Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment

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Publications in this journal

  • Jonathan Nimal Selvaraj, Yan Wang, Lu Zhou, Yueju Zhao, Fuguo Xing, Yang Liu
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    ABSTRACT: Mycotoxin contamination in agro-food systems has been a serious concern over the last few decades in China, where the Ministry of Health has set maximum limits for mycotoxins in different agro-products. Overall survey data shows that aflatoxin contamination in infant cereals, edible oils, raw milk, ginger and its related products are far below Chinese regulatory limits. The absence of aflatoxin M1 contamination in infant milk powders indicates a high standard of control. Aflatoxins in liquorice roots, and lotus seeds has been reported for the first time. For deoxynivalenol, high levels were found in wheat grown in the Yangtze Delta region which is more prone to rainfall, supporting Fusarium infection. The emerging mycotoxins beauvericins and enniatins have been reported in the medicinal herbs in China. Ochratoxin A in wine was below the EU regulatory limits, but fumonisins in maize need to be monitored and future regulatory control considered. Overall from all the survey data analysed in this review, we can conclude that 92% of the samples analysed had mycotoxin levels below the Chinese regulatory limits. In terms of detection techniques in recent years, immuno-based assays have been developed largely due to their excellent sensitivity and ease-of-use. Assays targeting multiple mycotoxins like aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol have been reported using microarrays and suspension arrays targeting in particular maize, rice and peanuts. Aptamer based assays against ochratoxin A, and aflatoxins B1 and B2 have been developed involving fluorescence detection, and surface plasmon resonance immunosensors has been developed targeting wine, maize, wheat, wild rye, hay, and peanut oil with high sensitivity (>0.025 ng L(-1)). Commercialisation of these technologies is much needed for wider usage in the coming years.
    Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 01/2015;
  • V Alonso, L Díaz Vergara, C Aminahuel, C Pereyra, G Pena, A Torres, A Dalcero, L Cavaglieri
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    ABSTRACT: Environmental conditions play a key role in fungal development. During the silage production process, humidity, oxygen availability and pH vary among lactic-fermentation phases and among different silage sections. The aim of this work was to study the physiological behaviour of gliotoxicogenic Aspergillus fumigatus strains isolated from maize silage under simulated natural physicochemical conditions - different water activities (aW), temperatures (Tº), pH and oxygen pressure - on the growth parameters (growth rate and lag phase) and gliotoxin production. The silage was made with the harvested whole maize plant that was chopped and used for trench-type silo fabrication. Water activity and pH of the silage samples were determined. Total fungal counts were performed on Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar and Dichloran 18% Glycerol agar. The morphological identification of A. fumigatus was performed with different culture media and at different growth temperature to observe microscopic and macroscopic characteristics. Gliotoxin production by A. fumigatus was determined by HPLC. All strains isolated were morphologically identified as A. fumigatus. Two A. fumigatus strains isolated from the silage samples were selected for the ecophysiological study (A. fumigatus sensu stricto RC031 and RC032). The results of this investigation showed that the fungus grows in the simulated natural physicochemical conditions of corn silage and produces gliotoxin. The study of the physiological behaviour of gliotoxigenic A. fumigatus under simulated environmental conditions allowed its behaviour to be predicted in silage and this will in future enable appropriate control strategies to be developed to prevent the spread of this fungus and toxin production that leads to impairment and reduced quality of silage.
    Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 01/2015;
  • Franky Puype, Jiří Samsonek, Jan Knoop, Marion Egelkraut-Holtus, Markus Ortlieb
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    ABSTRACT: In order to confirm the possibility that recycled fractions from the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) stream were illegally entering the European market in black polymeric food-contact articles (FCAs), bromine quantification, brominated flame retardant (BFR) identification combined with WEEE relevant elemental analysis and polymer impurity analysis were performed. From the 10 selected FCAs, seven samples contained a bromine level ranging from 57 till 5975 mg kg(-1) which is lower than expected to achieve flame retardancy. The BFRs which were present were tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), decabromodiphenylether (decaBDE), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE). Typical elements used in electronic equipment and present in WEEE were detected either at trace level or at elevated concentrations. In all cases when bromine was detected at higher concentrations, concurrently antimony was also detected which confirms the synergetic use of antimony in combination with BFRs. This study describes also the measurement of rare earth elements (REEs) where combinations of cerium, dysprosium, lanthanum, neodymium, praseodymium and yttrium which were detected in four of the seven BFR positive samples. Additionally, the polymer purity was investigated where in all cases foreign polymer fractions were detected. Despite the fact that this study was carried-out on a very small amount of samples there is a significant likelihood that WEEE has been used for the production of FCAs.
    Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are known to be suspected human carcinogens produced by high temperature cooking of protein-rich foods such as meat and fish. In the present study, the influence of numerous food condiments on the formation of HCAs in cooked chicken were investigated. Chicken samples was subjected to pan-frying under controlled temperature, the level of HCAs DMIP, MeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, PhIP, harman and norharman were found between 0.93 and 27.52 ng g(-1), whereas, IQ, MeIQ, AαC, MeAαC, Trp-P-1 and Trp-P-2 were found either below limit of quantification or not detected in the control sample. Nevertheless, for samples cooked using food condiments, the amount of HCAs (DMIP, MeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx and PhIP) were between 0.14 and 19.57 ng g(-1), the harman and norharman were detected at higher concentration up to 17.77 ng g(-1) while IQ and MeIQ were at levels below the limit of quantification and AαC, MeAαC, Trp-P-1 and Trp-P-2 were not detected in any of the samples. The outcomes revealed that the formation of HCAs (except harman and norharman) diminished after the addition of food condiments. Edible oil contributed to the highest levels of HCAs formation, followed by garlic, paprika, pepper and tomato.
    Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Although Fusarium species remain a main source of mycotoxin contamination of wheat, in recent years, due to the evident climatic changes, other mycotoxigenic fungi have been recognised as important wheat contaminants. Alternaria species, especially Alternaria alternata, have been found as contaminants of wheat as well as wheat-based products. Under favourable conditions Alternaria alternata very often produce alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), tenuazonic acid (TeA) and others Alternaria toxins. The aim of the present study was to examine the presence of three Alternaria toxins (AOH, AME and TeA) in wheat samples harvested during the period of three years (2011-2013). To this end, 92 samples were collected during wheat harvesting from different growing regions of Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, which represents the most important wheat growing area in Serbia. The presence of Alternaria toxins were analysed by HPLC with electrospray ionisation triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Among the all analysed wheat samples, 63 (68.5%) were contaminated with TeA, 11 (12.0%) with AOH and 6 (6.5%) with AME. Furthermore, the maximum and mean toxin concentrations were 2676 µg kg(-1), 48.9 µg kg(-1), 70.2 µg kg(-1) and 92.4 µg kg(-1), 18.6 µg kg(-1) and 39.0 µg kg(-1) for TeA, AOH and AME, respectively. Co-occurrence of three Alternaria toxins in wheat samples was detected in six samples, a combination of two toxins was found in two samples and 64 samples contained one toxin. The results showed that among 92 analysed wheat samples only 20 (21.7%) samples were without Alternaria toxins. The presence of Alternaria toxins was also investigated in terms of weather conditions recorded during period of investigation, as well as with the sampling region. This study represents the first preliminary report of natural occurrence of Alternaria toxins in wheat (Triticum aestivum) from Serbia.
    Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Mould-ripened civil is a traditional cheese produced mainly in eastern Turkey. The cheese is produced with a mixture of civil and whey curd cheeses (lor). This mixture is pressed into goat skins or plastic bags and is ripened for more than three months. Naturally occurring moulds grow on the surface and inside of the cheese during ripening. In this research, 140 Penicillium roqueforti strains were isolated from 41 samples of mould-ripened civil cheese collected from Erzurum and around towns in eastern Turkey. All strains were capable of mycotoxin production and were analysed using an HPLC method. It was established that all the strains (albeit at very low levels) produced roquefortine C, penicillic acid, mycophenolic acid and patulin. The amounts of toxins were in the ranges 0.4-47.0, 0.2-43.6, 0.1-23.1 and 0.1-2.3 mg kg(-1), respectively. Patulin levels of the samples were lower than the others. The lowest level and highest total mycotoxin levels were determined as 1.2 and 70.1 mg kg(-1) respectively. The results of this preliminary study may help in the choice of secondary cultures for mould-ripened civil cheese and other mould-ripened cheeses.
    Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: The mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) is known to be the main contaminant of cereal grain and has become increasingly important in recent years. Therefore, a survey of ochratoxigenic fungi and OTA contamination in China is a special challenge. This paper summarises data on cereals and moulds (Aspergillus niger, Penicillium verrucosum, Aspergillus ochraceus, for example) and on grain and OTA from 1973 by searching Chinese information databases (NCKI, VIP, DuXiu etc.), calculating the OTA-producing mould detection rate, referring to sampling locations, latitude and temperature, and also combining six grain-producing areas of ochratoxigenic fungi and OTA positive rate through a comprehensive analysis. It is concluded that in China rice (excluding shell rice) has less OTA contamination than wheat or maize. The contamination of cereal grains with Aspergillus section Nigri (formerly of the A. niger group) is a serious problem in China, and these fungi may be the main ochratoxigenic fungi on cereals.
    Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: This paper deals with the migration of selected hydrocarbon contaminants, namely mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOH), diisopropyl naphthalenes (DIPN) and polyalphaolefins (PAO) from adhesives into dry semolina and egg pasta packaged in direct contact with recycled paperboard. Migration was monitored during its shelf life (for up to two years) simulating storage in a supermarket (packs on shelves) and conditions preventing exchange with the surrounding environment (packs wrapped in aluminium foil). Migration from the secondary packaging (transport boxes of corrugated board) was also studied for semolina pasta. After 24 months of exposure, semolina pasta stored on shelves reached 3.2 and 0.6 mg kg(-1) of MOSH and MOAH, respectively, Migration from the adhesives used to close the boxes and from the transport boxes contributed about 30% and 25% of the total contamination, respectively. The highest contamination levels (14.5 and 2.0 mg kg(-1) of MOSH and MOAH, respectively, after 24 months) were found in egg pasta stored on shelves (no adhesives), and seemed due to the highest contribution from the external environment.
    Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Functional barriers in food contact materials (FCMs) are used to prevent or reduce migration from inner layers in multilayer structures to food. The effectiveness of functional barrier layers was investigated in coloured polystyrene (PS) bowls due to their intended condition of use with hot liquids such as soups or chili. Migration experiments were performed over a 10 day period using FDA recommended food simulants (10% ethanol, 50% ethanol, corn oil, and Miglyol) along with several other food oils. At the end of the 10 days, solvent dyes had migrated from the polystyrene bowls at 12, 1, and 31,000 ng/cm(2) into coconut oil, palm kernel oil, and Miglyol respectively and in coconut oil and Miglyol, the colour change was visible to the human eye. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images revealed that the functional barrier was no longer intact for the bowls that were exposed to coconut oil, palm kernel oil, Miglyol, 10% ethanol, 50% ethanol, and goat's milk. Additional tests showed that 1-dodecanol, a lauryl alcohol derived from palm kernel oil and coconut oil was present in the polystyrene bowls at an average concentration of 11 mg/kg. This compound is likely to have been used as a dispersing agent for the solvent dye and aided the migration of the solvent dye from the polystyrene bowl into the food simulant. The solvent dye was not found in the 10% ethanol, 50% ethanol, and goat's milk food simulants above their respective limits of detection, which is likely to be due to its insolubility in aqueous solutions. A disrupted barrier layer is of concern because if there are unregulated materials in the inner layers of the laminate, they may migrate to food, and therefore, be considered unapproved food additives resulting in the food being deemed adulterated under the Federal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act.
    Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Challenges to testing for the illicit use of anabolic substances in meat-producing animals stem from the production of new synthetic compounds and the administration of low-dose cocktails to circumvent detection by the surveillance schemes of European Union member states. This work evaluated for the first time GR-CALUX, a highly sensitive reporter gene assay, as a screening tool for the detection of synthetic glucocorticoids in bovine urine. In order to verify the effect of natural corticosteroids on the method, the bioassay was tested first using blank urine samples collected at the farm and the slaughterhouse. Next, the dose-response curves were measured for the most commonly used synthetic glucocorticoids. The bioassay's ability to detect them in spiked and incurred samples of bovine urine was then evaluated. Finally, its performance was compared against a commercially available ELISA kit ordinarily used in screening activities. GR-CALUX performance did not appear to be influenced by physiological levels of endogenous corticosteroids in the farm samples, whereas an increase in these hormones might invalidate the analysis in samples obtained at the slaughterhouse. Using pure compounds, GR-CALUX showed a high sensitivity toward the synthetic glucocorticosteroids tested in order of relative potencies: flumethasone ≫ dexamethasone > betamethasone > methylprednisolone > prednisolone. As expected, the bioassay failed to detect the prohormone prednisone. The results obtained from analysis of the spiked and incurred specimens reproduced those of the blank samples and the pure compounds. GR-CALUX is a promising screening tool for the detection of illicit treatments in meat-producing bovines. Its ability to detect the most commonly used synthetic glucocorticoids was comparable with the ELISA test. Importantly, it appeared to be less susceptible to matrix effects than ELISA.
    Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: The paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) profiles of Gymnodinium catenatum Graham have been reported for several isolates from the Pacific coast of Mexico cultured under different laboratory conditions, as well as from natural populations. Up to 15 saxitoxin analogues occurred and the quantity of each toxin depended on the growth phase and culture conditions. Previous analysis of toxin profiles of G. catenatum isolated from Mexico have been based upon post- column oxidation liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FLD), a method prone to artifacts and non-specificity, leading to misinterpretation of toxin composition. We describe, for the first time, the complete toxin profile for several G. catenatum isolates from diverse locations of the Pacific coast of Mexico. Our new results confirmed previous reports on the dominance of the less potent sulfocarbamoyl toxins (C1/2); significant differences, however, in the composition (e.g., absence of saxitoxin, gonyautoxin 2/3, and neosaxitoxin) were revealed in our confirmatory analysis. The LC-MS/MS analyses also indicated at least seven putative benzoyl toxin analogues and provided support for their existence. This new toxin profile shows a high similarity (>80%) to the profiles reported from several regions around the world, suggesting low genetic variability among global populations.
    Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: The coccidiostat maduramicin has been approved as a feed additive for chickens and turkeys, although it is prohibited for use in laying hens. In the present study, laying hens were divided into three groups and fed for 14 days with medicated feed containing maduramicin, at three different concentrations: 50, 100 and 500 µg kg(-1). Eggs were collected during treatment and for 26 days after the end of feeding with medicated feed. Maduramicin residues were found exclusively in egg yolk, with the highest concentration in egg yolk of 459 µg kg(-1) for the highest dose. The maximum concentration of maduramicin in whole egg was 16.6 µg kg(-1) for the group receiving feed containing the maximum permitted level of maduramicin in feed (50 µg kg(-1)). The half-life of elimination of maduramicin, calculated for post-treatment days 1 to 10, was 6.5 days. Twelve days after drug administration, the concentration of the maduramicin in egg yolk for Group 3 (fed with 500 µg kg(-1) maduramicin) still exceeded 20 µg kg(-1), while the concentrations for Groups 1 and 2 were 1.2 and 2.7 µg kg(-1), respectively.
    Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: This article deals with the identification of the photodegradation products of 4-aminocarminic acid potentially present in commercial beverages. Sixteen beverages of different composition but all containing the E120 dye were previously analysed by ultra-HPLC coupled with quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry to identify the common degradation products of the E120 dye. Since it is plausible to find unauthorised 4-aminocarminic acid in beverages which report generic E120 dye on the label, retrospective analysis was employed here to search not only for the possible presence of 4-aminocarminic acid, but also to investigate the potential formation of photodegradation products derived from this compound. For this purpose, a statistical approach based on t-Student was used to compare the degraded beverages containing 4-aminocarminic acid with all the others. Five degradation products were identified and their structures were elucidated on the basis of the high-accuracy and high-resolution of mass and mass/mass spectra. The toxicity of the degradation products was evaluated through the Ames Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity assay. No evidence of mutagenicity was obtained for the beverages subjected or not to irradiation, whereas a toxic effect of the 4-aminocarminic acid standard solution already at 100.0 µg L(-1) was found. This leads, once again, to the conclusion that the toxicity study must be carried out on the beverages in order to take into account all the possible masking/protection interactions among the ingredients.
    Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Coffee remains an important agricultural product in Benguet Province, Philippines, but is highly susceptible to fungal and mycotoxin contamination in various stages of growth and processing and in different local climates. In this study, pre-harvest and post-harvest coffee bean samples from temperate and warm farming areas were assessed for their fungal and mycotoxin contaminants. One-hundred eighty five (185) fungal isolates belonging to six genera were isolated representing 88.1% of mycotoxigenic fungi. The predominant species belonged to the genus Aspergillus, which are known producers of mycotoxins. Coffee beans from the post-harvest temperate group were found to have the highest percentage mycotoxigenic contamination of 98.4% suggesting that the risk for fungal contamination is high after drying. Determination of the mycotoxins indicated 28.6% contamination. Ochratoxin A was found to be highest in dried whole cherries which contained 97.3 μg/kg, whilst sterigmatocystin was also highest in dried whole cherries at a level of 193.7 μg/kg. These results indicate that there are risks of fungal and mycotoxin contamination of Benguet coffee at the post-harvest stage.
    Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In 2010 the European Commission placed a limit on the amount of free formaldehyde in carrageenan and processed Eucheuma seaweed (PES) of 5 mg kg(-1). Formaldehyde is not used in carrageenan and PES processing and accordingly one would not expect free formaldehyde to be present in carrageenan and PES. However, surprisingly high levels up to 10 mg kg(-1) have been found using the generally accepted AOAC and Hach tests. These findings are, per proposed reaction pathways, likely due to the formation of formaldehyde when sulphated galactose, the backbone of carrageenan, is hydrolysed with the strong acid used in these conventional tests. In order to minimise the risk of false-positives, which may lead to regulatory non-compliance, a new high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed. Initially, carrageenan or PES is extracted with 2-propanol and subsequently reacted with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) to form the chromophore formaldehyde-DNPH, which is finally quantified by reversed-phase HPLC with ultraviolet light detection at 355 nm. This method has been found to have a limit of detection of 0.05 mg kg(-1) and a limit of quantification of 0.2 mg kg(-1). Recoveries from samples spiked with known quantities of formaldehyde were 95-107%. Using this more specific technique, 20 samples of carrageenan and PES were tested for formaldehyde. Only one sample had a detectable content of formaldehyde (0.40 mg kg(-1)), thus demonstrating that the formaldehyde content of commercial carrageenan and PES products are well below the European Commission maximum limit of 5 mg kg(-1).
    Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Shiitake mushrooms (Lentinula edodes) cultivated on bed-log are known to accumulate radiocesium. Since the Fukushima-Diichi nuclear power plant accident, the violation rate has been higher for log-cultivated shiitake than that for agricultural products or other foodstuffs. When testing shiitake mushrooms for radionuclide contamination, the validation of the sampling plan can be severely compromised by the heterogeneous contamination within shiitake lots. Currently, few data are available on the statistical properties of the radiocesium contamination of log-cultivated shiitake. In this paper, shiitake lots contaminated by radiocesium were identified, and the distribution of the radiocesium concentration within the lots was investigated. The risk of misclassifying shiitake lots was predicted from the operating characteristic curve generated from Monte Carlo simulations and the performance of various sampling plans was evaluated. Our study provides useful information for deciding an acceptable level of misclassification risk.
    Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Two decades ago differences in the geographic distribution of distinct trichothecene mycotoxins in wheat and barley were first recorded. The different toxicological properties of deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV) and their acetylated derivatives require careful monitoring of dynamics of these mycotoxins and their producers. The phylogenetic species concept has become a valuable tool to study the global occurrence of mycotoxin producing Fusarium species. This has revolutionized our views on the terrestrial distribution of trichothecene -producing Fusaria in the context of agronomics, climatic conditions and human interference by global trade and exchange of agricultural commodities. This paper presents an overview of the dynamics of the different trichothecene-producing Fusarium species as well as their chemotypes and genotypes across different continents. Clearly not one global population exists, but separate ones can be distinguished, sometimes even sympatric in combination with different hosts. A population with more pathogenic strains and chemotypes can replace another. Several displacement events appear to find their origin in the inadvertent introduction of new genotypes into new regions: 3-acetyl-DON producing F. graminearum in Canada; 3-acetyl-DON producing F asiaticum in Eastern China; 15-acetyl-DON F. graminearum in Uruguay and NIV producing F asiaticum in southern USA.
    Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The emerging trend towards high-resolution mass spectrometry alternatives was evaluated by the application of Orbitrap mass spectrometry for the determination of acrylamide in coffee samples. The high resolving power of the Orbitrap mass spectrometer provided the high selectivity and sensitivity that enabled quantitative analysis of acrylamide in complex matrices, such as coffee. Several sample preparation methods and scanning modes of the mass spectrometer (full MS, t-SIM, t-MS2) were assessed in order to optimise parameters of the analytical method. The final procedure involved the extraction of acrylamide with acetonitrile, solid phase extraction with dispersive PSA and amino columns, and the detection by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer (HPLC-Q-Orbitrap) operated in targeted MS2 scanning mode. The repeatability of the method at the lowest calibration level (10 μg kg(-1)), expressed as relative standard deviation, was 7.8% and the average recovery of acrylamide was 111%. The proposed method was applied to the determination of acrylamide in 22 samples of roasted coffee obtained from the Latvian retail market. Acrylamide concentration in coffee samples was in the range of 166-503 μg kg(-1).
    Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To this day, research for furan mitigation has mostly targeted the levels of food production and handling of prepared foods by the consumer. However, part of the furan concentrations found in commercially available food products might originate from chemical deterioration reactions during storage. A range of individual vegetable purées was stored at two different temperatures to investigate the effects of storage on the furan concentrations of shelf-stable, vegetable-based foods. After 5 months of storage at 35°C (temperature-abuse conditions), a general increase in furan concentrations was observed. The furan formation during storage could be reduced by storing the vegetable purées at a refrigerated temperature of 4°C, at which the furan concentrations remained approximately constant for at least 5 months. Following storage, the vegetable purées were briefly reheated to 90°C, to simulate the effect of the final preparation step before consumption. As contrary to storage, furan concentrations decreased as a result of evaporative losses. Both refrigerated storage and the reheating step prior to consumption showed the potential of mitigation measures for furan formation in vegetable-based foods (e.g. canned vegetables, ready-to-eat soups, sauces or baby foods). Next to furan, the vegetable purées were analysed for 2- and 3-methylfuran. Tomato was very susceptible to the formation of both alkylated derivatives of furan, as opposed to the other vegetables in this study. Methylfuran concentrations rapidly decreased during storage, which was contrary to the results observed for furan.
    Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 12/2014;