European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering

Description

  • Impact factor
    0.44
  • 5-year impact
    0.00
  • Cited half-life
    2.80
  • Immediacy index
    0.21
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.00
  • ISSN
    1964-8189

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Most mechanical properties and durability of cementitious materials are related to the performance of the hydrated cement that coats the granular skeleton. In this paper, concrete is formulated by substituting 30% of cement by finely ground glass powder. The experimental study consists of investigating the effect of conservation in tap water or sulphate water on the performance of concrete. The mechanisms of concrete damage have been related to the development of the microstructure of the material. The degradations were observed using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and quantified by X-ray diffraction (XRD). In addition, chloride ions permeability and gas permeability tests were performed. The results showed that glass powder presents a pozzolanic activity and hence it affects favourably the microstructure of the paste which becomes denser and less permeable.
    European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering 02/2015; 19(2).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hydraulic fracture propagation, the prevailing method of reservoir stimulation, is controlled by the in situ reservoir stress state. This controls hydraulic fracture orientation and, for the most part, the created hydraulic fracture geometry. In this study, the boundary element method based on the displacement discontinuity formulation is presented to solve general problems of hydraulic fracturing propagation under biaxial loading. The crack tip element and a higher order displacement discontinuity method are used to study the hydraulic fracture propagation and reorientation. The maximum tangential stress criterion (or σ-criterion) is used to find the fracture path. The effect of fluid pressure and stress difference on the hydraulic fracture propagation is studied too. The developed numerical program (2DFPM) for modelling the reorientation process is verified by comparing its result with those of analytical and experimental tests, where a good agreement was observed. The numerical analysis showed that hydraulic fracture reorientation is effected remarkably by stress difference, fluid pressure and hydraulic fracture inclination.
    European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering 02/2015; 19(2).
  • Dongxing Wang, Nor Edine Abriak, Rachid Zentar
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dunkirk marine sediments can be used as an alternative roadbed material, and a full-scale test road using this has been successfully built at Dunkirk harbour in France. In this context, the long-term deformation behaviour of Dunkirk sediments is of crucial importance in the evaluation of roadbed deformation. The standard oedometer tests were carried out to plot the e-logσ′ and e-logt curves, which were used to determine the compression index (C C ), swelling index (C s ) and coefficient of secondary compression C α during loading and unloading. The effect of lime treatment on primary and secondary compression behaviour was investigated. The soil structure influences greatly the yield consolidation stress σ y ′, which is increased with lime content. Both σ y ′–e y (void ratio at σ y ′) and C C –C s relations are analysed. It is observed that σ y ′ is connected with e y by a power function and C C /C s varies between 0.013 and 0.1. C α remains low at consolidation stress σ′ σ y ′ and reaches a peak at σ′ = (1 – 4) σ y ′ followed by a decrease in C α . Lime addition induces the peak C α moving towards a larger consolidation stress of 5σ y ′. Based on the C α –lg(t/t p ) curves, it is interesting to note that t = 20t p (end-of-primary consolidation time) is suggested as a sufficient consolidation time to study the secondary compression behaviour of marine sediments. The C α /C C ratios of various clays including Dunkirk sediments show that C α /C C changes mainly in the range of 0.02–0.05. However, the C α /C C ratio is different for lime-treated sediments (C α /C C * = 0.0164) and untreated sediments (C α /C C * = 0.0432). Two separate zones in C α –C s * plot are clearly observed for untreated and treated sediments with boundary line of C α = 0.0433C s * – 0.0008.
    European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering 02/2015; 19(2).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper proposes an analytical–numerical model for elasto-plastic analysis of underwater tunnels that considers seepage body forces and strain-softening behaviour. Using the finite difference method, a theoretical solution is presented for calculation of the pore-water pressure, stress and strain distributions around the circular tunnels in axisymmetric and plain strain conditions. In this method, strain-softening behaviour and non-linear Hoek–Brown failure criterion are used. The proposed model also takes into account the effects of elastic strain increments and dilatancy angle () of the rock mass in the plastic zone. Through developing previous seepage models, a more accurate model is proposed for calculation of pore-water pressure distribution in all directions around underwater tunnels. Taking into account strain-softening behaviour of the rock mass, the stepwise method is applied to the plastic zone where parameters of strength and dilatancy, stresses, strains and deformation vary from their elasto-plastic boundary values to the tunnel boundary values. On the other hand, the analytical equations are derived for the elastic zone. Accuracy and the practical performance of the proposed model are evaluated by a number of examples. The results present the effects of seepage body forces, elastic strain increment and variations of the dilatancy angle in the plastic zone appropriately.
    European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering 02/2015; 19(2).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pervious concrete surface layers represent a construction material with many positive features. It is acknowledged as a useful tool to reduce water run-off and it provides environmental benefits by lowering the pavement surface temperature, noise due to traffic and pollutants. Unfortunately, high drainability properties do not comply with high resistance and durability when facing traffic conditions. Standards and rigorous specifications for construction and placement are lacking and contractors rely on experience to conduct the work. The same aggregate sieve distribution and paste content can result in different pervious concrete pavement characteristics depending on the compaction energy applied. Too much compaction will generally reduce voids while enhancing resistance and vice versa. The present study aimed at evaluating the improvements due to reinforcing fibres into pervious concrete mixtures for achieving better performance. In particular, void content, permeability, stiffness and tensile strength were evaluated according to several compaction energies and types of fibres. Results identified certain types of fibres as a potential improvement for pervious concrete mixtures increasing mechanical performance while maintaining the drainability features. The primary goal was to determine a correct balance in compaction to be provided and mechanical performance to be achieved, which would result in a proper resistance-to-drainability ratio.
    European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering 02/2015; 19(2).
  • European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering 01/2015;
  • European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering 12/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The random nature of geomaterial tensile strength, combined with a softening behaviour, leads to a strong and systematic dependency of the first crack stress value on the loaded volume. This problem is so important that the predictive capability of efficient damage models can be occulted by the phenomenon. The method proposed here allows this aspect to be efficiently considered in a non-linear finite element context thanks to a variant of the Weibull theory, in which the classical weakest link theory is rearranged in a non-local form permitting a second gradient implementation.
    European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering 11/2014; 18(10).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The mechanical behaviour of horizontal diaphragms is an important parameter in the performance of a building undergoing seismic actions. The behaviour of a timber diaphragm is quite complex due to the local effects of its several components including the nailed connections and the unilateral contact. This study focuses on the experimental results of two timber floors with or without struts tested as diaphragms (blocked or unblocked diaphragm). Experimental set-up, instrumentation, material characteristics and the composition of the specimens are presented. Furthermore, the strength, the failure modes and the diaphragm stiffness behaviour while loading and the kinematic of the various components are also reported. The comparison with an analytical approach used to predict the in-plane displacement is performed and discussed. Elementary tests on components are also presented in order to provide the main information on mechanical parameters to be used in further numerical modelling.
    European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering 11/2014; 18(10).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A 3D numerical model is developed to study the elastic and inelastic behaviour of concrete with consideration of the interfacial transition zone and the nature of the matrix – aggregate interface. Concrete is represented as a bi-phasic or tri-phasic material, consisting of spherical aggregates embedded in a matrix (mortar) surrounded or not by a transition zone. The matrix–aggregates interface is modelled taking into account a perfect contact and a sliding one. Numerical elastic modelling results are in a good agreement with those obtained by Hashin and Monteiro analytical model. Numerical results of the overall behaviour modelling show a slight influence of the transition zone on the mechanical behaviour of concrete. In contrast, a significant influence of the nature of the matrix – aggregate contact is demonstrated and explained based on local analysis of stress distribution in the material.
    European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering 11/2014; 18(10).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the influence of data availability and quality within a utility to prioritise inspection and rehabilitation needs. Data are required in order to predict the structural condition of assets. Lack of data and budget limitation do not encourage utilities to evolve from reactive to proactive management. Methods and tools exist; however, improving operational practices will require the demonstration of data collection benefits. In this article, asset management approaches are presented and discussed regarding influence of data; from closed-circuit television reports elaboration to prioritisation of rehabilitation needs. Bottlenecks related to uncertainty, imprecision and incompleteness of data are identified, and the authors propose approaches to study these questions. This article also highlights the use of numerical experiment to simulate asset management scenarios, to experiment methods or to demonstrate the interest of new practices. Numerical experiment allows construction and use of virtual degraded databases derived from a completely known asset stock.
    European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering 11/2014; 18(10).
  • European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering 11/2014; 18(10).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To study the rapid crack propagation (RCP) resistance of polymer pipes, an experimental set-up and a numerical model are proposed. The way to solicit polymer pipes, imposed displacements or pressure, is discussed. Indeed, it has been demonstrated that it is necessary to load polymer pipe with imposed displacements and not internal gas pressure. For a pressurised pipe, a relevant estimation of the energy released rate is difficult because of the work of external forces which can not be precisely determined during crack propagation and of course during gas leak. An experimental set-up, with imposed displacements, has been machined to ensure an approximately L = 13R permanent RCP regime with L and R which are, respectively, the length and the radius of the pipe. The energy release rate is then calculated with the help of a finite element procedure knowing the crack tip location.
    European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering 11/2014; 18(10).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A three-dimensional finite element model for nonlinear dynamic analysis of seismic site and structure response is proposed and discussed. A series of numerical exam- ples are presented which include modelling of a reinforced concrete frame with a portion of the ground consisting of various horizontal layers resting on rigid bedrock. The theoretical framework of the numerical analysis is based on continuum mechan- ics and irreversible thermodynamics. The spatial discretisation is performed by a combination of linear tetrahedral (ground) and hexahedral (structure) finite elements. The time integration is carried out by the leap-frog method. Total Lagrange formula- tion is adopted to account for large rotations and large displacements. To account for cracking and damage of the concrete, the frame structure is modelled by the micro- plane model. Damage and cracking phenomena are modelled within the concept of smeared cracks. Plasticity model is used for the modelling the reinforcement and the ground adopting the Von Mises and Drucker–Prager yield criteria, respectively. The influence of the ground layer configurations on the structure response is investigated and discussed. Comparative analysis shows the importance of the soil–structure inter- action effects and material nonlinearity. Furthermore, with the implemented micro- plane model, which is aimed to be used for fracture and damage analysis of concrete, it is possible do assess the sustained structural damage.
    European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering 10/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The bond strengths of two types of cylindrical composite specimens made of cladding plaster, concrete substrate with/without sticking slurry were evaluated by the splitting tensile strength. Two kinds of control factors, divided into two categories, were used for the investigation. The first is the constituents of concrete substrate including the fraction of fly ash to binder by weight (FL), the ratio of water to binder (W/B), the fraction of fine aggregate to total aggregate (FA) and the total volume of aggregate (Tot A). The second is the cladding plasters with or without sticking slurry in two curing conditions. The Taguchi method with L9(34) orthogonal array and the analysis of variance were used to analyse the experimental data. Experimental results show that raising either FL or Tot A, being the two most influential factors, tend to lower the bond strength at early ages. Whereas, an increase of W/B from 0.45 to 0.55 significantly lowers the bond strength for cladding plaster without sticking slurry, but only has a minor effect on those with sticking slurry. The composite concrete specimen with six-day-water-curing condition without sticking slurry shows an apparent decrease of bond strength after exposing to air condition for 7 days.
    European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering 10/2014; 18(9).