The Angle Orthodontist (ANGLE ORTHOD )

Publisher: Angle Orthodontists Research and Education Foundation; Edward H. Angle Society of Orthodontists

Description

The official publication of the Edward H. Angle Society of Orthodontists published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October and December by the EH Angle Education and Research Foundation.

  • Impact factor
    1.18
  • 5-year impact
    1.43
  • Cited half-life
    9.00
  • Immediacy index
    0.14
  • Eigenfactor
    0.01
  • Article influence
    0.51
  • Website
    Angle Orthodontist, The website
  • Other titles
    Angle orthodontist (Online), The Angle orthodontist
  • ISSN
    1945-7103
  • OCLC
    60639114
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate and compare intrapulpal temperature rise with three different light-curing units by using a study model simulating pulpal blood microcirculation. Materials and Methods: The roots of 10 extracted intact maxillary central incisors were separated approximately 2 mm below the cement-enamel junction. The crowns of these teeth were fixed on an apparatus for the simulation of blood microcirculation in pulp. A J-type thermocouple wire was inserted into the pulp chamber through a drilled access on the palatal surfaces of the teeth. Four measurements were made using each tooth for four different modes: group 1, 1000 mW/cm(2) for 15 seconds; group 2, 1200 mW/cm(2) for 10 seconds; group 3, 1400 mW/cm(2) for 8 seconds; and group 4, 3200 mW/cm(2) for 3 seconds. The tip of the light source was positioned at 2 mm to the incisor's labial surface. Results: The highest temperature rise was recorded in group 1 (2.6°C ± 0.54°C), followed by group 2 (2.57°C ± 0.62°C) and group 3 (2.35°C ± 0.61°C). The lowest temperature rise value was found in group 4 (1.74°C ± 0.52°C); this value represented significantly lower ΔT values when compared to group 1 and group 2 (P = .01 and P = .013, respectively). Conclusions: The lowest intrapulpal temperature rise was induced by 3200 mW/cm(2) for 3 seconds of irradiation. Despite the significant differences among the groups, the temperature increases recorded for all groups were below the critical value of 5.6°C.
    The Angle Orthodontist 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the changes in retropalatal airway and velopharyngeal dimensions after posterior impaction (PI) only or PI and setback (PI/SB) of the maxilla in patients with skeletal Class III undergoing two-jaw surgery. Materials and Methods: Subjects consisted of 60 Class III patients treated with two-jaw surgery. They were divided into two groups: group 1 (n = 30; PI of the maxilla; mean = 2.6 mm) and group 2 (n = 30; PI/SB of the maxilla; mean = 2.8 mm and 1.8 mm, respectively). Using three dimensional computed tomography images taken 1month before surgery (T0) and at least 6 months after surgery (T1), retropalatal airway volume, minimum cross-sectional area, and lateral and anteroposterior (AP) dimensions of minimum cross-sectional area, soft palate angle, soft palate length, and pharyngeal depth were measured. A paired t-test and independent t-test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Group 1 showed increase in retropalatal airway volume and minimum cross-sectional area (P < .01 and P < .05, respectively). Group 2 exhibited decrease in retropalatal airway volume, minimum cross-sectional area, and lateral and AP dimensions of minimum cross-sectional area (all P < .01). Although groups 1 and 2 showed an increase in soft palate length (P < .01 and P < .001, respectively), pharyngeal depth significantly increased only in group 1 (P < .01). Groups 1 and 2 were significantly different in retropalatal airway volume, minimum cross-sectional area, and AP dimension (P < .05, P < .001, and P < .05, respectively). Conclusion: Because the direction of surgical movement in the maxilla can determine the changes in the retropalatal airway and velopharyngeal dimensions, it is recommended that clinicians investigate whether patients suffer from sleep-related breathing disorders before performing PI/SB of the maxilla.
    The Angle Orthodontist 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the periodontal health of maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth retained with two types of fixed retainers. Materials and Methods: A fixed straight retainer (SR) group had 39 subjects, and a fixed wave retainer (WR) group had 35 subjects. Subjects were between the ages of 13 and 22 years and had been in fixed retention for 2 to 4 years. Pocket probing depths, bleeding on probing, plaque index, calculus index, recession, and gingival crevicular fluid volume were compared between the two retainer groups. A four-question oral hygiene survey was given to each subject. The Mann-Whitney U-test and Fisher exact test was used to analyze the data. Results: There was no clinically significant difference between the retainer groups regarding plaque index, gingival crevicular fluid volume, calculus index, recession, bleeding on probing, and pocket probing depths. A statistically significant increase in the reported frequency of flossing (P = .006) and ease of flossing (P < .001) was associated with the WR group. There was no significant difference between the groups in reported frequency of brushing and comfort of the retainer. Conclusions: Under the conditions of this study, no clinical difference was found in the periodontal health of anterior teeth retained with a SR or WR for a period of 2 to 4 years. Subjects in the WR group reported an increase in frequency and ease of flossing.
    The Angle Orthodontist 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Objectives: To investigate the performance of microimplants incorporating a newly designed asymmetric thread. Materials and Methods: Three microimplants were compared. The control group comprised microimplants with the original v-shaped thread. The two experimental groups (Taper 1.0 and Taper 1.25) comprised prototype microimplants constructed with the new asymmetric thread; the Taper 1.25 specimens had a 1.25-mm-long and sharper tip, while the Taper 1.0 and control groups had a less sharp 1-mm tip. Two specially designed artificial bone blocks mimicking soft (maxillary) and hard (mandibular) bone were used to evaluate the microimplant insertion characteristics and postinsertion lateral stability. The peak insertion torque, insertion time, Periotest value (PTV), and torsional strength were measured. Then the microimplants were evaluated clinically over a 3-month period. Results: Significant differences in peak insertion torque, insertion time, and PTV were observed and favored the experimental groups. Although statistically insignificant, the clinical success rate was also higher in the Taper 1.25 experimental group than in the control group (87.2% vs 75.6%). Conclusions: The better performances of the experimental microimplant, under both laboratory and clinical conditions (although statistically insignificant in the latter), demonstrate the superiority of the new asymmetric thread.
    The Angle Orthodontist 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate the skeletal, dentoalveolar, and soft tissue effects of the Forsus Fatigue Resistant Device (FRD) appliance with miniplate anchorage for the treatment of skeletal Class II malocclusion. Material and Methods: The prospective clinical study group included 17 patients (11 girls and 6 boys; mean age 12.96 ± 1.23 years) with Class II malocclusion due to mandibular retrusion and treated with skeletal anchoraged Forsus FRD. After 0.019 × 0.025-inch stainless steel archwire was inserted and cinched back in the maxillary arch, two miniplates were placed bilaterally on the mandibular symphysis. Then, the Forsus FRD EZ2 appliance was adjusted to the miniplates without leveling the mandibular arch. The changes in the leveling and skeletal anchoraged Forsus FRD phases were evaluated by means of the Paired and Student's t-tests using the cephalometric lateral films. Results: The success rate of the miniplates was found to be 91.5% (38 of 42 miniplates). The mandible significantly moved forward (P < .001) and caused a significant restraint in the sagittal position of the maxilla (P < .001). The overjet correction (-5.11 mm) was found to be mainly by skeletal changes (A-VRL, -1.16 mm and Pog-VRL, 2.62 mm; approximately 74%); the remaining changes were due to the dentoalveolar contributions. The maxillary and mandibular incisors were significantly retruded (P < .001). Conclusion: This new approach was an effective method for treating skeletal Class II malocclusion due to the mandibular retrusion via a combination of skeletal and dentoalveolar changes.
    The Angle Orthodontist 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: (1) To perform a prospective study using a new set of data to test the validity of a new soft tissue prediction method developed for Class II surgery patients and (2) to propose a better validation method that can be applied to a validation study. Materials and Methods: Subjects were composed of two subgroups: training subjects and validation subjects. Eighty Class II surgery patients provided the training data set that was used to build the prediction algorithm. The validation data set of 34 new patients was used for evaluating the prospective performance of the prediction algorithm. The validation was conducted using four validation methods: (1) simple validation and (2) fivefold, (3) 10-fold, and (4) leave-one-out cross-validation (LOO). Results: The characteristics between the training and validation subjects did not differ. The multivariate partial least squares regression returned more accurate prediction results than the conventional method did. During the prospective validation, all of the cross-validation methods (fivefold, 10-fold, and LOO) demonstrated fewer prediction errors and more stable results than the simple validation method did. No significant difference was noted among the three cross-validation methods themselves. Conclusion: After conducting a prospective study using a new data set, this new prediction method again performed well. In addition, a cross-validation technique may be considered a better option than simple validation when constructing a prediction algorithm.
    The Angle Orthodontist 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: To assess soft tissues in the short and long term after bimaxillary surgery in Class III patients by comparing the hard tissue changes and results between time periods. Materials and Methods: Twenty-six Class III adult patients treated with bimaxillary surgery were included in the study. Cephalometric records were taken before surgery (T1) and 5 months (T2), 1.4 years (T3), 3 years (T4), and 5 years (T5) after surgery. Results: There was no significant relapse in skeletal parameters. Overjet was significantly reduced between T4-T3 time intervals (P < .01). There were significant increases in Sn-HR, ULA-HR, LLA-HR, B-B(∧) (P < .01), and B(∧)-HR (P < .05) between T4-T3 time intervals. There was no significant change in the soft tissue parameters between T5-T4 time intervals. Conclusion: Soft tissue vertical relapse occurs in skeletally stabile Class III bimaxillary surgery patients in the first 3 years after surgery.
    The Angle Orthodontist 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objectives: To assess the null hypothesis that there is no difference in the rate of dental development and the occurrence of selected developmental anomalies related to shape, number, structure, and position of teeth between subjects with impacted mandibular canines and those with normally erupted canines. Materials and Methods: Pretreatment records of 42 subjects diagnosed with mandibular canines impaction (impaction group: IG) were compared with those of 84 subjects serving as a control reference sample (control group: CG). Independent t-tests were used to compare mean dental ages between the groups. Intergroup differences in distribution of subjects based on the rate of dental development and occurrence of selected dental anomalies were assessed using χ(2) tests. Odds of late, normal, and early developers and various categories of developmental anomalies between the IG and the CG were evaluated in terms of odds ratios. Results: Mean dental age for the IG was lower than that for the CG in general. Specifically, this was true for girls (P < .05). Differences in the distribution of the subjects based on the rate of dental development and occurrence of positional anomalies also reached statistical significance (P < .05). The IG showed a higher frequency of late developers and positional anomalies compared with controls (odds ratios 3.00 and 2.82, respectively; P < .05). Conclusions: The null hypothesis was rejected. We identified close association of female subjects in the IG with retarded dental development compared with the female orthodontic patients. Increased frequency of positional developmental anomalies was also remarkable in the IG.
    The Angle Orthodontist 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: To measure the slot dimensions of an entire series of metal orthodontic brackets. Materials and Methods: Ten bracket series approximating five complete sets of brackets each were imaged and measured. Descriptive statistics were generated. Results: Slot dimension varied significantly from series to series as well as within the series themselves. About one-third of the brackets would not accommodate a full-size wire, and 15% to 20% are 0.001 inches or larger than the nominal advertised size. Conclusion: The clinician is unlikely to have on hand complete sets (upper and lower 5-5) of ideal brackets and should both expect and be able to be accommodate tooth movement through wire bending in three planes of space to overcome any bracket deficiencies.
    The Angle Orthodontist 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: To measure enamel surface changes after ceramic bracket debonding and after cleanup. Materials and Methods: Forty extracted teeth were scanned in three dimensions using an optical scanner (baseline). Two ceramic bracket systems were placed (19 metal-reinforced polycrystalline ceramic brackets; 21 monocrystalline ceramic brackets). Seven days later, brackets were debonded and teeth scanned (post-debond). Adhesive remnants and bracket fragments were recorded. Tooth surfaces were cleaned using a finishing carbide bur and scanned again (post-cleanup). Post-debond and post-cleanup scans were aligned with the baseline, and surface changes were quantified. Results were statistically compared using t-tests and Mann-Whitney tests (α = .05). Results: The depth of enamel loss (mean ± standard deviation) post-debond was 21 ± 8 µm and 33 µm and post-cleanup was 28 ± 14 µm and 18 ± 8 µm (P = .0191); the post-debond remnant thickness was 188 ± 113 µm and 120 ± 37 µm (P = .2381) and post-cleanup was 16 ± 5 µm and 15 µm for polycrystalline and monocrystalline ceramic brackets, respectively. The monocrystalline ceramic brackets predominantly left all adhesive on the tooth; the polycrystalline ceramic brackets were more likely to leave bracket fragments attached. Conclusion: Both systems allowed successful removal of the brackets with minimal enamel loss. However, the polycrystalline ceramic brackets left more fragments on the tooth, which complicated cleanup efforts.
    The Angle Orthodontist 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: To compare the degree of debris and friction of conventional and self-ligating orthodontic brackets before and after clinical use. Materials and Methods: Two sets of three conventional and self-ligating brackets were bonded from the first molar to the first premolar in eight individuals, for a total of 16 sets per type of brackets. A passive segment of 0.019 × 0.025-inch stainless steel archwire was inserted into each group of brackets. Frictional force and debris level were evaluated as received and after 8 weeks of intraoral exposure. Two-way analysis of variance and Wilcoxon signed-rank test were applied at P < .05. Results: After the intraoral exposure, there was a significant increase of debris accumulation in both systems of brackets (P < .05). However, the self-ligating brackets showed a higher amount of debris compared with the conventional brackets. The frictional force in conventional brackets was significantly higher when compared with self-ligating brackets before clinical use (P < .001). Clinical exposure for 8 weeks provided a significant increase of friction (P < .001) on both systems. In the self-ligating system, the mean of friction increase was 0.21 N (191%), while 0.52 N (47.2%) was observed for the conventional system. Conclusion: Self-ligating and conventional brackets, when exposed to the intraoral environment, showed a significant increase in frictional force during the sliding mechanics. Debris accumulation was higher for the self-ligating system.
    The Angle Orthodontist 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objectives: To compare airway volumes and minimum cross-section area changes of Class III patients treated with bone-anchored maxillary protraction (BAMP) versus untreated Class III controls. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight consecutive skeletal Class III patients between the ages of 10 and 14 years (mean age, 11.9 years) were treated using Class III intermaxillary elastics and bilateral miniplates (two in the infra-zygomatic crests of the maxilla and two in the anterior mandible). The subjects had cone beam computed tomographs (CBCTs) taken before initial loading (T1) and 1 year out (T2). Twenty-eight untreated Class III patients (mean age, 12.4 years) had CBCTs taken and cephalograms generated. The airway volumes and minimum cross-sectional area measurements were performed using Dolphin Imaging 11.7 3D software. The superior border of the airway was defined by a plane that passes through the posterior nasal spine and basion, while the inferior border included the base of the epiglottis to the lower border of C3. Results: From T1 to T2, airway volume from BAMP-treated subjects showed a statistically significant increase (1499.64 mm(3)). The area in the most constricted section of the airway (choke point) increased slightly (15.44 mm(2)). The airway volume of BAMP patients at T2 was 14136.61 mm(3), compared with 14432.98 mm(3) in untreated Class III subjects. Intraexaminer correlation coefficients values and 95% confidence interval values were all greater than .90, showing a high degree of reliability of the measurements. Conclusion: BAMP treatment did not hinder the development of the oropharynx.
    The Angle Orthodontist 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: To compare the dimensions of the nasopharynx and oropharynx of subjects with different growth patterns and to determine whether any correlation exists with their craniocervical posture. Materials and Methods: Cephalometric radiograph of 60 subjects (16-25 years old), taken in natural head position, were divided into three groups according to the mandibular plane angle: hypodivergent (SN/MP <26°), normodivergent (SN/MP 26°-38°), and hyperdivergent (SN/MP <38°). Correlations were calculated between nasopharyngeal area, oropharyngeal area, and craniocervical posture. Continuous variables were compared by one-way analysis of variance, and the significance of mean difference between the groups was done by the Tukey post hoc test. A value of P < .05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Patients in the hyperdivergent group were found to have significantly smaller nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal areas than the other groups (P < .001 and P < .05, respectively). Similarly, the oropharyngeal area in the normodivergent group was significantly smaller than that in the hypodivergent group (P < .05). However, no significant differences were found in the nasopharyngeal area between the hypodivergent and normodivergent groups and between the hyperdivergent and normodivergent groups (P > .05). Reduced pharyngeal airways were typically seen in patients with a large craniocervical angle and a large mandibular inclination. Conclusions: Smaller nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal airways were seen in connection with a large craniocervical and a large mandibular inclination. We therefore suggest that the vertical skeletal pattern may be one of the factors that contribute to nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal obstruction.
    The Angle Orthodontist 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate the mandibular dental, alveolar, and skeletal transversal widths in patients affected by unilateral (UCLP) and bilateral (BCLP) cleft lip and palate and to compare the findings with a well-matched normal occlusion sample using cone beam computed tomography images. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 75 patients divided into three groups: the UCLP (29 patients; mean age: 15.40 ± 3.22 years), BCLP (18 patients; mean age: 15.54 ± 3.72 years), and normal occlusion (28 patients; mean age: 15.82 ± 2.11 years) groups. Mandibular dental (intercanine and -molar), alveolar (intercanine and -molar), and skeletal (bigonial width) transversal measurements were performed three-dimensionally and analyzed using the one-way variance analysis and post hoc Tukey tests. Results: Patients affected by UCLP and BCLP had statistically significantly lower intercanine alveolar widths (P < .05 and P < .001, respectively) and larger intermolar (P < .001 and P < .05, respectively) and intermolar alveolar widths (P < .001) compared with the normal occlusion group. Furthermore, the patients affected by UCLP and BCLP had similar mandibular dental, alveolar, and skeletal transversal widths (P > .05). Conclusion: The UCLP and BCLP groups showed statistically significantly smaller values for intercanine alveolar widths and larger values for intermolar dental and alveolar widths compared with the normal occlusion group. This shows the importance of using individualized archwires according to the pretreatment arch widths of the patients affected by UCLP and/or BCLP.
    The Angle Orthodontist 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To investigate changes in maxillary alveolar bone thickness after maxillary incisor proclination and extrusion during anterior crossbite correction in a group of growing patients with Class III malocclusion. Materials and Methods: Maxillary incisors of 15 growing patients with anterior crossbite were proclined and extruded with 0.016″ beta-titanium advancing loops and Class III elastics. Lateral cephalograms were recorded before advancement (T0) and 4 months after a normal overjet and overbite were achieved (T1). Changes in alveolar bone thickness surrounding the maxillary incisors at the crestal (S1), midroot (S2), and apical (S3) levels were measured using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Paired t-tests were used to determine the significance of the changes. A Spearman rank correlation analysis was performed to explore the relationship between thickness changes and the rate and amount of incisor movements. Results: Although statistically significant decreases were observed in palatal and total bone thickness at the S2 and S3 level (P < .05), the amounts of these changes were clinically insignificant, ranging from 0.34 to 0.59 mm. Changes in labial bone thickness at all levels were not significant. Changes in palatal bone thickness at S3 were negatively correlated with changes in incisor inclination. (r = -0.71; P < .05). Conclusion: In a group of growing patients with Class III malocclusion undergoing anterior crossbite correction, controlled tipping mechanics accompanied by extrusive force may produce successful tooth movement with minimal iatrogenic detriment to the alveolar bone.
    The Angle Orthodontist 09/2014;