African Journal of Psychiatry

Description

  • Impact factor
    0.87
  • 5-year impact
    0.00
  • Cited half-life
    2.80
  • Immediacy index
    0.42
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.00
  • ISSN
    1994-8220

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: From advancement of mechanistic view of human body to shifting paradigm of evaluation in medicine, world has changed a lot in last two decades in terms of visualizing a person as One Whole Being. Recently many studies have evolved with a question of spirituality benefits on health. Articles largely concentrated on reduction of physical as well as mental symptoms through association with religious practices. On the other hand, some argue on its association considering error in research designs and bias in studies which have linked positive correlation between religion and health. This review article has considered both accounts of objections as well as neutral studies along with recent developments, which is basically integration of spirituality into medical curriculum. Why it is now gaining attention? Why in need of most of the distressed patients? How religion affects coping and perception of a person and help in crisis? Current approach is critically analyzed for further studies to establish ambiguity in many areas and discussed benefits as how health system can be improved through incorporation of spiritual aspect into health assessment.
    African Journal of Psychiatry 09/2014; 17(6):1-5.
  • African Journal of Psychiatry 06/2014; 17(129):1994-8220.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Acne vulgaris is often associated with psychological distress, depression, and anxiety disorders that may impair neurocognitive functions such as memory, attention, psychomotor speed, and executive functions, which are also common psychiatric disorders in patients with acne. Methods: We determined cognitive functioning in treatment naive acne patients, without a history of any psychiatric disorder. Cognitive abilities, anxiety, social phobia and depression were assessed in acne vulgaris patients and compared with healthy controls. 66 treatment naive acne patients and 47 controls were recruited. The groups were matched for age, gender, and years spent in education. Results: The acne group demonstrated significant worse performance in cognitive tests assessing attention span, verbal episodic memory, learning, working memory, and phonemic verbal fluency when compared with controls. No group difference was found in cognitive tests assessing attention or executive functions. The acne group also had significantly higher anxiety scores (HADS-A, LSAS). We conducted Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to compare groups on cognitive functioning, controlling for HADS and LSAS scores. The differences between the performances of the groups in cognitive assessment remained significant after covariance. Conclusion: As acne vulgaris is largely a disease of adolescence, a period in which academic performance has great importance, psychiatric consultation including cognitive evaluation seems to be a critical part of its treatment.
    African Journal of Psychiatry 04/2014; 17(4):1000121.
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    ABSTRACT: The psychological impact of the South African border war on veterans has received little or no attention. This study determined the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and extent of resilience among a cohort of veterans. Of 1527 former students who matriculated from a Johannesburg high school from 1975 to 1988, only 109 were reachable for convenience and snowballing recruitment into this study. An anonymous, internet-based questionnaire was used to obtain information on demography, combat exposure, drug and alcohol use, traumatic events in later life, and recourse to medication and counselling. The Impact of Event Scale - Revised (IES-R) assessed for PTSD and the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale (CDRISC) measured resilience. Data were processed with STATA; version 11 statistical software package. Analysis included Chi square test and regression analysis. The response rate was 49.5% (n=54). The prevalence of PTSD was 33% and significantly associated with combat exposure (p=.012). Despite high prevalence of PTSD in those exposed to combat, 94% showed normal to above-normal level of resilience. CD-RISC scores showed no association with the IES-R. Only current cannabis use was significantly linked with PTSD (p=.044). Although the prevalence of PTSD found in this sample was higher than in comparable international studies, this cohort of former SA national servicemen, showed high levels of resilience. The current use of cannabis within the context of prior exposure to military national service or combat should prompt clinicians to screen for the presence of PTSD-associated symptoms.
    African Journal of Psychiatry 11/2013; 16(6).
  • African Journal of Psychiatry 11/2013; 16(6).
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    ABSTRACT: Addictions encompass many areas and many things, indeed any substance or habit that brings about euphoric sensations can become addictive, be it the pathological gamblers thrill of a horse nearly winning a race, or the self-destructive sensation of it loosing, or the drug users euphoria of heroin, and the need for more of it as the inevitable withdrawal symptoms begin. AB, a 19 year old sex worker, with a heroin addiction, presented with low mood and reduced vocal speed. She had suffered recent hallucinations. Within the past two weeks AB had withdrawn from family contact. She admitted transient thoughts of suicide, although had never acted on these. She had 3 large scabbed lesions on her face and raised lesions on her arm containing pus and signs of phlebitis. Her drug source/dealer has remained the same, but he now offers two qualities of heroin. Hallucinations have occurred within the last two weeks, with thoughts of seeing cats jumping from the walls.
    African Journal of Psychiatry 11/2013; 16(6).
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    ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of metabolic disorders in long-term psychiatric patients, and the relationship between known risk factors and these metabolic disorders. All psychiatric in-patients ≥18 years, who had been admitted ≥six months were invited to participate. Eighty-four patients participated. They were interviewed, examined, measured and blood tests conducted to determine several demographic and clinical variables including age, gender, weight, blood pressure and fasting blood glucose. The prevalence of the metabolic disorders were: metabolic syndrome 32%, hypertension 32%, diabetes mellitus 8%, cholesterol dyslipidaemia 32%, triglyceride dyslipidaemia 29%, low density lipoprotein (LDL) dyslipidaemia 50%, overweight 37%, and obesity 24%. Black African and female patients were more likely to have metabolic syndrome. Female patients were more likely to have cholesterol dyslipidaemia and obesity. Hypertension was associated with age. Ninety-six percent of patients with dyslipidaemia were newly diagnosed during the study. Three out of the seven previously diagnosed diabetic patients had raised fasting blood glucose levels. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome falls towards the lower limits of the expected prevalence rate. Race and gender showed a moderate statistical association with metabolic syndrome. There is a lack of screening for dyslipidaemia in this setting. Diabetic patients should be referred to specialist diabetic clinics for better monitoring and control.
    African Journal of Psychiatry 11/2013; 16(6).
  • African Journal of Psychiatry 11/2013; 16(6).
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the competence and accuracy of ad hoc interpreters in interpreting key psychiatric terms at a South African psychiatric hospital METHODS: Nine individuals were asked to translate key psychiatric terms from English to Xhosa. These translations were then back-translated by independent translators, who do not have knowledge of psychiatric terminology. These back-translations were then compared with the original English. It was clear that not all the participants were fully competent in English. None had formal training in interpreting or psychiatric terminology. Not all of the participants were familiar with the psychiatric concepts that clinicians use and they often made mistakes while interpreting. The competency levels of interpreters are unsatisfactory to ensure the optimal delivery of mental health care. It is clear that there is a need for trained interpreters in South Africa, as the continuous use of untrained interpreters compromises the effectiveness of mental health care and could lead to adverse health outcomes.
    African Journal of Psychiatry 11/2013; 16(6).
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    ABSTRACT: This study analyzes the relationship between informants' age and their assessment of mental health needs in postconflict society and examines if mental health needs assessment priorities differ depending upon whether or not the informant was exposed to the Liberian civil war. cross-sectional survey was conducted in March 2009 to obtain data on mental health needs of Liberian children, adolescents and young adults. A total of 171 individuals were interviewed. The data were analyzed using a two- way ANOVA. Elder respondents expressed a preference for young adults to receive services in a church/mosque (F = 4.020, p < .05); for adolescents in volunteer programs (F = 3.987, p < .05) and for children in sports programs (F = 4.396, p < .05). Experiencing conflict did exert some influence on treatment setting preferences. Those who resided outside Liberia during the conflict cited a preference for traditional healers and medical clinics. However, this preference was for the children and young adult age categories. Those who experienced the civil war reported significantly higher preferences for adolescent services to be located in medical clinics, with traditional healers, and in churches/mosques. This study provides additional support for the premise that the utilization of psychiatric services needs to be viewed from the perspective of Liberians and that there are differences in preferences across groups. Our results suggest that service providers and policy makers take into account the age of the patient when deciding where to locate treatment settings for the population.
    African Journal of Psychiatry 11/2013; 16(6).
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    ABSTRACT: National and international child and adolescent mental healthcare policy and action advocate that the health and well being of children should be increasingly given greater attention. The purpose of this study was to describe the demographic, socio economic and clinical profile of the users at the child and adolescent mental health clinic of the Rahima Moosa Mother and Child Hospital (RMMCH). A descriptive, retrospective clinical audit from users' clinical files was performed over a one-year period from January to December 2007. Descriptive statistical analyses of demographic and socio-economic variables were made and these variables were compared with the presenting clinical problems. Odds ratios were calculated for variables that showed a statistically significant association (p-value less than 0.05). A total of 303 users attended this clinic. Statistical comparisons between demographic data and disorders revealed that being male increased the likelihood of presenting with AHDH and disruptive behaviour disorders; being female increased the likelihood of being sexually abused. Race showed a significant association with parent-child relationship difficulties. Regarding socio-economic variables, the identity of the caregiver of the child influenced the risk of disruptive behaviour disorders, sexual abuse, neglect and academic problems. Where the child was placed was a risk factor for disruptive behaviour disorders, sexual abuse, neglect and academic problems. Whether the mother of a user was alive or deceased, was found to be related to ADHD and disruptive behaviour and whether the father of a user was alive or deceased, was found to be related to sexual abuse and academic problems. The education level of the caregiver showed a significant association with sexual abuse, neglect and academic problems; the marital status of the parent (widowed mother) showed a significant association with bereavement. Household income was associated with sexual abuse, neglect and academic problems. This study demonstrated the impact that socio-economic circumstances have on the prevalence of childhood disorders; hence the urgent need for government and social welfare departments to improve the socio-economic status of communities. There is a need to improve psychiatric services for the population served by this hospital, including more clinics in its catchment area, as well as child psychiatry training posts and extended social work services.
    African Journal of Psychiatry 09/2013; 16(5):356-63.
  • African Journal of Psychiatry 09/2013; 16(5):327.