Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering

Publisher: Springer Verlag


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Publications in this journal

  • Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering 06/2014; 19(3):526-533.
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    ABSTRACT: Laccases catalyse the oxidation of a wide range of substrates by a radical-catalyzed reaction mechanism, with a corresponding reduction of oxygen to water in a four-electron transfer process. Due to that, laccases are considered environmentally friendly enzymes, and lately there has been great interest in their use for the transformation and degradation of phenolic compounds. In this work, enzymatic oxidation of catechol and L-DOPA using commercial laccase from Trametes versicolor was performed, in continuously operated microreactors. The main focus of this investigation was to develop a new process for phenolic compounds oxidation, by application of microreactors. For a residence time of 72 s and an inlet oxygen concentration of 0.271 mmol/dm3, catechol conversion of 41.3% was achieved, while approximately the same conversion of L-DOPA (45.0%) was achieved for an inlet oxygen concentration of 0.544 mmol/dm3. The efficiency of microreactor usage for phenolic compounds oxidation was confirmed by calculating the oxidation rates ; in the case of catechol oxidation, oxidation rates were in the range from 76.101 to 703.935 g/dm3/d (18–167 fold higher, compared to the case in a macroreactor). To better describe the proposed process, kinetic parameters of catechol oxidation were estimated, using data collected from experiments performed in a microreactor. The maximum reaction rate estimated in microreactor experiments was two times higher than one estimated using the initial reaction rate method from experiments performed in a cuvette. A mathematical model of the process was developed, and validated, using data from independent experiments.
    Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering 08/2013; 18(4):686/696.
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    ABSTRACT: A series of naphthoquinone-benzothiazole conjugates were synthesized as algicides, and their efficacies against harmful algal blooming species, such as Chattonella marina, Heterosigma akashiwo and Cochlodinium polykrikoides, were examined. The introduction of substituted benzothiazole at the C2 position of 1,4-naphthoquinone (compounds 1–9) resulted in higher algicidal activity against C. polykrikoides than the C6 conjugates (compounds 10– 20). On the other hand, of the C6 conjugates, compounds 11 and 12 exhibited better algicidal activity against H. akashiwo, C. marina, and C. polykrikoides than the C2 conjugates. Further structure-activity analysis indicated that a replacement of the methoxy groups with hydroxyl groups (compounds 21–26) decreased the algicidal activity significantly. Among the various synthetic naphthoquinonebezothiazole conjugates tested, compound 12 was found to affect the most significant decrease in the level of C. polykrikoides growth, with an IC50 of 0.19 μM. Compound 11 was found to be the most potent inhibitor against H. akashiwo and C. polykrikoides, with IC50 values of 0.32 and 0.12 μM, respectively. Overall, these results highlight a possible method for controlling and inhibiting red tide forming algae using NQ derivatives.
    Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering 06/2013; 8:932.
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    ABSTRACT: In order to offer the ability of smaller volumes and high throughput in Lab-On-a-Chip and micro Total Analysis Systems devices, more miniaturized components are needed. Due to a low Reynolds number on the microscale, the mixing process can be particularly troublesome. This problem is compounded by the fact that more miniaturization can be challenging in a microfluidic system. In such a case, electroosmotic (EO) force is an efficient force to perturb low Reynolds number fluid. In this paper, a novel Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) based fabrication for microfluidic devices, and a more miniaturized micromixer are presented. The proposed technology process requires the covering of excited electrode patterns by a thin Silicon-Nitride (Si3N4) insulator layer. Fabrication parameters such as Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (LPCVD) Si3N4 deposition effect, and height of the Phosphor Silicate Glass (PSG) sacrificial layer were investigated for the electroosmotically-driven mixer. Particle tracing for fluid flow was illustrated, the particles were stretched and folded for a long time, which was a proof of chaotic regime. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) revealed that the mixer with covered electrodes provides the high mixing efficiency of above 90% for a 96 μm long microchannel. Using a silicon nitride insulator layer reduces high electric field gradient at sharp corners and edges of the electrodes, leading to the elimination of unwanted electrolyte effects. Thus, the excitation and geometrical parameters were optimized for the micromixer.
    Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering 06/2013; 18(3):594-605.
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin B12 is a complex biomolecule that acts as a cofactor for a variety of enzymes in microbial metabolism. Pseudomonas denitrificans is exclusively used as an industrial strain for the production of vitamin B12 under aerobic conditions. However, only a few strains of Pseudomonas have been reported to possess the capability of producing this vitamin and they are strongly patent-protected. To improve the applicability of the vitamin B12-producing microorganisms, a new isolate was obtained from municipal waste samples and characterized for its biological properties. The new isolate, designated as SP2, was identified to be a Pseudomonas species based on the sequence homology of its 16S rDNA. Pseudomonas species SP2 had essential genes for vitamin B12 synthesis such as cobB and cobQ and produced a similar amount of vitamin B12 (10.6 ± 0.05 μg/mL) as P. denitrificans ATCC 13867 in 24 h flask culture. SP2 grew well under aerobic condition with the maximum specific growth rate (µmax ) of 0.91 ± 0.03/h, but showed a poor growth under micro-aerobic conditions. SP2 was resistant to antibiotics like streptomycin, carbenicillin, ampicillin, cefpodoxime, colistin, nalidixic acid and sparfloxacin. The ability of SP2 to grow faster and produce vitamin B12 under aerobic conditions makes it a promising host for the production of some biochemicals requiring a coenzyme B12-dependent enzyme, such as glycerol dehydratase.
    Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering 02/2013; 18(1):43-51.
  • Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering 01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The fight against biological warfare has prompted investigation of the chemistry and exothermic energy from energetic material reactions as a means for the neutralization of bacterial spores. The interaction between energetic reactions containing biocides and spore forming bacteria is not well understood. The goal of this work is to fundamentally examine the mechanisms of neutralization for Bacillus thuringiensis utilizing a halogenated energetic material reaction. Spore neutralization is attributed to a thermal effect from the reaction heat and the associated chemical influence of the halogen gas (i.e., produced from combustion). Results show heat transfer in the spore enhances the effectiveness of the halogen gas in the neutralization process and that elevated temperatures increase spore permeability, facilitating gas penetration and accelerating spore neutralization. Based on experimental results, a mathematical model was developed to predict spore behavior during reaction exposure over varying time scales. In the millisecond range, the model showed that the coupled thermal-biocidal gas mechanism will require elevated temperatures of 360A degrees C to produce 80% neutralization in tens of milliseconds while thermal conditions alone would require nearly 1,000A degrees C for the same neutralization. These results provide molecular-level insights into the components underpinning biological processes leading to spore neutralization.
    Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering 01/2013; 18(5):918-925.
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclocarya paliurus is a unique plant growing in central China with hypoglycaemic and hypolipaemia effects. To make better use of this functional food resource, cell suspension cultures and triterpenic acid accumulation were studied. Stable and uniform cell suspension cultures were established in liquid basal Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (0.5 mg/L), naphthalene acetic acid (0.3 mg/L) and cytokinin (1.0 mg/L). According to the growth curve and triterpenic acid accumulation curve, the 8 ∼ 10th day postinoculation was the optimum time for subculture, and the 14th day was the optimum time for harvest. Murashige and Skoog medium and woody plant medium were suitable for both cell growth and triterpenic acid accumulation. 3% sucrose (w/v), 60 mM total nitrogen (NO3−/NH4+ = 2/1), 1.25 mM KH2PO4, 2 mM CaCl2, and 2 mM MgSO4 were all found to be fit for cell growth and triterpenic acid accumulation in a cell suspension culture of Cyclocarya paliurus. Total triterpenic acid, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid content in suspended cultured cells were all significantly higher than that of leaves and calluses (P ⩽ 0.01), with levels up to 6.24, 2.28, and 0.94% (of dry weight), respectively. The betulinic acid content of suspended cultured cells also reached 0.82%, which was significantly higher than that of calluses. These results suggest that suspended cultured cells of Cyclocarya paliurus were rich in triterpenic acids and could be used for the production of total triterpenic acid, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid and betulinic acid.
    Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering 01/2013; 18(3):606-614.
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    ABSTRACT: Nitroaromatic compounds are major chemical pollutants because of their widespread use and toxicity. Bioremediation of such toxic nitroaromatic compounds using microorganisms may provide an effective method for detoxification. Bacillus flexus strain XJU-4, capable of degrading 3-nitrobenzoate, was immobilized in various matrices, namely polyurethane foam (PUF), polyacrylamide, sodium alginate (SA), sodium alginate-polyvinyl alcohol (SA-PVA) and agar. The degradation of 12 and 24 mM 3-nitrobenzoate, by both freely suspended cells and immobilized cells, in batches and fed-batch with shaken cultures were compared. The PUF-immobilized cells achieved higher degradation rates of 12 and 24 mM 3- nitrobenzoate than freely suspended cells, and the cells immobilized in SA-PVA, polyacrylamide, SA and agar. The PUF-immobilized cells could be reused for more than 21 cycles without losing any degradation capacity. These results revealed the feasibility of using PUF-immobilized cells of B. flexus for the enhanced degradation of 3- nitrobenzoate.
    Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering 12/2012; 17(6):1294-1299.