies converge to indicate that PLTP promotes atherogenesis and its thromboembolic complications. Moreover, it has recently been reported that PLTP modulates inflammation and immune responses. Although earlier studies from our group demonstrated that PLTP can modify macrophage activation, the implication of PLTP in the modulation of T-cell-mediated immune responses has never been investigated and was therefore addressed in the present study. Approach and results: In the present study, we demonstrated that PLTP deficiency in mice has a profound effect on CD4(+) Th0 cell polarization, with a shift towards the anti-inflammatory Th2 phenotype under both normal and pathological conditions. In a model of contact hypersensitivity, a significantly impaired response to skin sensitization with the hapten-2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) was observed in PLTP-deficient mice compared to wild-type (WT) mice. Interestingly, PLTP deficiency in mice exerted no effect on the counts of total white blood cells, lymphocytes, granulocytes, or monocytes in the peripheral blood. Moreover, PLTP deficiency did not modify the amounts of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocyte subsets. However, PLTP-deficiency, associated with upregulation of the Th2 phenotype, was accompanied by a significant decrease in the production of the pro-Th1 cytokine interleukin 18 by accessory cells. For the first time, this work reports a physiological role for PLTP in the polarization of CD4(+) T cells toward the pro-inflammatory Th1 phenotype.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 31 August 2015; doi:10.1038/cmi.2015.75.
    Cellular & molecular immunology 08/2015; DOI:10.1038/cmi.2015.75
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the expanding knowledge on feedback regulation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, the feedforward regulation of TLR signaling for the proper innate response to invading microbes is not fully understood. Here, we report that extracellular calcium can coordinate the activation of the small GTPases Ras and Ras-proximate-1 (Rap1) upon TLR stimulation which favors activation of macrophages through a feedforward mechanism. We show that different doses of TLR agonists can trigger different levels of cytokine production, which can be potentiated by extracellular calcium but are impaired by the chelating reagent ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) or by knockdown of stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1). Upon TLR engagement, GTP-bound Ras levels are increased and GTP-bound Rap1 is decreased, which can be reversed by EGTA-mediated removal of extracellular calcium. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Rap1 knockdown rescues the inhibitory effects of EGTA on the TLR-triggered innate response. Examination of the TLR signaling pathway reveals that extracellular calcium may regulate the TLR response via feedforward activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway. Our data suggest that an influx of extracellular calcium, mediated by STIM1-operated calcium channels, may transmit the information about the intensity of extracellular TLR stimuli to initiate innate responses at an appropriate level. Our study may provide mechanistic insight into the feedforward regulation of the TLR-triggered innate immune response.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 17 August 2015; doi:10.1038/cmi.2015.59.
    Cellular & molecular immunology 08/2015; DOI:10.1038/cmi.2015.59
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    ABSTRACT: Preferential infection and depletion of gut-homing α4β7 CD4(+) T cells in the blood are observed in chronic HIV/SIV infection. The dynamic change in gut-homing α4β7 CD4(+) T cells and their functional subsets during the acute stages of HIV-1 infection are less documented. Therefore, we conducted a cohort study to investigate whether acute HIV-1 infection induced abnormalities in gut-homing α4β7 CD4(+) T cells and their functional subsets. We examined the frequency, absolute number, and functionality of gut-homing α4β7 CD4(+) T cells in 26 acute HIV-1-infected patients compared with 20 healthy individuals. We found that circulating gut-homing α4β7 CD4(+) T cells were preferentially depleted during acute HIV-1 infection and were positively correlated with absolute CD4(+) T-cell count in blood. Notably, Th17 and Th1 cell subsets of gut-homing CD4(+) T cells were also decreased, which resulted in an imbalance of T helper cells (Th1):regulatory T cells (Treg) and Treg:Th17 ratios. Gut-homing Th17 and Th1 cells were also positively correlated with the absolute number of total CD4(+) T cells and gut-homing CD4(+) T cells. The gut-homing Treg:Th17 ratio was inversely correlated with the CD4(+) T-cell count. Taken together, the analyses of our acute HIV-1 cohort demonstrate that gut-homing α4β7 CD4(+) T cells and their functional subsets were profoundly depleted during acute HIV-1 infection, which may have resulted in the persistent loss of circulating CD4(+) T cells and an imbalance of Th1:Treg and Treg:Th17 ratios and contribute to HIV-1 disease pathogenesis.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 17 August 2015; doi:10.1038/cmi.2015.60.
    Cellular & molecular immunology 08/2015; DOI:10.1038/cmi.2015.60
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    ABSTRACT: Natural killer (NK) cells are innate immune cells with the ability to identify and eliminate transformed cells. However, within tumors, many studies have described NK cells as non-functional. The developmental stage of tumor-associated NK cells and how this may relate to functionality has not been explored. We examined the developmental state of NK cells from polyoma middle T antigen (pyMT) transgenic mouse (MMTV-pMT) breast tumors. In pyMT tumors, NK cells were immature as evidenced by their decreased expression of DX5 and their CD27(low)CD11b(low) phenotype. These immature NK cells also had increased expression of NKG2A and expressed low levels of NKp46, perforin, and granzyme B. In contrast, splenic NK cells isolated from the same mice maintained their maturity and their expression of activation markers. To delineate whether the tumor microenvironment directly alters NK cells, we adoptively transferred labeled NK cells and followed their activation status in both the spleen and the tumor. NK cells that arrived at the tumor had half the expression of NKp46 within three days of transfer in comparison to those which arrived at the spleen. In an effort to modify the tumor microenvironment and assess the plasticity of intratumoral NK cells, we treated pyMT tumors with IL-12 and anti-TGF-β. After one week of treatment, the maturity of tumor-associated NK cells was increased; thus, indicating that these cells possess the ability to mature and become activated. A better understanding of how NK cells are modified by the tumor microenvironment will help to develop strategies aimed at bolstering immune responses against tumors.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 17 August 2015; doi:10.1038/cmi.2015.42.
    Cellular & molecular immunology 08/2015; DOI:10.1038/cmi.2015.42
  • Cellular & molecular immunology 08/2015; 12(5). DOI:10.1038/cmi.2015.49
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    ABSTRACT: A hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is the consistent production of various auto-antibodies by auto-reactive B cells. Interferon-α (IFN-α) signaling is highly activated in SLE B cells and plays a vital role in the antibody response by B cells. Previous studies have shown that CD180-negative B cells, which are dramatically increased in SLE patients, are responsible for the production of auto-antibodies. However, the association between CD180 and IFN-α signaling remains unknown. In the present study, we explored the effect of CD180 on regulating the activation of IFN-α signaling in B cells. We found that the number of CD180-negative B cells was increased in MRL/Mp-Fas(lpr/lpr) lupus-prone mice compared with wild-type mice. Phenotypic analysis showed that CD180-negative B cells comprised CD138(+) plasmablast/plasma cells and GL-7(+) germinal center (GC) B cells. Notably, ligation of CD180 significantly inhibited the IFN-α-induced phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 2 (STAT-2) and expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) in a Lyn-PI3K-BTK-dependent manner in vitro. Moreover, ligation of CD180 could also inhibit IFN-α-induced ISG expression in B cells in vivo. Furthermore, the Toll-like receptor 7 and Toll-like receptor 9 signaling pathways could significantly downregulate CD180 expression and modulate the inhibitory effect of CD180 signaling on the activation of IFN-α signaling. Collectively, our results highlight the close association between the increased proportion of CD180-negative B cells and the activation of IFN-α signaling in SLE. Our data provide molecular insight into the mechanism of IFN-α signaling activation in SLE B cells and a potential therapeutic approach for SLE treatment.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 17 August 2015; doi:10.1038/cmi.2015.61.
    Cellular & molecular immunology 08/2015; DOI:10.1038/cmi.2015.61
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    ABSTRACT: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to play important roles in immune cell development and immune responses through different mechanisms, such as dosage compensation, imprinting, enhancer function, and transcriptional regulation. Although the functions of most lncRNAs are unclear, some lncRNAs have been found to control transcriptional or post-transcriptional regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses via new methods of protein-protein interactions or pairing with DNA and RNA. Interestingly, increasing evidence has elucidated the importance of lncRNAs in the interaction between hosts and pathogens. In this review, an overview of the lncRNAs modes of action, as well as the important and diversified roles of lncRNAs in immunity, are provided, and an emerging paradigm of lncRNAs in regulating innate immune responses is highlighted.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 17 August 2015; doi:10.1038/cmi.2015.68.
    Cellular & molecular immunology 08/2015; DOI:10.1038/cmi.2015.68
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    ABSTRACT: Lactoferrin (LF) and retinoic acid (RA) are enriched in colostrum, milk, and mucosal tissues. We recently showed that LF-induced IgA class switching through binding to betaglycan (transforming growth factor-beta receptor III, TβRIII) and activation of canonical TGF-β signaling. We investigated the combined effect of LF and RA on the overall IgA response. An increase in IgA production by LF was further augmented by RA. This combination effect was also evident in Ig germ-line α (GLα) transcription and GLα promoter activity, indicating that LF in cooperation with RA increased IgA isotype switching. We subsequently found that RA enhanced TβRIII expression and that this increase contributed to LF-stimulated IgA production. In addition to the IgA response, LF and RA in combination also enhanced the expression of the gut-homing molecules C-C chemokine receptor 9 (CCR9) and α4β7 on B cells. Finally, peroral administration of LF and RA enhanced the frequency of CCR9(+)IgA(+) plasma cells in the lamina propria. Taken together, these results suggest that LF in cooperation with RA can contribute to the establishment of gut IgA responses.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 17 August 2015; doi:10.1038/cmi.2015.73.
    Cellular & molecular immunology 08/2015; DOI:10.1038/cmi.2015.73