European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering


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    ABSTRACT: We performed laboratory experiments on sandstone specimens to study brittle failure and the reactivation of an experimentally produced failure plane induced by pore- pressure perturbations using constant force control in high compressive stress states. Here, we focus on the shear failure of a dry sample and the later on induced fracture plane reactivation due to water injection. Acoustic Emission (AE) monitoring has been used during both experiments. We also used ultrasonic wave velocities to moni- tor pore fluid migration through the initially dry specimen. To characterise AE source mechanisms, we analysed first motion polarities and performed full moment tensor inversion at all stages of the experiments. For the case of water injection on the dry specimen that previously failed in shear, AE activity during formation of new frac- tures is dominated by tensile and shear sources as opposed to the fracture plane reac- tivation, when compressive and shear sources are most frequent. Furthermore, during the reactivation of the latter, compressive sources involve higher compressive compo- nents compared to the shear failure case. The polarity method and the moment tensor inversion reveal similar source mechanisms but the latter provides more information on the source components.
    European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents an experimental study on reinforced concrete (RC) beam specimens flexurally strengthened by fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets using conventional externally bonded reinforcement (EBR) method and recently introduced grooving method (GM) in the form of externally bonded reinforcement on grooves (EBROG) and externally bonded reinforcement in grooves (EBRIG) techniques. The concrete beam specimens were strengthened with one, two or three FRP layers, and their load–displacement relationships as well as their failure loads were compared with each other. The performances of EBR, EBROG and EBRIG techniques for flexural strengthening of RC beams were found to be very close when one layer of FRP sheet was used; however, for two FRP layers, beams strengthened with GM in the form of both EBROG and EBRIG techniques experienced up to 25% higher ultimate loads compared to those strengthened with EBR method. Furthermore, for three FRP layers, this increase was 19 and 24%, respectively, for EBROG and EBRIG strengthening techniques compared to EBR method.
    European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This study presents a new method of using colorimetry for post-fire assessment of concrete. Changes in concrete colour with temperature are related to chemical changes of cement and aggregates. Two concretes were studied: an ordinary concrete (OC) and a high-performance concrete (HPC). The difference between both concretes was the water–cement ratio. They were made with the same cement and the same riverbed aggregates. Small samples were heated with different target temperatures: 100, 200 ... 1000 °C. After each cooling period, a picture was taken with a flatbed scanner. Two types of colour image decomposition were then used: RGB (red, green and blue) and HSI (hue, saturation and intensity) to analyse the evolution of the colour of the concrete with temperature. The evolution of red, green and blue components with temperature was analysed and two parameters of colorimetric analysis in order to predict the maximum temperature reached by concrete during fire were proposed. As the results have shown, the blue colour histogram gradually widens at its base as the temperature increases. Parameter of colorimetric analysis 1 is the measurement of this width. Parameter of colorimetric analysis 2 is associated with the appearance of very light colours beyond 800 °C. Thus, the number of pixels with intensity of red or green or blue higher than 225 increases very significantly between 800 and 900 C. Parameter of colorimetric analysis 3 is the average hue of the image (in the HSI colour space). It was found that parameter of colorimetric analysis 3 decreases significantly with temperature. This corresponds to the reddening of concrete with temperature due to the oxidation of mineral containing iron. To validate the use of these parameters of colorimetric analysis for the post-fire analysis of concrete, small concrete slabs were heated. They were positioned in place of the oven door, thus providing a thermal gradient through their thickness. Images taken during the cooling process were analysed using the proposed parameters of colorimetric analysis.
    European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering 01/2014;
  • European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering 01/2014;
  • European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering 12/2013;
  • European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering 11/2013; ahead-of-print:1-14.
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    ABSTRACT: One of the most important factors in the design of a segmental tunnel lining is the influence of the segmental joints on its overall behaviour. In this study, a reduction factor has been applied to the bending rigidity of the segmental tunnel lining. An improved numerical hyperstatic reaction method (HRM) approach, which is developed on the basis of the model introduced by Oreste (2007), is presented in this paper in order to study the behaviour of the segmental tunnel lining. The necessary parameters for the calculation are presented. A specific implementation has been developed using a finite element method (FEM) framework. A comparison between the results obtained using the HRM method and those of a numerical model has been made that allows the HRM method to be validated. Extensive parametric analyses have been conducted to estimate the segmental tunnel lining behaviour for several cases, in order to cover the conditions that are generally encountered in excavation practice.
    European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering 11/2013; 18(4):489-510.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the paper is to provide practical guidelines for the design of welded joints of steel truss for encased composite steel–concrete beams. The results of experimental tests are presented and interpreted. The steel truss is made of a steel plate acting as the bottom chord, made of S355 structural steel, coupled with steel rebars which form the upper chord, and steel inclined web rebars (V-reverse) welded to the two chord elements, both of them made of steel B450C. Butt welded joints of web bar to bottom steel plate and fillet welding joints of inclined web bars to top chord bars were tested, as they are different from the ones which are normally used due to the coupling of different steel types and complex geometry. For the prediction of strength of fillet welding joints, two analytical expressions are derived: the first is based on a local failure criterion and the second on a limit domain of the welding section. Comparison with experimental data proves the equivalence and reliability of the proposed indications. Guidelines for choosing the effective dimensions of the fillet weld able to ensure a required strength are provided. For validation of the suggested guidelines, a high precision digital scanner is used to determine the geometrical characteristics of the fillet weld.
    European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering 09/2013; 17(8):742–759.
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    ABSTRACT: Due to increasing energy demands, leading countries have focused on finding renewable energy sources. Geothermal Energy is a renewable, efficient, reliable and proven energy source for heating and cooling buildings. Among all the geothermal heat exchanger systems, Geothermal Paving Systems couple the benefits of a Permeable Pavement System and a Horizontal heat exchanger. This paper analyzes the influence of different paving surfaces and sub-bases on the thermal performance of pavement section using a newly developed laboratory test. According to the temperature profiles observed, porous asphalt surface and limestone gravel sub-base combine to produce the system which insulates the most under ambient air conditions, while Interlocked Concrete Block Pavement (ICBP) surface and plastic cell sub-base dissipated the most heat.
    European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering 08/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The settings of strength-grading machine for structural pieces of wood are checked according to the EN 14081 standard. However, different machines have different performances depending on the accuracy of the estimation of the board’s properties, and there is no easy way to compare the efficiency of these machines especially if the machine does not use the same sampling. In this paper, we introduce an index called index of efficiency for grading machines. This parameter is in the range of 0–100% and allows to compare performances of different machines for a given set of grades. The computation of this index is based on the cost matrix method of the EN 14081 and requires to have the size matrix of a setting to be computed.
    European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering 04/2013;
  • European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering 04/2013; 17(4):231-247.
  • European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering 01/2013; In press.

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