European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

Journal description

Current impact factor: 0.44

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 0.437
2012 Impact Factor 0.306
2011 Impact Factor 0.32

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 0.00
Cited half-life 2.80
Immediacy index 0.21
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.00
ISSN 1964-8189

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Taylor & Francis

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    • STM: Science, Technology and Medicine
    • Publisher last contacted on 25/03/2014
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  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This article reports the results of triaxial creep tests of cataclastic sandstone cored from the dam foundation of a hydropower station. Meanwhile, the permeability measurements are performed in course of creep tests under hydro-mechanical coupling. The creep behaviours of studied rock and their effects on the permeability evolution have been analysed in detail. The results show that the studied rock exhibits pronounced irreversible time-dependent deformations. The strain rate increases by exponential functions as the deviatoric stress increased and the confining pressure decreased. The long-term strength can be defined at which the critical point of expansion strain rate is greater than the compression strain rate. In addition, important plastic deformation, obvious dilation and large strain rate are observed in the last stage of experimental tests. The permeability change shows some mutative correlation with the material porosity during the time-dependent deformation. But the trend of change is decreasing with the increase of deviatoric stress for all specimens. During the stage of steady creep, the permeability variation slowly decreases quasi-linearly. It indicates that the fluctuation has no significant effect on permeability evolution. These results may provide the basis for the establishment of hydro-mechanical coupling creep model and the long-term stability analysis of structures.
    European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering 04/2015; 19(4). DOI:10.1080/19648189.2014.960103
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    ABSTRACT: In order that non-destructive testing methods become quantitative tools for structure owners, it is necessary to assess their precision and sensitivity to the environment. The presented study deals with two electromagnetic methods classically used to survey road pavements and concrete structures: a radar technique and a capacitive technique. The presented investigations aim at assessing the influence of temperature and moisture on the two methods for measurements realised on concrete slabs. The temperature was ranging from 5 to 45 °C and the surrounding relative humidity (RH) evolved between 60 and 90%. The study is part of a more ambitious topic aiming at defining quantitative non-destructive methods to evaluate the water content of concrete structures on site and their state of degradation. The presented work allows assessing the sensitivity of both radar and capacitive techniques to the environmental conditions: temperature and RH. Moreover, the measurement variability of the used capacitive probes with three different sets of electrodes is estimated.
    European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering 04/2015; 19(4). DOI:10.1080/19648189.2014.960102
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    ABSTRACT: During earthquakes, structural elements like columns can fail by loss of strength but also by geometric instability such as buckling. The aim of this work is to analyse the experimental carrying capacity of such elements. Buckling experiments on solid wood, laminated veneer lumber and glulam specimens are carried on. Monotonous buckling tests are first carried out, in order to determine loads and displacements at instability point. They are followed by cyclic tests in the post-buckling domain (after peak). The cyclic protocol is precisely defined from displacement values obtained in monotonous tests. A damage parameter is determined based on the evolution of the extreme compression or tension apparent stresses but also on the analysis of stiffness degradation and of variation of dissipated energy during cyclic tests.
    European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering 03/2015; 19(3). DOI:10.1080/19648189.2014.967413
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluates the feasibility of a new type of connection between the concrete-filled twin steel tubes (CFTST) column and steel beams. The formation and feature of the new connection were described firstly; it mainly consists of vertical stiffeners and embedded anchorage plates. The experiments were conducted on seven one-half scaled specimens including six CFTST column-beam joints and one square concrete-filled steel tube (CFST) column-beam joint. And, seismic behaviours including hysteresis curve, typical failure modes, load-carrying capacity, ductility, energy dissipation capacity, etc. were studied. Connections behaved as predicted that plastic hinges were achieved in steel beams. Connections with ribbed anchorage plates are of higher load-bearing and deformation capacity than connections with no ribs; the extension of the vertical stiffener can move the buckling zone away from the column, so the joint’s initial stiffness was improved. The hysteretic characteristic of connections was stable; the energy dissipation capacity, strength and ductility were sufficient. In the whole loading, the stiffness degradation was obvious and bearing capacity degradation was slow. Test results show that connections with good aseismatic behaviour can easily achieve the anti-seismic design principle, namely strong column-weak beam and strong joint-weak member.
    European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering 03/2015; 19(3). DOI:10.1080/19648189.2014.960099
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    ABSTRACT: Incrementally launched bridges, which are generally built with the static scheme of a continuous beam on supports, change their scheme several times during launching. In these different configurations, internal forces vary and bending moments of opposite signs occur in the same sections for different positions of deck during advancement. In these bridges, two different kinds of prestressing are necessary: a temporary one during launching and a definitive one in service life. In this study, the possibility of implementing automatic adjustable prestressing for the launching stages is investigated; the launch prestressing is partially supplied by a system which can change the tension value in the prestressing tendons according to the change in the loads acting on the structure. This adjustable prestressing can be either semi-automatic or totally automatic (auto-adjustable), following the concept of “organic prestressing.” The conditions of activation and deactivation of automatic prestressing through a control system of stresses and deformations are given, giving indications to designers on the additional tendons to be applied in the advanced part of the deck and on the control sections which system implementation needs. A numerical example is given to clarify the concept of adjustable prestressing, details being provided in the case study examined on the evaluation of stresses, on the choice of control sections and on the prestressing tendons, through the aid of diagrams of activation and deactivation of the adjustable prestressing. The results of the study highlight the fact that adjustable prestressing is useful for the advanced part of the deck, in the launching stages of bridges with several spans with similar lengths, especially for the bottom fibres, when sections are placed in the midspan, or for upper fibres when they pass over piers, in the case of limited nose lengths.
    European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering 03/2015; 19(3):327-346. DOI:10.1080/19648189.2014.949871
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    ABSTRACT: This article describes experimental and numerical studies on the structural resistance of two reinforced concrete beam-column joints. While both specimens are of similar configurations as for geometry, amount and type of steel reinforcement and concrete strength, the second is strengthened by means of carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) at the vicinity of the joint in order to relocate the plastic hinge away from the column extremity towards the beam. Both specimens are subjected to a cyclic load followed by a generalised exponential fire curve, which implicitly represents a post-earthquake fire (PEF). The PEF resistance of the specimens subjected to various damage levels such as immediate occupancy (IO), life safety (LS) and collapse pre- vention (CP) is then evaluated based on finite element analysis. The results show that while the fire resistances of the original specimen subjected to LS and CP damage levels are about 32 and 15 min, respectively, they increase in the CFRP-strengthened specimen to about 43 and 23 min, respectively. This represents a 25% increase at LS level and a 35% increase at CP level.
    European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering 03/2015; 1(1):1-19. DOI:10.1080/19648189.2015.1018448
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluates how alteration of geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) affects the hydraulic behaviour of a composite liner when the geomembrane presenting a hole is overlying a GCL. Interface transmissivity experiments were performed on GCL specimens that were exhumed from field sites. The results reveal different trends in the flow rates, which decrease differently to their steady state values. The steady state flow rates obtained and the calculated interface transmissivities are of the same order of magnitude as results obtained with a virgin GCL. The transient flow rate results are discussed in relation with the GCLs parameters. Based on these results, a new equation is derived that links interface transmissivity to the hydraulic conductivity of GCLs that have been altered by the environment. Considering large transient flow rates in calculations result in a greater leakage volume penetrating the liner when compared to calculations of infiltrated volumes considering only steady state leakage volume for a period of time of 1, 10 or 30 years. From a practical point of view, this suggests the introduction of a factor of safety of 1.67 when calculating the flow rate in composite liners in order to take into account the alteration by the environment of GCLs.
    European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering 02/2015; DOI:10.1080/19648189.2015.1005161
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    ABSTRACT: This paper is devoted to the numerical study of the influence of the non-associativity of the Drucker-Prager model on the plastic limit load and the failure mechanism of the strip footings. The attention is mainly focused on the determination (estimation) of the mechanical fields and geometric characteristics of the collapse mechanism. Rough and smooth contact between the punch and the substrate are considered. Analyses were performed by incremental finite element simulations by using of the object oriented computer code Cast3m. The code is first validated against analytical solutions for two problems available in the literature. It is worth noting that during this validation, we provide new numerical results concerning the ultimate load of a pressurised pore with non-associate matrix. Then, the limit plastic load of the weightless soil is computed and the post-treatment of the numerical results permits one to select the relevant mechanical fields. The main result is that, for the Prandtl mechanism associated to the rough footing, the angle base of the triangular wedge under the footing is independent of the dilatancy angle. This property appears to be very interesting and useful when constructing analytical bounds of the plastic limit load within the framework of limit analysis.
    European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering 02/2015; DOI:10.1080/19648189.2015.1005162
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    ABSTRACT: The Danba Hydropower Project, located in Danba County, Sichuan Province, China, was planned to be constructed on a thick fluvial deposit foundation, with a maximum depth of the deposits up to 133 m. The loose deposits are characteristic of complex origin, composition, distribution, and mechanical and hydraulic properties. The controls of seepage flow and settlement in the foundation become two key technological issues for construction of the dam. In this study, the coupled processes between groundwater flow and deformation were modelled with the finite element method for performance assessment of the seepage control system and the foundation treatments. The saturated flow process was formulated with an adaptive variational inequality formulation of Signorini’s condition, which eliminates the singularity of the seepage points and the resultant mesh dependency. The deformation response of the loose deposits was described using the Duncan-Chang non-linear elastic E-B model, together with the Goodman interfacial elements for simulation of the soil-structure interactions. The stress-dependent variations in the permeability of the loose deposits were considered on the basis of the Kozeny-Carman’s model. The numerical results indicate that the designed seepage-control structures are effective and the settlement is limited within 20 cm using proper foundation treatments.
    European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering 02/2015; DOI:10.1080/19648189.2015.1013639
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    ABSTRACT: The research on the hydro-mechanical coupling of metamorphic rock is of great importance in rock engineering. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the hydro-mechanical properties of metamorphic rock based on the experimental data from triaxial compression tests. Metamorphic rock samples taken from an underground oil storage facility were tested under different hydraulic pressures using a rock servo-controlled triaxial rheology test system. The results indicated that hydraulic pressure had impact on the strength, deformation and permeability of the metamorphic rock. Based on the test results, the stress-strain behaviour and permeability evolution of the rock samples show three stages. The mechanical properties of the metamorphic rock are presented in detail for the three stages in the whole stress-strain process. The derived mechanical parameters are correlated to the division of the phases. The relationship between hydraulic pressure and axial strain, lateral strain, volumetric strain and permeability are analysed and discussed, especially the influence of hydraulic pressure on various parameters in the hydro-mechanical process. The influence of the hydraulic pressure on the failure mode of the rock under coupled conditions is described.
    European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering 02/2015; DOI:10.1080/19648189.2015.1013638
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of addition of metakaolin on hydration and physico-chemical properties of fly ash composite binder prepared by blending 50-60% fly ash with hydrated lime sludge, Portland cement and gypsum plaster were investigated. The metakaolin has a beneficial effect on the properties of composite binder by reducing its porosity and pore diameter with curing period which are responsible for the attainment of high strength and better stability towards water over the composite binder without metakaolin. The strength development in composite binder takes place due to the hydration of gypsum plaster to gypsum and pozzolanic reaction of fly ash, metakaolin with lime and alkali in cement thereby forming ettringite, tobermorite and C4AH13. The reaction products formed during the hydration were confirmed by X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The composite binder has low heat of hydration and is found suitable for use in masonry works, concrete and bricks.
    European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering 02/2015; DOI:10.1080/19648189.2015.1012302
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    ABSTRACT: This paper first presents an experimental study on shrinkage and creep behaviour of cement paste with different water to cement (w/c) ratios. It is found that the shrinkage and creep behaviour of cement paste increase with the increase of w/c ratios. The effects of external environment (such as temperature and relative humidity) on the shrinkage behaviour are clear but not on the creep behaviour. Besides the experimental study, a creep model of cement paste and mortar is established based on the relationship between w/c ratios and a compliance function of cement paste. It has proved that the predicted results are accurate. Finally, based on the above achievements, the creep mechanisms of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) are simulated on a modelled RAC by a finite element method analysis. The simulation results reveal that the stress distributions of mortar and coarse aggregate change overtime during the whole creep process. The result indicates that the effects on creep characteristics by old mortar on the modelled RAC are significant.
    European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering 02/2015; DOI:10.1080/19648189.2015.1008652
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    ABSTRACT: In a society with a high growth rate and increased standards of comfort arises the need to minimise the currently high-energy consumption by taking advantage of renewable energy sources. The mortars with incorporation of phase-change materials (PCM) have the ability to regulate the temperature inside buildings, contributing to the thermal comfort and reduction in the use of heating and cooling equipment, using only the energy supplied by the sun. However, the incorporation of phase-change materials in mortars modifies its characteristics. The main purpose of this study was the production and characterisation in the fresh and hardened state of mortars with incorporation of different contents of PCM in mortars based in different binders. The binders studied were aerial lime, hydraulic lime, gypsum and cement. For each type of binder, different mortars were developed with different content of PCM. The proportion of PCM studied was 0, 20, 40 and 60% of the mass of the sand. It was possible to observe that the incorporation of PCM in mortars caused differences in properties such as workability, microstructure, compressive strength, flexural strength and adhesion.
    European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering 02/2015; DOI:10.1080/19648189.2015.1008651
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    ABSTRACT: Most mechanical properties and durability of cementitious materials are related to the performance of the hydrated cement that coats the granular skeleton. In this paper, concrete is formulated by substituting 30% of cement by finely ground glass powder. The experimental study consists of investigating the effect of conservation in tap water or sulphate water on the performance of concrete. The mechanisms of concrete damage have been related to the development of the microstructure of the material. The degradations were observed using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and quantified by X-ray diffraction (XRD). In addition, chloride ions permeability and gas permeability tests were performed. The results showed that glass powder presents a pozzolanic activity and hence it affects favourably the microstructure of the paste which becomes denser and less permeable.
    European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering 02/2015; 19(2). DOI:10.1080/19648189.2014.939310
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    ABSTRACT: Hydraulic fracture propagation, the prevailing method of reservoir stimulation, is controlled by the in situ reservoir stress state. This controls hydraulic fracture orientation and, for the most part, the created hydraulic fracture geometry. In this study, the boundary element method based on the displacement discontinuity formulation is presented to solve general problems of hydraulic fracturing propagation under biaxial loading. The crack tip element and a higher order displacement discontinuity method are used to study the hydraulic fracture propagation and reorientation. The maximum tangential stress criterion (or σ-criterion) is used to find the fracture path. The effect of fluid pressure and stress difference on the hydraulic fracture propagation is studied too. The developed numerical program (2DFPM) for modelling the reorientation process is verified by comparing its result with those of analytical and experimental tests, where a good agreement was observed. The numerical analysis showed that hydraulic fracture reorientation is effected remarkably by stress difference, fluid pressure and hydraulic fracture inclination.
    European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering 02/2015; 19(2). DOI:10.1080/19648189.2014.939306
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    ABSTRACT: Dunkirk marine sediments can be used as an alternative roadbed material, and a full-scale test road using this has been successfully built at Dunkirk harbour in France. In this context, the long-term deformation behaviour of Dunkirk sediments is of crucial importance in the evaluation of roadbed deformation. The standard oedometer tests were carried out to plot the e-logσ′ and e-logt curves, which were used to determine the compression index (C C ), swelling index (C s ) and coefficient of secondary compression C α during loading and unloading. The effect of lime treatment on primary and secondary compression behaviour was investigated. The soil structure influences greatly the yield consolidation stress σ y ′, which is increased with lime content. Both σ y ′–e y (void ratio at σ y ′) and C C –C s relations are analysed. It is observed that σ y ′ is connected with e y by a power function and C C /C s varies between 0.013 and 0.1. C α remains low at consolidation stress σ′ σ y ′ and reaches a peak at σ′ = (1 – 4) σ y ′ followed by a decrease in C α . Lime addition induces the peak C α moving towards a larger consolidation stress of 5σ y ′. Based on the C α –lg(t/t p ) curves, it is interesting to note that t = 20t p (end-of-primary consolidation time) is suggested as a sufficient consolidation time to study the secondary compression behaviour of marine sediments. The C α /C C ratios of various clays including Dunkirk sediments show that C α /C C changes mainly in the range of 0.02–0.05. However, the C α /C C ratio is different for lime-treated sediments (C α /C C * = 0.0164) and untreated sediments (C α /C C * = 0.0432). Two separate zones in C α –C s * plot are clearly observed for untreated and treated sediments with boundary line of C α = 0.0433C s * – 0.0008.
    European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering 02/2015; 19(2). DOI:10.1080/19648189.2014.939309
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    ABSTRACT: This paper proposes an analytical–numerical model for elasto-plastic analysis of underwater tunnels that considers seepage body forces and strain-softening behaviour. Using the finite difference method, a theoretical solution is presented for calculation of the pore-water pressure, stress and strain distributions around the circular tunnels in axisymmetric and plain strain conditions. In this method, strain-softening behaviour and non-linear Hoek–Brown failure criterion are used. The proposed model also takes into account the effects of elastic strain increments and dilatancy angle () of the rock mass in the plastic zone. Through developing previous seepage models, a more accurate model is proposed for calculation of pore-water pressure distribution in all directions around underwater tunnels. Taking into account strain-softening behaviour of the rock mass, the stepwise method is applied to the plastic zone where parameters of strength and dilatancy, stresses, strains and deformation vary from their elasto-plastic boundary values to the tunnel boundary values. On the other hand, the analytical equations are derived for the elastic zone. Accuracy and the practical performance of the proposed model are evaluated by a number of examples. The results present the effects of seepage body forces, elastic strain increment and variations of the dilatancy angle in the plastic zone appropriately.
    European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering 02/2015; 19(2). DOI:10.1080/19648189.2014.939305
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    ABSTRACT: Pervious concrete surface layers represent a construction material with many positive features. It is acknowledged as a useful tool to reduce water run-off and it provides environmental benefits by lowering the pavement surface temperature, noise due to traffic and pollutants. Unfortunately, high drainability properties do not comply with high resistance and durability when facing traffic conditions. Standards and rigorous specifications for construction and placement are lacking and contractors rely on experience to conduct the work. The same aggregate sieve distribution and paste content can result in different pervious concrete pavement characteristics depending on the compaction energy applied. Too much compaction will generally reduce voids while enhancing resistance and vice versa. The present study aimed at evaluating the improvements due to reinforcing fibres into pervious concrete mixtures for achieving better performance. In particular, void content, permeability, stiffness and tensile strength were evaluated according to several compaction energies and types of fibres. Results identified certain types of fibres as a potential improvement for pervious concrete mixtures increasing mechanical performance while maintaining the drainability features. The primary goal was to determine a correct balance in compaction to be provided and mechanical performance to be achieved, which would result in a proper resistance-to-drainability ratio.
    European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering 02/2015; 19(2). DOI:10.1080/19648189.2014.939308