Cellular & molecular immunology Journal Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: Zhongguo mian yi xue hui, Nature Publishing Group

Journal description

Current impact factor: 4.19

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 4.185
2012 Impact Factor 3.419
2011 Impact Factor 2.992
2010 Impact Factor 2.026
2009 Impact Factor 2.765

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 3.11
Cited half-life 4.60
Immediacy index 0.80
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 1.00
Other titles Cellular and molecular immunology
ISSN 2042-0226
OCLC 60550287
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details

Nature Publishing Group

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 6 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • Authors retain copyright
    • Published source must be acknowledged and DOI cited
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • On author's personal website and institutional repository
    • If funding agency rules apply, authors may post authors version to their relevant funding body's archive, 6 months after publication
    • This policy is an exception to the default policies of 'Nature Publishing Group'
  • Classification
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a specialized subpopulation of T cells that control the immune response and thereby maintain immune system homeostasis and tolerance to self-antigens. Many subsets of CD4(+) Tregs have been identified, including Foxp3(+), Tr1, Th3, and Foxp3neg iT(R)35 cells. In this study, we identified a new subset of CD4(+)VEGFR1(high) Tregs that have immunosuppressive capacity. CD4(+)VEGFR1high T cells, which constitute approximately 1.0% of CD4(+) T cells, are hyporesponsive to T-cell antigen receptor stimulation. Surface marker and FoxP3 expression analysis revealed that CD4(+)VEGFR1(high) T cells are distinct from known Tregs. CD4(+)VEGFR1(high) T cells suppressed the proliferation of CD4(+)CD25(-) T cell as efficiently as CD4(+)CD25(high) natural Tregs in a contact-independent manner. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of CD4(+)VEGFR1(+) T cells from wild type to RAG-2-deficient C57BL/6 mice inhibited effector T-cell-mediated inflammatory bowel disease. Thus, we report CD4(+) VEGFR1(high) T cells as a novel subset of Tregs that regulate the inflammatory response in the intestinal tract.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 27 July 2015; doi:10.1038/cmi.2015.71.
    Cellular & molecular immunology 07/2015; DOI:10.1038/cmi.2015.71
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    ABSTRACT: Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) contribute to synovial hyperplasia in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Smoothened (Smo) is a key component of sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling and contributes to tumor cell proliferation. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of Smo in RA synoviocyte proliferation. FLSs were isolated from RA synovium. Shh signaling was studied using a Smo antagonist (GDC-0449) and small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting the Smo gene in FLSs. Cell proliferation was quantified by using kit-8 assay and cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were evaluated by flow cytometry. Cell cycle-related genes and proteins were detected by real-time PCR and western blot. FLSs treated with GDC-0449 or Smo-siRNA showed significantly decreased proliferation compared to controls (P < 0.05). Incubation with GDC-0449 or transfection with Smo-siRNA resulted in a significant increase of G1 phase cells compared to controls (P < 0.05). Cell cycle arrest was validated by the significant increase in cyclin D1 and E1 mRNA expression, decrease in cyclin-dependent kinase p21 mRNA expression in Smo-siRNA transfected cells (P < 0.05). Protein expression of cyclin D1 was also downregulated after Smo gene knockdown (P < 0.05). The results suggest that Shh signaling plays an important role in RA-FLSs proliferation in a Smo-dependent manner and may contribute to synovial hyperplasia. Targeting Shh signaling may help control joint damage in patients with RA.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 20 July 2015; doi:10.1038/cmi.2015.67.
    Cellular & molecular immunology 07/2015; DOI:10.1038/cmi.2015.67
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    ABSTRACT: Although temozolomide (TMZ) is the first-line chemotherapeutic agent for glioblastoma, it is often non-curative due to drug resistance. To overcome the resistance of glioblastoma cells to TMZ, it is imperative to identify prognostic markers for outcome prediction and to develop chemo-sensitizing agents. Here, the gene expression profiles of TMZ-resistant and TMZ-sensitive samples were compared by microarray analysis, and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 (MEK2) was upregulated specifically in resistant glioma cells but not in sensitive tumor cells or non-tumor tissues. Moreover, a comprehensive analysis of patient data revealed that the increased level of MEK2 expression correlated well with the advancement of glioma grade and worse prognosis in response to TMZ treatment. Furthermore, reducing the level of MEK2 in U251 glioma cell lines or xenografted glioma models through shRNA-mediated gene knockdown inhibited cell proliferation and enhanced the sensitivity of cells toward TMZ treatment. Further analysis of tumor samples from glioma patients by real-time PCR indicated that an increased MEK2 expression level was closely associated with the activation of many drug resistance genes. Finally, these resistance genes were downregulated after MEK2 was silenced in vitro, suggesting that the mechanism of MEK2-induced chemo-resistance could be mediated by the transcriptional activation of these resistance genes. Collectively, our data indicated that the expression level of MEK2 could serve as a prognostic marker for glioma chemotherapy and that MEK2 antagonists can be used as chemo-sensitizers to enhance the treatment efficacy of TMZ.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 20 July 2015; doi:10.1038/cmi.2015.46.
    Cellular & molecular immunology 07/2015; DOI:10.1038/cmi.2015.46
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    ABSTRACT: The etiology and the underlying mechanism of CD4(+) T-cell polarization are unclear. This study sought to investigate the mechanism by which interleukin (IL)-13 prevents the activation-induced apoptosis of CD4(+) T cells. Here we report that CD4(+) T cells expressed IL-13 receptor α2 in the intestine of sensitized mice. IL-13 suppressed both the activation-induced apoptosis of CD4(+) T cells and the expression of p53 and FasL. Exposure to recombinant IL-13 inhibited activation-induced cell death (AICD) along with the expression of p53, caspase 3, and tumor necrosis factor-α in CD4(+) T cells. Administration of an anti-IL-13 antibody enhanced the effect of specific immunotherapy on allergic inflammation in the mouse intestine, enforced the expression of p53 in intestinal CD4(+) T cells, and enhanced the frequency of CD4(+) T-cell apoptosis upon challenge with specific antigens. In summary, blocking IL-13 enhances the therapeutic effect of antigen-specific immunotherapy by regulating apoptosis and thereby enforcing AICD in CD4(+) T cells.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 20 July 2015; doi:10.1038/cmi2015.50.
    Cellular & molecular immunology 07/2015; DOI:10.1038/cmi.2015.50
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    ABSTRACT: While there is mounting evidence that interleukin (IL)-23-IL-17 axis plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of various autoimmune diseases, much remains to be elucidated on how IL-23 is induced in the pathological processes. IL-23 is a heterodimer composed of p19 and p40, the latter being shared with IL-12. We previously reported that prostaglandin (PG) E2 promotes CD40-mediated induction of Il23a (p19) expression through its E receptor subtype 4 (EP4) receptor in splenic dendritic cells (DCs). Here, we have analyzed signaling pathways regulating Il23a induction in the cross talk between EP4 and CD40 in bone marrow-derived DCs. We found that PGE2 synergistically induced Il23a transcription with CD40 signaling. An EP4 agonist, but not agonists of EP1, EP2, or EP3, reproduced this action. Stimulation of CD40 with an agonist antibody evoked biphasic induction of Il23a expression, with the early phase peaking at 1 h and the late phase peaking at 12 h and lasting up to 36 h after stimulation, whereas induction by lipopolysaccharide or tumor necrosis factor-α was transient. The early phase induction by CD40 stimulation was absent in DCs derived from Nfkb1-deficient mice, and the late phase induction was eliminated by RNA interference of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p100 subunit. Further, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) depletion completely eliminated the induction of Il23a by CD40 stimulation. The addition of the EP4 agonist amplified the induction in both phases through the cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) pathway. These results suggest that Il23a expression in DCs is synergistically triggered by the PG E2-EP4-cAMP-PKA pathway and canonical/non-canonical NF-κB pathways and CREB activated by CD40 stimulation.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 20 July 2015; doi:10.1038/cmi.2015.70.
    Cellular & molecular immunology 07/2015; DOI:10.1038/cmi.2015.70
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    ABSTRACT: Severe influenza remains unusual in its virulence for humans. Complications or ultimately death arising from these infections are often associated with hyperinduction of proinflammatory cytokine production, which is also known as 'cytokine storm'. For this disease, it has been proposed that immunomodulatory therapy may improve the outcome, with or without the combination of antiviral agents. Here, we review the current literature on how various effectors of the immune system initiate the cytokine storm and exacerbate pathological damage in hosts. We also review some of the current immunomodulatory strategies for the treatment of cytokine storms in severe influenza, including corticosteroids, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists, sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 agonists, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, antioxidants, anti-tumour-necrosis factor therapy, intravenous immunoglobulin therapy, statins, arbidol, herbs, and other potential therapeutic strategies.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 20 July 2015; doi:10.1038/cmi.2015.74.
    Cellular & molecular immunology 07/2015; DOI:10.1038/cmi.2015.74
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    ABSTRACT: Immunization with adjuvant plus antigen induces durable T-cell immunity and is a mainstay of vaccines. Here, the consequence of separating antigen stimulation of T cells from the adjuvant response was studied in a re-transfer model. Effector CD8 T cells in recipient mice were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) ligand, which significantly increased persistence. While accumulation in lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs was evident, this result depended upon the timing of LPS administration and the presence of the TLR4 adaptor TRIF in the recipient mice. Interestingly, there was very little impact of the LPS response on subset differentiation, which rather appeared to be programmed by antigen and costimulation. To discern factors that limit accumulation, interleukin 10 (IL-10) was targeted since it is a product of TLR4 triggering and mitigates inflammation. Blockade of IL-10 increased accumulation even though the effector CD8 T cells were well past the priming phase, but upon recall interferon-γ secretion was not affected as would be expected when IL-10 is present during priming. Thus, the adjuvant-altered microenvironment is effective not only in the presence of antigen but also during a window of effector CD8 T-cell stasis, suggesting that pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules released during co-infection, or by vaccines, could alter the survival fate of specific effector T cells.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 20 July 2015; doi:10.1038/cmi.2015.69.
    Cellular & molecular immunology 07/2015; DOI:10.1038/cmi.2015.69
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    ABSTRACT: Sustained inflammation from infiltrated immune cells plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC). Previously, we established the role of ribosomal protein L13a in the regulation of an inflammation-responsive post-transcriptional operon in myeloid cells. However, the role of this protein as a molecular cue to control the severity of colitis is not known. Here, we examined whether L13a-dependent translational control in macrophages could serve as an endogenous defense against colitis. The administration of dextran sodium sulfate induced experimental colitis in myeloid-specific L13a-knockout (KO) and control mice. Pathological scoring and injury to the colon mucosa evaluated the severity of colitis. The steady-state levels of several pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were determined through ELISA and polyribosome profile analysis. Rapid weight loss, severe rectal bleeding, shortening of the colon, and significantly reduced survival rate were observed in the KO mice. Histopathological analysis of the colons of KO mice showed a severe disruption of epithelial crypts with immune cell infiltrates. Elevated levels of several inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and abrogation of their naturally imposed translational silencing were observed in the colons of the KO mice. Higher serum levels of several pro-inflammatory cytokines and the release of gut bacteria and endotoxins into the blood streams of KO mice were detected, suggesting the amplification of the inflammatory response to septicemia. Taken together, these results reveal an essential role for L13a in the endogenous protection against UC and demonstrate the potential for new therapeutic opportunities through the deliberate promotion of this mechanism.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 13 July 2015; doi:10.1038/cmi.2015.53.
    Cellular & molecular immunology 07/2015; DOI:10.1038/cmi.2015.53
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    ABSTRACT: Activation of complement generates C5a which leads to signaling through C5aR1. This is tightly controlled, including by the plasma proteins factor H (FH) and carboxypeptidase N. Here we studied a chronic serum sickness (CSS) model of glomerulonephritis (GN) in which there is an active humoral immune response, formation of glomerular immune complexes (ICs), and resulting glomerular inflammation. The antibody response, glomerular IC deposition, the degree of GN, and consequent renal functional insufficiency in CSS were all worse in FH-/- mice compared to wild-type FH+/+ animals. This was ameliorated in the former by giving a C5aR1 antagonist for the final 3 weeks of the 5-week protocol. In contrast, blocking CP-mediated inactivation of C5a increased these disease measures. Thus, complement regulation by both plasma FH and CP to limit the quantity of active C5a is important in conditions where the humoral immune response is directed to a continuously present foreign antigen. Signaling through C5aR1 enhances the humoral immune response as well as the inflammatory response to ICs that have formed in glomeruli. Both effects are relevant even after disease has begun. Thus, pharmacological targeting of C5a in IC-mediated GN has potential clinical relevance.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 13 July 2015; doi:10.1038/cmi.2015.45.
    Cellular & molecular immunology 07/2015; DOI:10.1038/cmi.2015.45
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    ABSTRACT: Programmed cell death 4 (Pdcd4) is a newly defined inhibitor of transcription and translation and a tumor suppressor. Recent studies have suggested that Pdcd4 may also be involved in some inflammatory diseases. However, its role in atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammation of the arterial wall, remains to be investigated. Here, we found that Pdcd4 deficiency in mice increased the expression of IL-10 in macrophages and decreased the expression of IL-17 in T cells in the presence of an atherosclerosis-associated stimulator in vitro and in high fat-induced atherosclerotic plaques. Importantly, knocking out Pdcd4 led to a decrease in atherosclerotic lesions in Apoe(-/-) mice fed a high fat diet. This effect could be partly reversed by blocking IL-10 with a neutralizing antibody but not by the application of exogenous IL-17. Further mechanistic studies revealed that Pdcd4 negatively regulated the expression of IL-10 in an ERK1/2- and p38-dependent manner. These results demonstrate that Pdcd4 deficiency attenuates atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic mice in part through the upregulation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. This indicates that endogenous Pdcd4 promotes atherosclerosis and therefore represents a potential therapeutic target for patients with atherosclerosis.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 13 July 2015; doi:10.1038/cmi.2015.47.
    Cellular & molecular immunology 07/2015; DOI:10.1038/cmi.2015.47
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    ABSTRACT: Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is known to be a potential vaccine adjuvant despite contradictory results from animal and human studies. The discrepancies may be due to the different doses and regimens of GM-CSF that were used, given that either mature or immature dendritic cells (DCs) could be induced under different conditions. To test the hypothesis that GM-CSF can be used as a novel adjuvant for a hepatitis B virus (HBV) therapeutic vaccine, we administered GM-CSF once per day for three days prior to vaccination with recombinant HBV vaccine (rHBVvac) in mice. We observed greater DC maturation in these pre-treated animals at day 3 as compared to day 1 or day 2 of daily GM-CSF administration. This strategy was further investigated for its ability to break the immune tolerance established in hepatitis B surface antigen-transgenic (HBsAg-Tg) animals. We found that the levels of induced anti-HBsAg antibodies were significantly higher in animals following three days of GM-CSF pre-treatment before rHBV vaccination after the third immunization. In addition to the increase in anti-HBsAg antibody levels, cell-mediated anti-HBsAg responses, including delayed-type hypersensitivity, T-cell proliferation, interferon-γ production, and cytotoxic T lymphocytes, were dramatically enhanced in the three-day GM-CSF pre-treated group. After adoptive transfers of CD8(+) T cells from immunized animals, antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells were observed in the livers of recipient HBsAg-Tg animals. Moreover, the three-day pre-treatments with GM-CSF prior to rHBVvac vaccination could significantly eliminate HBsAg-positive hepatocytes, suggesting beneficial therapeutic effects. Therefore, this protocol utilizing GM-CSF as an adjuvant in combination with the rHBVvac vaccine has the potential to become a novel immunotherapy for chronic hepatitis B patients.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 13 July 2015; doi:10.1038/cmi.2015.64.
    Cellular & molecular immunology 07/2015; DOI:10.1038/cmi.2015.64
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have suggested that regulatory T (Treg) cells comprise a heterogeneous population that regulates various aspects of the immune response, and that Treg cells use the factors that are expressed in their target cells to regulate them. We searched for factors that regulate Th1 response in Treg cells using a meta-analysis. In the process, we discovered that transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8) was selectively expressed in Treg and Th1 cells. IRF8-deficient Treg cells showed defective expression of CXCR3 and aberrant expression of the Il4 and Il17 genes. Upon treatment with alpha galactosyl-C18-ceramide (αGal-C18-Cer), IRF8-deficient mice showed defective Treg cell recruitment in the liver. Eliciting Th1 immune response by anti-CD40 antibody injection in mice induced IRF8 expression in Treg cells. The expression of IRF8 was induced by Foxp3 in Treg cells. IRF8 had no effect on T-bet expression in Treg and vice versa. Thus, our results strongly suggest that IRF8 controls Th1 immune response in Treg cells independent of T-bet.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 13 July 2015; doi:10.1038/cmi.2015.72.
    Cellular & molecular immunology 07/2015; DOI:10.1038/cmi.2015.72
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    ABSTRACT: Regulatory T (Treg) cells may participate in mediating a suppressive microenvironment that blunts successful anti-tumor immunotherapy. Recent studies show that CD8(+) Treg cells might impede effective immune responses to established tumors. However, there is limited research regarding CD8(+) Treg cells in ovarian cancer (OC) patients. Here, we investigated CD8(+) Treg cells in OC patients and their in vitro induction. The immunohistochemistry of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes revealed a significant correlation between the intratumoral CD8(+) T cells and the forkhead box p3 (Foxp3)(+) cells in the intraepithelial and stromal areas of advanced OC tissues. We examined the expression of Treg markers in CD8(+) T cells from the peripheral blood and fresh tumor tissues of OC patients using flow cytometry. Our results indicated an increase in the CD8(+) Treg cell subsets of OC patients compared with those in patients with benign ovarian tumors and healthy controls, including an increased expression of CD25, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4), and Foxp3 and decreased CD28 expression. To demonstrate whether the tumor microenvironment could convert CD8(+) effector T cells into suppressor cells, we used an in vitro transwell culturing system. Compared with the CD8(+) T cells cultured alone, the CD8(+) Treg cells induced in vitro by coculture with SK-OV-3/A2780 showed increased CTLA-4 and Foxp3 expression and decreased CD28 expression. In addition, the in vitro-induced CD8(+) Treg cells inhibited naı¨ve CD4(+) T-cell proliferation, which was partially mediated through TGF-β1 and IFN-γ. Our study suggests that CD8(+) Treg cells were increased in OC patients and could be induced in vitro, which may be the way that tumors limit antitumor immunity and evade immune surveillance.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 13 July 2015; doi:10.1038/cmi.2015.57.
    Cellular & molecular immunology 07/2015; DOI:10.1038/cmi.2015.57
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    ABSTRACT: We demonstrate that Mycobacterium tuberculosis recombinant leucine-responsive regulatory protein (rLrp) inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6, and interleukin-12 production and blocks the nuclear translocation of subunits of the nuclear-receptor transcription factor NF-κB (Nuclear factor-kappa B). Moreover, rLrp attenuated LPS-induced DNA binding and NF-κB transcriptional activity, which was accompanied by the degradation of inhibitory IκBα and a consequent decrease in the nuclear translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunit. RLrp interfered with the LPS-induced clustering of TNF receptor-associated factor 6 and with interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 binding to TAK1. Furthermore, rLrp did not attenuate proinflammatory cytokines or the expression of CD86 and major histocompatibility complex class-II induced by interferon-gamma in the macrophages of Toll-like receptor 2 deletion (TLR2(-/-)) mice and in protein kinase b (Akt)-depleted mouse cells, indicating that the inhibitory effects of rLrp were dependent on TLR2-mediated activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-OH kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. RLrp could also activate the PI3K/Akt pathway by stimulating the rapid phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta in macrophages. In addition, 19 amino acid residues in the N-terminus of rLrp were determined to be important and required for the inhibitory effects mediated by TLR2. The inhibitory function of these 19 amino acids of rLrp raises the possibility that mimetic inhibitory peptides could be used to restrict innate immune responses in situations in which prolonged TLR signaling has deleterious effects. Our study offers new insight into the inhibitory mechanisms by which the TLR2-mediated PI3K/Akt pathway ensures the transient expression of potent inflammatory mediators.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 13 July 2015; doi:10.1038/cmi.2015.58.
    Cellular & molecular immunology 07/2015; DOI:10.1038/cmi.2015.58
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    ABSTRACT: Dengue virus (DENV) remains a major public health threat because no vaccine or drugs are available for the prevention and treatment of DENV infection, and the immunopathogenesis mechanisms of DENV infection are not fully understood. Cytotoxic molecules, such as granzyme B (GrzB), may be necessary to control viral infections. However, the exact role of GrzB during DENV infection and the mechanisms regulating GrzB expression during DENV infection are not clear. This study found that miR-27a*, miR-30e, and miR-378 were down-regulated in DENV-infected patients, and DENV infection in humans induced a significant up-regulation of GrzB in natural killer (NK) cells and CD8(+) T cells. Further investigation indicated that NK cells, but not CD8(+) T cells, were the major sources of GrzB, and miR-378, but not miR-27a* or miR-30e, suppressed GrzB expression in NK cells. Notably, we found that overexpression of miR-378 using a miR-378 agomir in DENV-infected mice inhibited GrzB expression and promoted DENV replication. These results suggest the critical importance of miR-378 in the regulation of GrzB expression and a protective role for GrzB in controlling DENV replication in vivo. Therefore, this study provides a new insight into the immunopathogenesis mechanism of DENV infection and a biological basis for the development of new therapeutic strategies to control DENV infection.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 13 July 2015; doi:10.1038/cmi.2015.52.
    Cellular & molecular immunology 07/2015; DOI:10.1038/cmi.2015.52
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    ABSTRACT: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by abnormal inflammation, angiogenesis, and cartilage destruction. Our previous study demonstrated an increased expression of thioredoxin domain containing 5 (TXNDC5) in the synovial tissues of RA, and its overexpression was implicated in RA pathology. Although TXNDC5 variation is linked to genetic susceptibility to RA, the regulation of its abnormal expression has not been well defined. Here, we show that TXNDC5 is directly targeted by microRNA (miR)-573, and TXNDC5, in turn, mediates the suppressive effect of miR-573 on the invasion of synovial fibroblasts of RA (RASFs). miR-573 overexpression suppressed the expression of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and cyclooxygenase 2 in RASFs, as well as the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta by activated THP-1 cells in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Moreover, treatment with conditioned medium of RASFs transfected with miR-573 mimic inhibited the angiogenic ability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Of note, epidermal growth factor receptor and Toll-like receptor 2 were validated as new direct targets of miR-573, and mediate the regulation of miR-573 on IL-6 production as well as the angiogenesis of HUVECs. In addition, exogenous miR-573 expression suppressed the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/activate protein kinase B in RASFs in response to LPS. Indeed, MAPK signaling was essential to ensure the function of miR-573. Taken together, our study points toward the protective roles of miR-573 in the pathological process of RA and suggests a potential target in the treatment of RA.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 13 July 2015; doi:10.1038/cmi.2015.63.
    Cellular & molecular immunology 07/2015; DOI:10.1038/cmi.2015.63
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    ABSTRACT: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by B-cell hyperreactivity. The Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) signaling pathway is abnormally activated in SLE B cells. CyclinD3 (CCND3) plays an important role in B-cell proliferation, development, and differentiation. Although previous studies focused on the B cell-intrinsic role of TLR7 for the development of spontaneous germinal centers, the influence of TLR7 on CCND3 in SLE B cells is still not clear. Here, we used a B-cell profiling chip and found that CCND3 was related to SLE and significantly elevated in SLE B cells. Moreover, we determined that the expression level of CCND3 was higher, while miR-15b was significantly lower in the B cells from SLE patients and B6.MRL-Faslpr/J lupus mice compared to normal subjects. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the activation of TLR7 dramatically increased CCND3 expression but significantly decreased miR-15b in B cells in vitro and we identified that CCND3 is a direct target of miR-15b. To further confirm our results, we established another lupus model by topically treating C57BL/6 (B6) mice with the TLR-7 agonist imiquimod (IMQ) for 8 weeks according to the previously described protocol. Expectedly, topical treatment with IMQ also significantly increased CCND3 and decreased miR-15b in B cells of B6 mice. Taken together, our results identified that the activation of TLR7 increased CCND3 expression via the downregulation of miR-15b in B cells; thus, these findings suggest that extrinsic factor-induced CCND3 expression may contribute to the abnormality of B cell in SLE.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 6 July 2015; doi:10.1038/cmi.2015.48.
    Cellular & molecular immunology 07/2015; DOI:10.1038/cmi.2015.48
  • Cellular & molecular immunology 07/2015; DOI:10.1038/cmi.2015.54
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    ABSTRACT: Measles virus (MV) is highly contagious pathogen, which causes a profound immunosuppression, resulting in high infant mortality. This virus infects dendritic cells (DCs) following the binding of MV hemagglutinin (MV-H) to CD150 receptor and alters DC functions by a mechanism that is not completely understood. We have analyzed the effect of MV-H interaction with CD150-expressing DCs on the DC signaling pathways and consequent phenotypic and functional changes in the absence of infectious context. We demonstrated that contact between CD150 on human DCs and MV-H expressed on membrane of transfected CHO cells was sufficient to modulate the activity of two major regulatory pathways of DC differentiation and function: to stimulate Akt and inhibit p38 MAPK phosphorylation, without concomitant ERK1/2 activation. Furthermore, interaction with MV-H decreased the expression level of DC activation markers CD80, CD83, CD86, and HLA-DR and strongly downregulated IL-12 production but did not modulate IL-10 secretion. Moreover, contact with MV-H suppressed DC-mediated T-cell alloproliferation, demonstrating profound alteration of DC maturation and functions. Finally, engagement of CD150 by MV-H in mice transgenic for human CD150 decreased inflammatory responses, showing the immunosuppressive effect of CD150-MV-H interaction in vivo. Altogether, these results uncover novel mechanism of MV-induced immunosuppression, implicating modulation of cell signaling pathways following MV-H interaction with CD150-expressing DCs and reveal anti-inflammatory effects of CD150 stimulation.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 15 June 2015; doi:10.1038/cmi.2015.55.
    Cellular & molecular immunology 06/2015; DOI:10.1038/cmi.2015.55