Journal of analytical toxicology (J ANAL TOXICOL)

Publisher: Oxford University Press (OUP)

Journal description

Journal of Analytical Toxicology (JAT) is the international source for practical clinical/forensic applications for isolating, identifying and quantitating potentially toxic substances. The Journal of Analytical Toxicology (JAT) is an international publication devoted to the timely dissemination of scientific communications concerning the isolation, identification, and quantitation of drugs and other substances. Since its inception in 1977, JAT has striven to present state-of-the art techniques to address current issues in toxicology. The peer-review process provided by the distinguished members of the Editorial Advisory Board ensures the high quality and integrity of JAT articles. Timely presentation of the latest scientific developments is ensured through "Technical Notes", "Case Reports", and "Letters to the Editor". Worldwide readership of JAT includes toxicologists, pathologists, chemists, clinicians, researchers, and educators working in medical examiner and law enforcement laboratories, hospitals, university, and independent analytical laboratories, as well as the drug manufacturing industry. With an emphasis on practical application, JAT articles introduce improved and novel techniques for use in clinical, forensic, workplace, sports testing (doping), and other toxicology laboratories. Articles describe newly developed methods in immunoassay testing, gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrometry, solid- and liquid-phase extraction techniques, and other analytical approaches. The methods published in JAT describe the chemical analysis of therapeutic drugs, drugs of abuse, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, industrial chemicals, and environmental toxins. The methods are generally applicable to the fields of forensic science, therapeutic drug monitoring, drug abuse testing, clinical and forensic toxicology, industrial hygiene.

Current impact factor: 2.63

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 2.627
2012 Impact Factor 2.107
2011 Impact Factor 2.022
2010 Impact Factor 1.545
2009 Impact Factor 1.867
2008 Impact Factor 1.665

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.76
Cited half-life 8.60
Immediacy index 0.43
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.47
Website Journal of Analytical Toxicology (JAT) website
Other titles Journal of analytical toxicology, JAT
ISSN 1945-2403
OCLC 2942106
Material type Periodical
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Oxford University Press (OUP)

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  • Classification
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In a previous publication, we reported on the analysis of several dietary supplement/exercise formulas and the quantitation of N,α-diethylphenethylamine (N,α-ETH, 3: ). In this article we report on the reanalysis of these products using LC-MS-MS and GC-MS methods capable of clearly separating the N,α-isomer ( 3: ) from its N,β-isomer (N,β-ETH, 4: ). The reanalysis, by both methods, showed that all samples previously reported as containing N,α-ETH ( 3: ) do contain only that isomer with no detectable concentrations of the N,β-ETH ( 4: ). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:
    Journal of analytical toxicology 03/2015; DOI:10.1093/jat/bkv022
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    ABSTRACT: This work describes a procedure to evaluate matrix effects in a combined dilution and standard addition method (SAM) using liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry. The method was validated and applied to an analysis of metformin in postmortem blood samples. The analytical method included protein precipitation with methanol, followed by liquid chromatographic separation of metformin on Gemini NX-C18 reversed-phase column using a gradient consisting of methanol and ammonium acetate at pH 3.2. The mass spectrometric analysis was performed with a quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer equipped with a turbo ion spray interface in a positive ion mode using selected reaction monitoring. Quantitation was performed based on an SAM. Validation for metformin revealed a practical limit of quantification of 0.1 mg/L, a linear range from 0.1 to 3.0 mg/L, average precision 10%, accuracy (bias) 9% and reproducibility 10%. Combined matrix effects were evaluated by k-values (slopes) of calibration plots, postextraction addition approach and a comparison of within- and between-sample precision (relative standard deviation). It was demonstrated that the method contained matrix effects which were fully compensated for using dilution and the SAM. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:
    Journal of analytical toxicology 03/2015; DOI:10.1093/jat/bkv020
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    ABSTRACT: Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive constituent in cannabis, impairs psychomotor performance, cognition and driving ability; thus, driving under the influence of cannabis is a public safety concern. We documented cannabis' psychomotor, neurocognitive, subjective and physiological effects in occasional and frequent smokers to investigate potential differences between these smokers. Fourteen frequent (≥4x/week) and 11 occasional (<2x/week) cannabis smokers entered a secure research unit ∼19 h prior to smoking one 6.8% THC cigarette. Cognitive and psychomotor performance was evaluated with the critical tracking (CTT), divided attention (DAT), n-back (working memory) and Balloon Analog Risk (BART) (risk-taking) tasks at -1.75, 1.5, 3.5, 5.5 and 22.5 h after starting smoking. GLM (General Linear Model) repeated measures ANOVA was utilized to compare scores. Occasional smokers had significantly more difficulty compensating for CTT tracking error compared with frequent smokers 1.5 h after smoking. Divided attention performance declined significantly especially in occasional smokers, with session × group effects for tracking error, hits, false alarms and reaction time. Cannabis smoking did not elicit session × group effects on the n-back or BART. Controlled cannabis smoking impaired psychomotor function, more so in occasional smokers, suggesting some tolerance to psychomotor impairment in frequent users. These data have implications for cannabis-associated impairment in driving under the influence of cannabis cases. Published by Oxford University Press 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
    Journal of analytical toxicology 03/2015; DOI:10.1093/jat/bkv012
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Over the past years, use of synthetic cannabinoids has become increasingly popular. To draw the right conclusions regarding new intake of these substances in situations of repeated urinary drug testing, knowledge of their elimination rate in urine is essential. We report data from consecutive urine specimens from five subjects after ingestion of synthetic cannabinoids. Urinary concentrations of the carboxylic acid metabolites JWH-018-COOH and JWH-073-COOH were measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS) with a limit of quantification of 0.1 ng/mL. In these subjects, specimens remained positive over a period of 20-43 (mean 27) days for JWH-018-COOH and over a period of 11-25 (mean 19) days for JWH-073-COOH. Detection times were shorter for subjects that appeared to have ingested only one, or a few, doses prior to urine collection in the study. Creatinine-normalized concentrations (CN-concentrations) slowly declined throughout the follow-up period in all subjects, suggesting that no new intake had taken place during this period. Mean elimination half-lives in urine were 14.0 (range 4.4-23.8) days for CN-JWH-018-COOH and 9.3 (range 3.6-16.8) days for CN-JWH-073-COOH. These data show that urine specimens could be positive for JWH-018-COOH for more than 6 weeks and JWH-073-COOH for more than 3 weeks after ingestion. However, such long detection periods require a low limit of quantification. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:
    Journal of analytical toxicology 03/2015; DOI:10.1093/jat/bkv013
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    ABSTRACT: We report a fatal case of combined α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP) and 2-(methylamino)-1-phenylpentan-1-one (pentedrone) poisoning. A 28-year-old man was taken to hospital in asystole. Despite resuscitation efforts over 30 min, he died. The forensic autopsy showed pulmonary edema and moderately advanced atherosclerotic lesions of the arteries. Microscopic observation revealed chronic changes in the heart. Confirmation of the presence of pentedrone, α-PVP, and its metabolite 1-phenyl-2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)pentan-1-ol (OH-α-PVP) in tissues and fluids were achieved using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis after liquid-liquid extraction. A quantitative validated liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was used to determine the concentrations of the above designer drugs in postmortem samples. Pentedrone, α-PVP, and OH-α-PVP concentrations were 8,794, 901 and 185 ng/mL in whole blood, respectively; 100,044, 2,610 and 2,264 ng/g in the liver, respectively; 22,102, 462 and 294 ng/g in the kidney, respectively; 13,248, 120 and 91 ng/g in the brain, respectively and 500,534, 4,190 and 47 ng/g in the stomach contents, respectively. This is the first known reported death attributed to the combined use of α-PVP and pentedrone. Additionally, this article is the first to report the distribution of pentedrone in postmortem human samples. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:
    Journal of analytical toxicology 03/2015; DOI:10.1093/jat/bkv011
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    ABSTRACT: A high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the detection and quantification of 6-methyl-3-(2-nitro-1-(thiophen-2-yl)propyl)-2-phenyl-1H-indole (ZCZ-011) using 2-phenylindole as the internal standard (ISTD). ZCZ-011 was synthesized as a possible positive allosteric modulator with the CB1 cannabinoid receptor. The analytical method employs a rapid extraction technique using Clean Screen FASt™ columns with a Positive Pressure Manifold. FASt™ columns were originally developed for urine drug analysis but we have successfully adapted them to the extraction of brain tissue. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Restek Allure Biphenyl 5 µ, 100 × 3.2 mm column (Bellefonte, PA). The mobile phase consisted of 1:9 deionized water with 10 mmol ammonium acetate and 0.1% formic acid-methanol. The following transition ions (m/z) were monitored for ZCZ-011: 363 > 207 and 363 > 110 and for the ISTD: 194 > 165 and 194 > 89. The FASt™ columns lowered and stabilized the ion suppression over the linear range of the assay (40-4,000 ng/g). The method was evaluated for recovery, ion suppression, accuracy/bias, intraday and interday precision, bench-top stability, freeze-thaw and post-preparative stability. The method was successfully applied to brain tissue from C57BL/6J mice that received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections with 40 mg/kg of ZCZ-011 or vehicle. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:
    Journal of analytical toxicology 03/2015; DOI:10.1093/jat/bkv015
  • Article: Erratum.
    Journal of analytical toxicology 03/2015; 39(2):162. DOI:10.1093/jat/bku179
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    ABSTRACT: Benzodiazepines (BDZs) are widely used as tranquilizers and anti-depressive drugs in common clinical practice. However, their ready availability and their synergistic effects with alcohol make them attractive for criminal intentions. To prove criminal action for legal reasons, it is often necessary to analyze beverage residues from a crime scene. Milk-based alcoholic drinks (whiskey creams) are gaining popularity due to their lower alcohol content pleasant taste. However, the complexity of this sample, containing proteins and fatty acids, can mask the presence of drugs or other substances in standard analysis methods. These characteristics make whiskey creams highly suitable for illicit purposes. In this study, eight BDZs, including diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, clobazam, flunitrazepam, bromazepam, flurazepam, nitrazepam and clonazepam, were extracted from whiskey cream using the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method and analyzed using GC-MS. The QuEChERS protocol can efficiently separate most of the matrix from the target compounds while maintaining acceptable recoveries. The presented method is simple and rapid and has been validated in terms of precision, accuracy and recoveries. Limits of detection and limits of quantitation were in the range of 0.02-0.1 and 0.1-0.5 µg/mL, respectively. Whiskey cream beverages, fortified with commercial drugs at 20 µg/mL, were extracted and analyzed demonstrating the applicability of the method in forensic analysis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:
    Journal of analytical toxicology 02/2015; DOI:10.1093/jat/bkv014
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    ABSTRACT: Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent that causes painful blisters and chemically modifies endogenous biomacromolecules by alkylation to hydroxyethylthioethyl (HETE) adducts representing valuable long-term markers for post-exposure analysis. The albumin adduct formed in human plasma in vitro (HETE bound to the side chain of cysteine 34) was isolated and cleaved by current lots of pronase primarily generating the internal modified dipeptide (HETE-cysteine-proline, HETE-CP) instead of the formerly reported HETE-CPF tripeptide. The analyte was detected by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS). In principle, HETE-CP undergoes a dynamic on-column equilibrium of cis-trans isomerism thus requiring separation at 50°C to obtain one narrow peak. Accordingly, we developed both a novel longer lasting but more sensitive microbore (1 mm i.d., flow 30 µL/min, cycle time 60 min, LOD 50 nM) and a faster, less sensitive narrowbore (2.1 mm i.d., 200 µL/min, cycle time 16 min, LOD 100 nM, both on Atlantis T3 material at 50°C) LC-ESI-MS-MS method suitable for verification analysis. The corresponding tri- and tetrapeptide, Q(HETE)-CPF were monitored simultaneously. HETE-CP peak areas were directly proportional to SM concentrations added to plasma in vitro (0.05-100 µM). Albumin adducts formed by deuterated SM (d8-SM) served as internal standard. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:
    Journal of analytical toxicology 02/2015; DOI:10.1093/jat/bkv010
  • Journal of analytical toxicology 02/2015; DOI:10.1093/jat/bkv005
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    ABSTRACT: 2-Methoxydiphenidine, i.e. 1-[1-(2-methoxyphenyl)-2-phenylethyl]piperidine, also known as 'MXP' or '2-MeO-diphenidine' (or 2-MXP), has been available as a 'research chemical' since 2013 as a purported alternative to the 'dissociative anesthetics' methoxetamine and ketamine. Three deaths which involved the detection of 2-MXP in post-mortem blood and urine were encountered in forensic casework. The 2-, 3- and 4-methoxyphenyl positional isomers were synthesized to confirm the identity and concentration of 2-MXP. The 2-MXP femoral blood concentrations in the cases were found to be 24.0, 2.0 and 1.36 mg/L (the latter with an alternative cause of death). Some additional prescription drugs were encountered at therapeutic concentrations in all three cases. Analysis of the biofluids allowed the detection and characterization of various metabolites, including the suggested presence of hydroxy-2-MXP as the main metabolite with the hydroxyl group located on the piperidine rather than the phenyl or benzyl moiety. Additional metabolites included O-desmethyl-2-MXP and hydroxylated O-desmethyl-2-MXP. Diphenidine and hydroxy-diphenidine, also showing the presence of the hydroxyl group on the piperidine ring, were also detected. It was not possible to identify whether these arose from 2-MXP biotransformation or whether they represented the presence of diphenidine as a separate substance. These are the first published fatalities involving 2-MXP and presents analytical data to assist analytical toxicologists with future casework. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:
    Journal of analytical toxicology 02/2015; DOI:10.1093/jat/bkv006
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    ABSTRACT: Synthetic cannabinoids, including JWH-018 and JWH-073, belong to a class of aminoalkylindoles (AAIs) that are smoked to produce an effect similar to tetrahydrocannabinol. Compounds in this class are often collectively known as 'Spice'. After ingestion, these compounds are extensively metabolized to their hydroxy and carboxylic acid metabolites. During forensic analysis, detection of these metabolites in urine is an indication of past exposure to the parent compounds. The analytical process involved hydrolysis of conjugated metabolites by glucuronidase, solvent extraction, derivatization by trifluoroacetic anhydride and hexafluoroisopropanol and GC-EIMS detection. Identification of the unknown was based on the criteria of GC retention time within ±2% and mass spectral ion ratio within ±20% of that of a standard. Deuterated internal standards of the carboxylic acid metabolites were used for quantification. The acid (JWH-018-COOH, JWH-073-COOH) and hydroxy (JWH-018-OH, JWH-073-OH) metabolites were linear over the concentration range of 0.1-10 and 0.2-10 ng/mL, respectively, with a correlation coefficient-square, R(2) > 0.999 (N = 5). Extraction recoveries of the metabolites were within 79 and 87%. The method was applied to 17 urine specimens collected as part of a military law enforcement investigation. Nine of the specimens tested positive for one or more of the metabolites. When the procedure was extended to screen other AAI compounds, two of the specimens were found to contain JWH-210, JWH-250 (JWH-302 or JWH-201) and JWH-250 (C4 isomers). The GC-EIMS method presented here was found to be suitable for detecting JWH-018 and JWH-073 metabolites and other AAI compounds in urine. Published by Oxford University Press 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
    Journal of analytical toxicology 02/2015; 39(3). DOI:10.1093/jat/bku178
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The electronic cigarette (e-cig) is an invention of the past few years and its popularity is rapidly growing all over the world. A rapid multicomponent analytical protocol for the analysis of the replacement liquids (e-liquids) of e-cig was developed using gas (GC) and liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectrometry (MS). GC-MS-based methods were developed for the determination of the main humectants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). For the determination and quantification of nicotine (NIC) and nitrosamines, appropriate LC-MS-based methods were developed. The approbated methods were applied for the analysis of 263 e-liquid samples obtained from the Greek market. The instruments response was linear; the limits of quantification ranged from 0.003 μg/mL for three PAHs to 1.187 μg/mL for glycerol. The precision was <16% for all analytes, while the mean accuracy ranged from 99.1% for NIC to 106.6% for the flavor 2,5-dimethylpyrazine. The measured concentrations of NIC were correlated with the theoretical concentrations as reported by the manufacturers. An analog relation between the concentration of the glycerol and of propylene glycol was noticed. The frequency of detection of flavors ranged from 30.4% for the methyl cyclopentenolone to 5.3% for 3.4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde. Nitrosamines and PAHs were not detected in any sample. Because a similar analytical protocol was not available from the existing literature so far, our study offers the advantage of complete analytical methods for rapid and simultaneous multicomponent identification. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:
    Journal of analytical toxicology 02/2015; DOI:10.1093/jat/bkv002
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    ABSTRACT: Metaxalone (Skelaxin) is a prescription medication used primarily as a centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxer and is rarely implicated in drug fatalities. We present a case study involving a relatively young decedent where metaxalone is implicated as the sole agent causing death with little in the way of confounding factors. The concentration of metaxalone in hospital admission blood was determined to be 37.4 mcg/mL. In postmortem specimens the concentrations were shown to be 13.5 mcg/mL (heart blood), 4.9 mcg/mL (vitreous humor), 69.4 mcg/g (liver) and 74.0 mcg/g (brain). Additionally a blood-to-plasma (b/p) ratio was estimated using antemortem blood and serum specimens taken at the same time on the second day following admission. The b/p ratio was calculated to be 1.4 implying a higher proportion of the drug to be found in whole blood versus plasma/serum samples, an important factor which should be taken into account when comparing blood concentrations to published therapeutic ranges determined in serum/plasma. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:
    Journal of analytical toxicology 02/2015; DOI:10.1093/jat/bkv008
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to develop and validate a method for the determination of buprenorphine (BUP), norbuprenorphine (NBUP) and naloxone (NAL) in fingernails and urine samples collected from former heroin users under suboxone substitution therapy. The analytes were extracted by solid-liquid or solid-phase extraction and were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The validation of the analytical methods developed included linearity, recovery, accuracy, precision, ion suppression, sensitivity of interfaces and limits of determination and quantification. The validated methods were applied to samples from 46 individuals. The majority of the urine samples were positive for all analytes (93.5% for BUP, 95.7% for NBUP and 84.8% for NAL). In nails, a higher detection rate was observed for NBUP and BUP (89.1%), compared with NAL (10.9%). The median values of the NBUP/BUP and the NAL/BUP ratio were 2.5 and 0.3 in urine and 0.8 and 0.3 in nails, respectively. A statistically significant correlation was found between the BUP, NBUP and total BUP (BUP and NBUP) concentrations in urine and those in nails. A weak correlation was observed between the daily dose (mg/day) and total BUP (P = 0.069), or NBUP (P = 0.072) concentrations in urine. In contrast, a strong correlation was found between the total amount of BUP administered during the last 12 months and total BUP (P = 0.038), or NBUP (P = 0.023) concentrations in urine. Moreover urine BUP, NBUP and total BUP concentrations correlated significantly. Our study demonstrated successfully the application of the developed method for the determination of the three analytes in urine and nails. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:
    Journal of analytical toxicology 02/2015; DOI:10.1093/jat/bkv003
  • Article: Erratum.
    Journal of analytical toxicology 02/2015; DOI:10.1093/jat/bku177