Cortex (CORTEX)

Publisher: Elsevier

Journal description

Cortex is an international journal devoted to the study of the inter-relations of the nervous system and behavior, particularly as these are reflected in the effects of brain lesions on cognitive functions. It was founded in 1964. Tra le riviste italiane con maggior impact factor, raccoglie selezionati lavori di ricerca sulle attività nervose superiori. Si rivolge essenzialmente a un pubblico di neurologi e psicologi, ma tratta argomenti di pertinenza anche per gli psichiatri e per quanti sono interessati ad analizzare il comportamento umano e le sue alterazioni in termini di strutture e meccanismi anatomo-fisiologici. Dal 2001 il comitato scientifico, rinnovato e potenziato, è diretto dall'Editor in Chief dott. Sergio Della Sala. In occasioni del 40° anniversario sono stati rinnovati formato e grafica della rivista ed è stato accresciuto il sito web, che mette a disposizione l'archivio e, per gli abbonati, l'ultimo numero e gli articoli che saranno pubblicati nei prossimi numeri.

Current impact factor: 6.04

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 6.042
2012 Impact Factor 6.161
2011 Impact Factor 6.08
2010 Impact Factor 7.251
2009 Impact Factor 4.058
2008 Impact Factor 2.749
2007 Impact Factor 3.123
2006 Impact Factor 3.724
2005 Impact Factor 3.584
2004 Impact Factor 2.472
2003 Impact Factor 2
2002 Impact Factor 0.942
2001 Impact Factor 1.204
2000 Impact Factor 1.382
1999 Impact Factor 1.31
1998 Impact Factor 1.594
1997 Impact Factor 1.378

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 5.04
Cited half-life 5.30
Immediacy index 2.75
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 1.58
Website Cortex website
Other titles Cortex
ISSN 1973-8102
OCLC 2116577
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Pre-print allowed on any website or open access repository
    • Voluntary deposit by author of authors post-print allowed on authors' personal website, or institutions open scholarly website including Institutional Repository, without embargo, where there is not a policy or mandate
    • Deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate only allowed where separate agreement between repository and the publisher exists.
    • Permitted deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate, may be required to comply with embargo periods of 12 months to 48 months .
    • Set statement to accompany deposit
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to journal home page or articles' DOI
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • NIH Authors articles will be submitted to PubMed Central after 12 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 18/10/2013
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • Brian T. Gold
    Cortex 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.cortex.2015.06.014
  • Cortex 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.cortex.2015.06.011
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    ABSTRACT: Medicated, non-dementing mild-to-moderate Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients usually show recall/recollection impairments but have only occasionally shown familiarity impairments. We aimed to assess two explanations of this pattern of impairment. Recollection typically improves when effortful planning of encoding and retrieval processing is engaged. This depends on prefrontally-dependent executive processes, which are often disrupted in PD. Relative to an unguided encoding and retrieval of words condition (C1), giving suitable guidance at encoding alone (C2) or at encoding and retrieval (C3) should, if executive processes are disrupted, improve PD recollection more than control recollection and perhaps raise it to normal levels. Familiarity, being a relatively automatic kind of memory, whether impaired or intact, should be unaffected by guidance. According to the second explanation, PD deficits are amnesia-like and caused by medial temporal lobe dysfunction and although poorer recollection, which is caused by hippocampal disruption, may be improved by guidance, it should not improve more than control recollection. Familiarity impairment will also occur if the perirhinal cortex is disrupted, but will be unimproved by guidance. Without guidance, recollection/recall was impaired in thirty PD patients relative to twenty-two healthy controls and remained relatively equally impaired when full guidance was provided (C1 vs C3), both groups improving to broadly the same extent. Although impaired, and markedly less so than recollection, familiarity was not improved by guidance in both groups. The patients showed elevated rates of subclinical depressive symptoms, which weakly correlated with recall/recollection in all three conditions. PD executive function was also deficient and correlated with unguided/C1 recollection only. Our results are consistent with a major cause of the patients’ recall/recollection impairments being hippocampal disruption, probably exacerbated by subclinical depressive symptoms. However, the results do not exclude a lesser prefrontal cortex contribution because patient executive functions were impaired and correlated solely with unguided overall recollection.
    Cortex 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.cortex.2015.06.021
  • Cortex 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.cortex.2015.06.018
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    ABSTRACT: In neuropsychological research, single-cases are often compared with a small control sample. Crawford and colleagues developed inferential methods (i.e., the modified t-test) for such a research design. In the present article, we suggest an extension of the methods of Crawford and colleagues employing linear mixed models (LMM). We first show that a t-test for the significance of a dummy coded predictor variable in a linear regression is equivalent to the modified t-test of Crawford and colleagues. As an extension to this idea, we then generalized the modified t-test to repeated measures data by using LMMs to compare the performance difference in two conditions observed in a single participant to that of a small control group. The performance of LMMs regarding Type I error rates and statistical power were tested based on Monte-Carlo simulations. We found that starting with about 15 to 20 participants in the control sample Type I error rates were close to the nominal Type I error rate using the Satterthwaite approximation for the degrees of freedom. Moreover, statistical power was acceptable. Therefore, we conclude that LMMs can be applied successfully to statistically evaluate performance differences between a single-case and a control sample.
    Cortex 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.cortex.2015.06.020
  • Cortex 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.cortex.2015.06.013
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    ABSTRACT: Being on the social perimeter is not only sad, it is dangerous. Our evolutionary model of the effects of perceived social isolation (loneliness) on the brain as well as a growing body of behavioral research suggests that loneliness promotes short-term self-preservation, including an increased implicit vigilance for social, in contrast to nonsocial, threats. However, this hypothesis has not been tested previously in a neuroimaging study. We therefore used high density EEG and a social Stroop interference task to test the hypothesis that implicit attention to negative social, in contrast to nonsocial, Words in the Stroop task differs between individuals high versus low in loneliness and to investigate the brain dynamics of implicit processing for negative social (vs. nonsocial) stimuli in lonely individuals, compared to nonlonely individuals (N = 70). The present study provides the first evidence that negative social stimuli are differentiated from negative nonsocial stimuli more quickly in the lonely than nonlonely brains. Given the timing of this differentiation in the brain and the fact that participants were performing a Stroop task, these results also suggest that these differences reflect implicit rather than explicit attentional differences between lonely and nonlonely individuals. Source estimates were performed for purposes of hypothesis generation regarding underlying neural mechanisms, and the results implicated the neural circuits reminiscent of orienting and executive control aspects of attention as contributing to these differences. Together, the results are in accord with the evolutionary model of loneliness.
    Cortex 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.cortex.2015.05.032
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    ABSTRACT: Individuals with mirror touch synaesthesia (MTS) experience touch on their own body when observing others being touched. A recent account proposes that such rare experiences could be linked to impairment in self-other representations. Here we tested participants with MTS on a battery of social cognition tests and found that compared to non-synaesthete controls, the MTS group showed impairment in imitation-inhibition but not in visual perspective taking or theory of mind. Although all of these socio-cognitive abilities rely on the control of self-other representations, they differ as to whether the self, or the other, should be preferentially represented. For imitation-inhibition, representations of the other should be inhibited and self-representations should be enhanced, whereas the opposite is true for visual perspective taking and theory of mind. These findings suggest that MTS is associated with a specific deficit in inhibiting representation of other individuals and shed light on the fractionability of processes underlying typical social cognition.
    Cortex 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.cortex.2015.06.019
  • Cortex 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.cortex.2015.06.009
  • Cortex 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.cortex.2015.06.010
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    ABSTRACT: Adults diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show a reduced sensitivity (degree of selective response) to social stimuli such as human voices. In order to determine whether this reduced sensitivity is a consequence of years of poor social interaction and communication or is present prior to significant experience, we used functional MRI to examine cortical sensitivity to auditory stimuli in infants at high familial risk for later emerging ASD (HR group, N = 15), and compared this to infants with no family history of ASD (LR group, N = 18). The infants (aged between 4 and 7 months) were presented with voice and environmental sounds while asleep in the scanner and their behaviour was also examined in the context of observed parent-infant interaction. Whereas LR infants showed early specialisation for human voice processing in right temporal and medial frontal regions, the HR infants did not. Similarly, LR infants showed stronger sensitivity than HR infants to sad vocalisations in the right fusiform gyrus and left hippocampus. Also, in the HR group only, there was an association between each infant's degree of engagement during social interaction and the degree of voice sensitivity in key cortical regions. These results suggest that at least some infants at high-risk for ASD have atypical neural responses to human voice with and without emotional valence. Further exploration of the relationship between behaviour during social interaction and voice processing may help better understand the mechanisms that lead to different outcomes in at risk populations.
    Cortex 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.cortex.2015.06.015
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    ABSTRACT: Recent research has challenged classic theories of hippocampal function in spatial memory with findings that the hippocampus may be necessary for detailed representations of environments learned long ago, but not for remembering the gist or schematic aspects that are sufficient for navigating within those environments (Rosenbaum et al., 2000; Rosenbaum, Winocur, Binns, & Moscovitch, 2012). We aimed to probe further distinctions between detailed and schematic representations of familiar environments in three cases of hippocampal/medial temporal lobe (MTL) amnesia by testing them on a route description task and mental navigation tasks that assess the identity and location of landmarks, and distances and directions between them. The amnesic cases could describe basic directions along known, imagined routes, estimate distance and direction between well-known landmarks, and produce sketch maps with accurate layouts, suggestive of intact schematic representations. However, findings that their route descriptions lack richness of detail, along with impoverished sketch maps and poor landmark recognition, substantiates previous findings that detailed representations are hippocampus-dependent.
    Cortex 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.cortex.2015.06.008
  • Cortex 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.cortex.2015.06.016
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    ABSTRACT: Although Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828) is well known for his organology, i.e., his theory of cortical localization of function largely derived from skull features, little has been written about his ideas pertaining to specific faculties other than speech, and even less attention has been drawn to how the individual faculties might work together in specific situations. Our focus shall be on how Franz Joseph Gall viewed the fine arts, with special emphasis on what one must possess to be outstanding in this field, which he associated with perceiving and understanding relationships, and several higher faculties of mind, including color, "constructiveness," locality, and recognizing people. How these faculties are utilized, he tells us, will vary with whether an artist does portraits, landscapes, historical scenes, still life compositions, etc., as well as with the selected medium (e.g., oil paints, sketching on paper, stones to be carved). To put Gall's thoughts about the fine arts in context, brief mention will be made of his scientific career, his guiding philosophy, the questions he most wanted to answer, what he construed as "evidence," how he eliminated the soul or "controller" from his system, and how he presented his work to the public. Some comparisons will be made to what he wrote about having a talent for music.
    Cortex 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.cortex.2015.06.017
  • Cortex 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.cortex.2015.06.004
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    ABSTRACT: Tourette syndrome (TS) can feature complex tics involving socially inappropriate behaviors. Adults with TS can also demonstrate differences to healthy controls when reasoning about mental states. This study investigated spontaneous mentalizing in TS. Twenty adults with TS and twenty healthy controls completed the animations task. Participants were asked to watch short ambiguous animations involving two triangles and describe what was happening. Some animations featured random movement of the triangles, while others depicted social interactions that were simple (e.g. dancing) or more complex (e.g. one triangle tricking the other). Measures were taken of executive functions, alexithymia and clinical symptoms. Individuals with TS responded similarly to controls when viewing animations featuring simple and complex interactions, demonstrating intact mentalizing ability. However, significant group differences were apparent for the random animations. TS was associated with a greater tendency to attribute mental states during this condition, and to describe random movements as motivated actions guided by the intentions of the triangles. There were no group differences for the alexithymia scale, but TS was associated with mild executive deficits. No relationships were apparent between animation responses and other measures. Our findings suggest that TS is associated with a propensity to adopt the intentional stance. Hyper-mentalizing in TS could be linked to both dopamine dysfunction and altered social behavior, whereby amplified salience of social cues could contribute to the complex interplay between environmental context and tic expression. These observations may offer further insight into the potential effects of dopamine dysfunction on social cognition.
    Cortex 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.cortex.2015.06.003
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    ABSTRACT: Multitasking performance costs have largely been characterized by experiments that involve two overlapping and punctuated perceptual stimuli, as well as punctuated responses to each task. Here, participants engaged in a continuous performance paradigm during fMRI recording to identify neural signatures associated with multitasking costs under more natural conditions. Our results demonstrated that only a single brain region, the superior parietal lobule (SPL), exhibited a significant relationship with multitasking performance, such that increased activation in the multitasking condition versus the singletasking condition was associated with higher task performance (i.e., least multitasking cost). Together, these results support previous research indicating that parietal regions underlie multitasking abilities and that performance costs are related to a bottleneck in control processes involving the SPL that serves to divide attention between two tasks.
    Cortex 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.cortex.2015.06.001