Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment Journal Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

Journal description

Current impact factor: 2.34

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 2.341
2012 Impact Factor 2.22
2011 Impact Factor 1.765
2010 Impact Factor 2.23

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 0.00
Cited half-life 0.00
Immediacy index 0.00
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.00
ISSN 1944-0057

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Taylor & Francis

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A simplified alternative to the wet digestion sample preparation procedure for roasted ground and instant coffees has been developed and validated for the determination of different elements by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Zn) and flame atomic absorption spectrometry (Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na). The proposed procedure, i.e., the ultrasound-assisted solubilisation in aqua regia, is quite fast and simple, requires minimal use of reagents and demonstrated good analytical performance, i.e., accuracy from -4.7 to 1.9%, the precision within 0.5-8.6% and recovery in the range 93.5-103%. Detection limits of elements were from 0.086 ng mL(-1) (Sr) to 40 ng mL(-1) (Fe). A preliminary classification of 18 samples of ground and instant coffees has successfully been made based on concentrations of selected elements and using the principal component analysis and the hierarchic cluster analysis.
    Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 07/2015; DOI:10.1080/19440049.2015.1067928
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    ABSTRACT: This paper proposes a mechanism to explain the trace levels of natural semicarbazide occasionally observed in foods. The analytical derivative of semicarbazide, 2-nitrobenzaldehyde semicarbazone, is often measured as a metabolite marker to detect the widely banned antibiotic nitrofurazone. However, this marker is not specific as semicarbazide may be present in foods for several reasons other than exposure to nitrofurazone. In some cases, an entirely natural origin of semicarbazide is suspected although up until now there was no explanation as to how semicarbazide could occur naturally. In this work, semicarbazide is proposed to be generated from natural food compounds via an azine intermediate. Hydrazine, in the form of azines or hydrazones, may be generated in dilute aqueous solution from the natural food compounds ammonia, hydrogen peroxide and acetone, following known oxidation chemistry. When this mixture was prepared in the presence of ureas such as allantoin, urea, biuret or hydroxyurea, and then analysed by the standard method for the determination of semicarbazide, 2-nitrobenzaldehyde semicarbazone was detected. 2-nitrobenzaldehyde aldazine was also found, and may be a general marker for azines in foods. This proposal, that azine formation is central to semicarbazide development, provides a convergence of the published mechanisms for semicarbazide. The reaction starts with hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid, atmospheric oxygen or hypochlorite; generates hydrazine either by an oxaziridine intermediate or via the chlorination of ammonia; and then either route may converge on azine formation, followed by reaction with a urea compound. Additionally, carbamate ion may speculatively generate semicarbazide by reaction with hydrazine, which may be a significant route in the case of the hypochlorite treatment of foods or food contact surfaces. Significantly, detection of 2-nitrobenzaldehyde semicarbazone may be somewhat artefactual because semicarbazide may form during the acid conditions of analysis, which can free hydrazine in the presence of urea compounds.
    Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 07/2015; DOI:10.1080/19440049.2015.1067724
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    ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were, first, to investigate the toxicity of zearalenone (ZEN) through the analysis of biochemical parameters, oxidative stress, pathological changes and inflammatory response in the kidney of gestation sows and offspring; and, second, to evaluate the efficacy of modified halloysite nanotubes (MHNTs) for the alleviation to the adverse effects induced by ZEN. This study focused on the period of organogenesis between days 35 and 70 of gestation, and treatments included (1) a control diet; (2) contaminated grain (50% control corn and 50% mouldy corn); and (3) contaminated grain (50% control corn and 50% mouldy corn) + 1% MHNTs. ZEN treatment significantly increased most of the biochemical parameters and inflammatory cytokines and degenerative changes in the kidney and induced oxidative damage in plasma, whereas the addition of MHNTs in combination with ZEN induced a re-establishment of the biochemical parameters, the plasma oxidative stress enzyme activities and the normal histology of the kidney. Thus, the data strongly suggest that the deleterious effects of ZEN can be significantly diminished by MHNTs.
    Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 07/2015; DOI:10.1080/19440049.2015.1048748
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    ABSTRACT: The natural occurrence of ochratoxin A, ochratoxin B, aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1 and aflatoxin G2 (OTA, OTB, AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) in red wines was investigated by HPLC/FLD after immunoaffinity column clean up, in 57 market samples produced in Sicily. The results showed a very low incidence of these mycotoxins in analysed samples, confirming the high degree of quality and safety of Sicilian red wines. The results indicated 71.9% positive samples and 64.9% respectively for OTA and OTB, with an average level of 0.13 μg/L, well below the European maximum permitted levels (MLs). The aflatoxin most frequently detected in the samples was the AFG1, present in 57.9% of samples, while the other aflatoxins were rarely present. Recovery experiments were carried out on eight mycotoxins-free red wines spiked with OTA, OTB, AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 at two different levels. The limit of detection in wines were 0.02 µg/L for OTA, 0.04 µg/L for OTB, 0.03 µg/L for AFG1, AFG2 and AFB2, and 0.05 µg/L for AFB1. A good correlation was found, with good performances in term of precision for the method.
    Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 07/2015; DOI:10.1080/19440049.2015.1055521
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, a residue analysis method for the simultaneous determination of 107 pesticides in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), Angelica sinensis, Angelica dahurica, Leonurus heterophyllus Sweet, Pogostemon cablin, and Lonicera japonica Thunb, was developed using gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry in negative chemical ionisation mode (GC-NCI-MS/MS). NCI has advantages of high sensitivity and selectivity to chemicals with electron-withdrawing groups, and yields low background interference. For sample preparation, QuEChERS, which stands for "quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe," was applied. Due to unique characteristics of TCMs, the clean-up step was optimised by adjusting amounts of primary secondary amine, C18, graphitized carbon black, and silica sorbents. Validation was mainly performed by determining analyte recoveries at 4 different spiking concentrations, 10, 50, 100, and 200 ng g(-1), with 7 replicates at each concentration. Method trueness, precision, linearity of calibration curves, lowest calibrated levels (LCLs), and matrix effects were determined to demonstrate method and instrument performance. Among the 107 pesticides tested, approximately 80% of them gave recoveries from 80-110% and <10% RSD. The LCLs for nearly all pesticides were 5 ng g(-1), and as low as 0.1 ng g(-1)for dichlofenthion, endosulfan sulphate, flumetralin, isofenphos-methyl, methyl-pentachlorophenyl sulphide, and trifluralin. The results indicate that GC-NCI-MS/MS is an excellent technique for quantitative and qualitative analysis of targeted GC-amenable pesticides at ultratrace levels, especially in complex matrices such as TCMs.
    Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 06/2015; DOI:10.1080/19440049.2015.1055340
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    ABSTRACT: Lidocaine is a topical anaesthetic drug used in dairy cows for laparotomy (caesarean section, abomasal displacement). Because there are no registered drugs for this indication, it can be applied under the so-called Cascade rules (off-label use), with the restriction that the off-label withdrawal periods of 7 days for milk and 28 days for meat are taken into account. In animals, lidocaine is rapidly metabolised into various metabolites, one of them being 2,6-dimethyl aniline (DMA), reported to possess carcinogenic and mutagenic properties and detected also in milk. To investigate whether the off-label withdrawal periods are long enough to exclude the presence of lidocaine and DMA, and potential other metabolites, in edible products, a study was performed with eight dairy cows, treated with lidocaine by injection in the abdominal muscles. At various time points blood samples, milk and urine were collected. Four animals were slaughtered 3.5 h after the treatment, the other four after 48.5 h. The injection site, meat, liver and kidney were analysed for the levels of lidocaine, DMA, monoethylglycinexylidide (MEGX) and 3-OH-lidocaine. It was shown that DMA is an important metabolite in dairy cows and can be detected in both meat and milk. In addition, also MEGX, 3-OH-lidocaine and 3 other metabolites were identified and to some extent quantified. These metabolites were 4-OH-lidocaine, lidocaine-N-oxide and 4-hydroxy-DMA. The latter compound was the most important metabolite in urine. However, levels in milk and meat decreased rapidly after the application. Overall, it can be concluded that the off label withdrawal times of 7 and 28 days for milk and meat, respectively, guarantee the absence of detectable levels of lidocaine and metabolites.
    Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 06/2015; DOI:10.1080/19440049.2015.1064172
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    ABSTRACT: An efficient non-target dye-screening system consisting of a liquid chromatography photodiode array coupled with a high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRMS) is described. Visible absorption spectroscopy assisted in locating the peak of an unknown dye in HRMS chromatograms which allowed the accurate molecular weight of the unknown to be obtained. In a study of the adulteration of processed soymilk curd (tofu) with dimethyl yellow, an unexpected unknown dye was discovered. The compound was further purified by gel permeation chromatography and identified by HRMS and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) as diethyl yellow (solvent yellow 56). This is the first time that diethyl yellow has been reported in foods. The authentic diethyl yellow was then purchased and used as a quantitative standard. Tofu products and their ingredients associated with tofu processing were surveyed. Analysis showed the source of diethyl yellow could be traced to emulsifiers used as ingredient in tofu products. Surveillance work found the concentrations of diethyl yellow ranged from several μg kg(-1) (ppb) in the tofu products to up to hundreds of mg kg(-1) (ppm) in the emulsifiers.
    Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 06/2015; DOI:10.1080/19440049.2015.1055830
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the biological half-life of urinary cadmium concentration (U-Cd) based on a 22-year follow-up study after cessation of environmental Cd pollution. Spot urine samples were obtained from the inhabitants (32 men and 36 women) in the target area in 1986, 1991, 1999, 2003 and 2008. These inhabitants were divided into higher or lower baseline U-Cd group by the cut-off of 5 μg l(-1) or 5 μg g(-1) creatinine. Biological half-life of U-Cd was estimated using a linear mixed model adjusted for the baseline age. In the higher baseline U-Cd groups, the estimated half-life and 95% confidence intervals were 12.4 years (9.3-18.8 years) and 11.4 years (9.3-14.6 years) for unadjusted U-Cd in men and women, respectively. For creatinine-adjusted U-Cd, they were 16.0 years (13.0-20.7 years) and 20.4 years (16.6-26.2 years) in men and women, respectively. In the lower baseline U-Cd groups, biological half-life for unadjusted U-Cd in men was solely significant (23.4 years) and longer than the corresponding half-life in the higher baseline U-Cd group. The biological half-lives of U-Cd obtained in this study were identical with the values for U-Cd or total body burden determined by a different method.
    Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 06/2015; DOI:10.1080/19440049.2015.1052573
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    ABSTRACT: Migration of Tinuvin P (UV stabilizer) and Irganox 3114 (antioxidant) from high-density polyethylene (HDPE) was studied. HDPE pieces were soaked in either milk (1.5% or 3.5% fat content) or 50% (v/v) ethanol - water mixture - the food simulant for milk as specified in regulation 10/2011/EC. The obtained extracts were analysed by LC-MS/MS. For statistical assessment variography was used. It proved to be a useful tool for making a distinction between the early migration range and the equilibrium despite the variance of the data. Regulation 10/2011/EC specifies 10 days contact time for milk at 5°C. Our experiments with the food simulant with 24 dm(2) kg (-1) surface/mass ratio showed that both Tinuvin P and Irganox 3114 need less than an hour to reach equilibrium. Furthermore, 10 days experiments with daily sampling showed that these additives are stable in milk, as well as in the food simulant. The effect of the concentration of the additives in HDPE was studied in the 0.01 - 5% (m/m) range. For both Tinuvin P and Irganox 3114 and all three extractants the migrated amount became independent of the concentration of the additive in the HDPE approximately at 1% (m/m). For Tinuvin P the food simulant gave a close estimate for the milk samples. However, using the food simulant for modelling the migration of Irganox 3114 into milk gave an overestimation with a factor of minimum 3.5. In the case of Tinuvin P special care must be taken, since the recommended amount in the HDPE can result additive concentrations near or even over the specific migration limit (SML). However, Irganox 3114 cannot reach the SML neither in milk, nor in the food simulant.
    Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 06/2015; DOI:10.1080/19440049.2015.1055523
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    ABSTRACT: A method for the determination of lasalocid, an antibiotic and coccidiostat, in grease and fat is described. The manufacture of lasalocid produces a grease-like residue as a waste byproduct. Recently this byproduct has been shown to have been illegally introduced into the animal feed chain. Therefore, a quantitative and confirmatory procedure to analyse for lasalocid in this matrix is needed. A portion of grease/oil sample was extracted into hexane-washed acetonitrile, and a portion of the extract was then applied to a carboxylic acid solid-phase extraction (SPE) column for concentration and clean-up. The SPE column was washed with additional hexane-washed acetonitrile and ethyl acetate/methanol, after which lasalocid was eluted with 10% ammoniated methanol. The eluate was evaporated to dryness, redissolved in (1:1) acetonitrile-water and filtered through a PTFE syringe filter. Confirmation and quantitation of lasalocid in the final extract employed a triple quadrupole LC-MS/MS. The method was applied to grease and oil samples containing from 0.02 to 34 000 mg kg(-1) of lasalocid.
    Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 06/2015; DOI:10.1080/19440049.2015.1052572
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    ABSTRACT: Hg and Cd were quantified in fish, cephalopods and crustaceans from Italian supermarkets. Sample compliance with European dietary standards as well as human health risks according to Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake and the methodology of Target Hazard Quotient were evaluated. Both element levels were under European legal limits, except for some fish having Hg and Cd contents exceeding or equal to critical values. Estimated weekly intakes (Hg: fish = 0.07-1.44 µg kg-1 bw/week; cephalopods = 0.05-0.15 µg kg-1 bw/week; crustaceans = 0.04-0.08 µg kg-1 bw/week; Cd: fish = 0.04-0.32 µg kg-1 bw/week; cephalopods = 0.07-0.27 µg kg-1 bw/week; crustaceans = 0.05-0.11 µg kg-1 bw/week) as well as target hazard quotient values (THQ < 1) were within safe limits. Although there seems to be no important risks associated with seafood consumption, Hg exposure was in some cases close to safety margins and thus levels of this metal should be under frequent surveillance.
    Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 06/2015; in press. DOI:10.1080/19440049.2015.1055594
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    ABSTRACT: We have conducted a literature search from 2007-2014 to identify publications where principally LC-Orbitrap™ high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) has been employed in food analysis. Of a total of 212 relevant references, only 22 papers were from the years 2007-2010, but in subsequent years there has been a steady growth in publications with 38 to 55 relevant papers being published each year from 2011-2014. In the food safety area over 50% of the published papers were equally divided between pesticides, veterinary drug residues and natural toxins (including mycotoxins) focussed primarily on multi-analyte target analysis. LC- Orbitrap™ HRMS was also found to be increasingly important for the analysis of bioactive substances, principally phenolic compounds in foods. A number of studies reported for the first time the identification of new fungal metabolites, predominantly various conjugated forms of known mycotoxins. Novel process contaminants were also identified by LC-Orbitrap™ HRMS, as were various substances used for food adulteration and bioactive substances in herbal products and dietary supplements. Untargeted analysis is seen as a major future trend where HRMS plays a significant role. Retrospective analysis of scanned HR mass spectra in conjunction with relevant databases can provide new insights. Metabolomics is also being increasingly used where foods are being profiled through fingerprinting using HRMS. All evidence points towards future growth in the number of applications of HRMS in food safety and quality, as the power of this technique gains wider recognition.
    Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 06/2015; DOI:10.1080/19440049.2015.1057240
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    ABSTRACT: Products containing natural additives, including antioxidants, are usually perceived by the consumers as safer than those with synthetic ones. Natural antioxidants, besides preservative activity, may exert beneficial health effects. Interactions between antioxidants may significantly change their antioxidant activity, thus in designing functional foods or food/cosmetic ingredients, knowledge on the type of interactions could be useful. In the present study, the interactions between ascorbic acid (AA; vitamin C) and different black and green tea extracts, influencing their antioxidant activities, were investigated. The antioxidant activities of tea extracts and their mixtures with AA prepared in several different weight ratios were measured using the TEAC (Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity), DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) methods. The type of interaction was determined by interaction indexes and isobolograms. It was found that the weight ratio of extracts to AA significantly influenced the antioxidant activity of a mixture and the type of interaction between these components. The weight ratio of tea extract to AA can cause the change of interaction, e.g. from antagonism to additivism or from additivism to synergism. The observed differences in the type of interactions were probably also a result of different extracts' polyphenol composition and content. The type of interaction may also be affected by the medium in which extracts and AA interact, especially its pH and the solvent used. To obtain the best antioxidant effect, all these factors should be taken into account during designing of a tea extract-AA mixture.
    Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 06/2015; DOI:10.1080/19440049.2015.1049218
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    ABSTRACT: Bisphenol A (BPA; 4,4'-(propane-2,2-diyl)diphenol), a suspected endocrine disruptor with a weak estrogenic activity is used in a variety of consumer products, including paper and cardboard products used as food contact materials. The present study compared 4 different gas chromatographic methods for the analysis of BPA in paper and cardboard food packages. Eighteen different food packages were extracted and BPA was determined using two different derivatization reactions - trimethylsilylation with N,O-Bis(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) and halide alkylation with pentafluorobenzoyl chloride (PFBOCl) - and four different separation and detection techniques. The BSTFA derivatives were quantified with (I) GC-MS in single ion monitoring (SIM) mode with electron ionization (EI-GC-MS), and (II) GC-MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using electron ionization (EI-GC-MS/MS), while the PFBOCl derivatives were quantified with (III) GC-MS using electron ionization (EI-GC-MS) as well as (IV) GC-MS with negative chemical ionization (NCI -GC-MS). All developed methods showed good linearity (R2 > 0.9938), precision (CV less than 4.5% for the reproducibility; CV less than 2.2% for the repeatability) and sensitivity, with limits of detection (LOD) between 0.02 µg kg(-1) for the pentafluorobenzoyl derivatives measured with the NCI-GC-MS method, and 6 µg kg(-1) for the pentafluorobenzoyl derivatives determined with EI-GC-MS. Levels of BPA in the samples were in agreement for all methods, ranging from values below the limit of quantitation (LOQ) to 11.9 mg kg(-1) paper. In a last step, the maximum potential migration into food products was calculated for all tested paper and cardboard samples, assuming a "worst case" scenario of 100% migration.
    Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 06/2015; DOI:10.1080/19440049.2015.1049564
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    ABSTRACT: This study potentiates the adsorbent effect for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) of a commercial additive (CA) of animal feed, containing inactive lysate of three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, active enzymes, adsorbents and a selenium-amino acid complex, when the additive was mixed separately with three S. cerevisiae strains. Levels of AFB1 of 20 and 50 ng g(-1) were used to determine the binding capacity of different concentrations of CA alone and in the presence of yeast strains, as well as toxin desorption, under gastrointestinal conditions. The viability of yeasts in the presence of CA was evaluated. The results show that the CA did not affect the viability of the yeast strains assayed. CA alone showed a low percentage adsorption. At 20 and at 50 ng g(-1), CA was highly efficient in adsorbing AFB1 when combined with RC016 and RC012 strains respectively. Desorption of AFB1 by CA alone and in combination with the yeasts increased with increasing levels of CA. The results demonstrate the improvement of CA in AFB1 adsorption once it is mixed with live yeasts.
    Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 06/2015; 32(6):970-976. DOI:10.1080/19440049.2015.1024761