Population Health Management

Publisher: Mary Ann Liebert


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Mary Ann Liebert

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Publications in this journal

  • Population Health Management 10/2014; 17(5):316-317.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The objective was to understand how Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) and local health departments (LHDs) address their shared mission of improving population health by determining the scope of primary care and public health activities each provides in their community. A brief mail survey was designed and fielded among executive directors at all 14 FQHCs in Iowa, and 13 LHDs in Iowa representing counties with and without an FQHC. This survey contained a mixture of questions adapted from previously validated primary care and public health survey instruments. Using survey responses, each FQHC and LHD was given 2 scores (each ranging from 0-100) measuring the extent of their primary care and public health activities, respectively. The overall response rate was 85.2%; the response rate was 78.6% within FQHCs and 91.7% within LHDs. Overall, FQHCs had higher scores (73.8%) compared to LHDs (27.3%) on total primary care services, while both LHDs (79.3%) and FQHCs (70.9%) performed particularly well on public health services. FQHCs and LHDs in Iowa address a variety of public health and primary care issues, including but not limited to screening for chronic diseases, nutrition counseling, immunizations, and behavioral health. However, FQHCs provide a higher amount of primary care services and nearly as many public health services when compared to LHDs. In a value-based health care delivery system, integrating to improve population health is a wise strategy to maximize efficiency, but this will require maximizing coordination and minimizing duplication of services across different types of safety net providers. (Population Health Management 20xx;xx:xxx-xxx).
    Population Health Management 09/2014;
  • Population Health Management 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine if there was an association between care coordination, family-centered care, and functional ability among children with special health care needs (CSHCN). Analysis of data from the 2005-2006 National Survey of CSHCN revealed that the percentages of CSHCN receiving care coordination and family-centered care were 59.3 and 66.3, respectively. Children who did not receive care coordination had a 53% higher adjusted odds (odds ratio=1.53, 95% confidence interval 1.21-1.94, P<0.001) for a limitation in functional ability compared to CSHCN who received care coordination. Family-centered care was not associated with a limitation in functional ability in CSHCN (P=0.61). CSHCN are underserved with regard to care coordination and this appears to be associated with impaired functional ability. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm causality. (Population Health Management 2014;17:233-238).
    Population Health Management 08/2014; 17(4):233-8.
  • Population Health Management 08/2014; 17(4):199-201.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The objectives of this study were to describe patient characteristics and types of medications taken by those with poor glycemic control (A1c>7%) despite being adherent to antidiabetic medications. This is a retrospective analysis of administrative data from adult patients with diabetes enrolled in a large health plan in Hawaii (n=21,267 observations for 11,013 individuals) and adherent to their antidiabetic medications. Multivariable logistic regressions were estimated to determine characteristics and types of medications associated with poor glycemic control. Separate models were estimated to examine category of medication (insulin only, 1 oral medication, multiple oral medications, both oral medications and insulin) and specific therapeutic class of oral antidiabetic medications. Despite being adherent to their medications, 56.1% of patients had poor glycemic control. Compared to patients taking combination sulfonylureas, patients had a higher odds of having A1c>7% for all other oral diabetic medications, with odds ratios ranging from OR=2.07 for sulfonylureas alone to OR=1.33 for combination DPP-4 inhibitors. More than half of patients in this study had poor A1c control despite being adherent to their medications. This suggests that physicians, pharmacists, and other providers may need to monitor treatment regimens more carefully, encourage healthy behaviors, and intensify pharmacological treatment as needed. (Population Health Management 2014;17:218-223).
    Population Health Management 08/2014; 17(4):218-23.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Sleep deprivation and disturbances can result in lowered productivity and increased errors/accidents. Little is known about population characteristics associated with the use of sleep medications. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of sociodemographic factors with the use of sleep medications in the US population. This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study using data from the 2010 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, which contains nationally representative data from the US population. The study population included all respondents older than 18 years of age. A multiple logistic regression model was built to analyze the odds of reporting use of prescription or nonprescription sleep medication. In 2010, an estimated 19 million survey respondents (10%) used some type of medication to fall asleep. The odds of reporting use of sleep medication were significantly lower among males (odds ratio [OR]=0.695, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.599-0.808), and the uninsured (OR=0.613, 95% CI=0.439-0.855). The odds of sleep medication use were significantly higher among age groups 24-44 years and 44-64 years as compared with 18-24 years (OR=1.868, 95% CI=1.254-2.781 and OR=1.936, 95% CI=1.309-2.865, respectively), whites (OR=2.003, 95% CI=1.597-2.512) compared with African Americans, or non-Hispanics (OR=1.609, 95% CI=1.316-1.967), the unemployed (OR=1.773, 95% CI=1.496-2.101), and respondents with depression (OR=2.077, 95% CI=1.463-2.951) or anxiety (OR=6.855, 95% CI=4.998-9.403). Differences in sleep medication use were seen among specific subpopulations. Further research into why such differences exist is necessary. The factors identified in this study should be investigated further to identify vulnerable populations to determine the underlying causes of sleep disorders. (Population Health Management 2014;17:xxx-xxx).
    Population Health Management 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Between 2002 and 2007, the nonmedical use of prescription pain relievers grew from 11.0 million to 12.5 million people in the United States. Societal costs attributable to prescription opioid abuse were estimated at $55.7 billion in 2007. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively review the recent clinical and economic evaluations of prescription opioid abuse. A comprehensive literature search was conducted for studies published from 2002 to 2012. Articles were included if they were original research studies in English that reported the clinical and economic burden associated with prescription opioid abuse. A total of 23 studies (183 unique citations identified, 54 articles subjected to full text review) were included in this review and analysis. Findings from the review demonstrated that rates of opioid overdose-related deaths ranged from 5528 deaths in 2002 to 14,800 in 2008. Furthermore, overdose reportedly results in 830,652 years of potential life lost before age 65. Opioid abusers were generally more likely to utilize medical services, such as emergency department, physician outpatient visits, and inpatient hospital stays, relative to non-abusers. When compared to a matched control group (non-abusers), mean annual excess health care costs for opioid abusers with private insurance ranged from $14,054 to $20,546. Similarly, the mean annual excess health care costs for opioid abusers with Medicaid ranged from $5874 to $15,183. The issue of opioid abuse has significant clinical and economic consequences for patients, health care providers, commercial and government payers, and society as a whole. (Population Health Management 2014;17:xxx-xxx).
    Population Health Management 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Pharmacists have unique skills that may benefit primary care practices. The objective of this demonstration project was to determine the impact of integrating pharmacists into patient-centered medical homes, with a focus on population management. Pharmacists were partnered into 5 primary care practices in Vermont 1 day per week to provide direct patient care, population-based medication management, and prescriber education. The main measures included a description of drug therapy problems identified and cost avoidance models. The pharmacists identified 708 drug therapy problems through direct patient care (336/708; 47.5%), population-based strategies (276/708; 38.9%), and education (96/708; 13.6%). Common population-based strategies included adjusting doses and discontinuing unnecessary medications. Pharmacists' recommendations to correct drug therapy problems were accepted by prescribers 86% of the time, when data about acceptance were known. Of the 49 recommendations not accepted, 47/49 (96%) were population-based and 2/49 (4%) were related to direct patient care. The cost avoidance model suggests $2.11 in cost was avoided for every $1.00 spent on a pharmacist ($373,092/$176,690). There was clear value in integrating pharmacists into primary care teams. Their inclusion prevented adverse drug events, avoided costs, and improved patient outcomes. Primary care providers should consider pharmacists well suited to offer direct patient care, population-based management, and prescriber education to their practices. To be successful, pharmacists must have full permission to document findings in the primary care practices' electronic health records. Given that many pharmacist services do not involve billable activities, sustainability requires identifying alternative funding mechanisms that do not rely on a traditional fee-for-service approach. (Population Health Management 20xx;xx:xxx-xxx).
    Population Health Management 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The authors analyzed historical claims data from 2007 to 2011 from the Vermont All-Payer Claims database for all individuals covered by commercial insurance and Medicaid to determine per capita inpatient expenditures, cost per discharge, and cost per inpatient day. The authors further evaluated the proportion of all health care expenditure allocated to mental health, maternity care, surgical services, and medical services. Although utilization of inpatient services declined during the study period, cost per discharge and cost per inpatient day increased in a compensatory manner. Although the utilization of inpatient services by the Medicaid population decreased by 8%, cost per discharge increased by 84%. Among the commercially insured, discharges per 1000 members were essentially unchanged during the study period and inpatient cost per discharge increased by a relatively modest 32%. The relative utilization of mental health, maternity care, surgical services, and medical services was unchanged during the study period. The significant increase in the cost of inpatient services increased the proportion of total expenditure on surgical services from 21% in 2007 to 33% in 2011. The authors conclude that although health care providers are increasingly being assessed on their ability to control health care costs while achieving better outcomes, there are many cost drivers that are outside of their control. Efforts to assess initiatives, such as patient-centered medical homes, should be focused on utilization trends and outcomes rather than cost or, at a minimum, reflect cost drivers that physicians and other providers cannot influence. (Population Health Management 2014;xx:xxx-xxx).
    Population Health Management 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The Texas Breast and Cervical Cancer Services (BCCS) program was established to address the socioeconomic disparities in stage at diagnosis and outcomes among breast cancer patients. This study examines the impact of Texas BCCS on stage at diagnosis among low socioeconomic status (SES) breast cancer patients. This is a retrospective analysis of women aged 40-64 years who were screened and diagnosed with breast cancer through the Texas BCCS program (participants) as compared with similar women living in low-SES census tracts and diagnosed outside the program (comparison group) during 1995-2008. Incident cases among the participants were compared with the comparison group as well. Stage at diagnosis was also analyzed separately for the years 1995-2002 and 2003-2008 in order to estimate the effect of BCCS-related Medicaid expansion in 2002. Over the study period of 1995-2008, BCCS participants had a 1.23 (P value<0.0001) times higher odds, and BCCS incident cases had 40% (P value<0.0001) lower odds of advanced stage at diagnosis as compared with the comparison group. A statistically significant difference in stage at diagnosis between the participants and the comparison group only existed for the 2003-2008 (post-Medicaid) period (odds ratio: 1.39, P value<0.0001). Texas BCCS program acts as a source of diagnosis and treatment access to many suspected cancer cases, especially since the 2002 Medicaid expansion, leading to more advanced stage at diagnosis among the BCCS cases as compared with other low-SES cases. Significant expansion of the program to serve a higher proportion of the eligible population is needed to achieve its goals as a screening program. (Population Health Management 2014;17:xxx-xxx).
    Population Health Management 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Electronic medical records (EMRs) can be a valuable tool in evaluating interventions involving faith-based institutions. Working with EMRs is complex. Methodological designs that can be used by public health and health administrators to assess the effectiveness of interventions are lacking. The study team conducted a formative evaluation of the Congregational Health Network (CHN) using propensity matching and Cox proportional hazard models to examine health outcomes and readmission rates. Along with CHN's relevance in addressing the needs of the most vulnerable population, factors are discussed that must be taken into consideration when designing such methodologies as well as limitations that merit attention from public health researchers and hospital administrators interested in conducting a formative evaluation using existing data to track the effectiveness of an intervention. (Population Health Management 2014;xx:xxx-xxx).
    Population Health Management 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Telemonitoring provides a potentially useful tool for disease and case management of those patients who are likely to benefit from frequent and regular monitoring by health care providers. Since 2008, Geisinger Health Plan (GHP) has implemented a telemonitoring program that specifically targets those members with heart failure. This study assesses the impact of this telemonitoring program by examining claims data of those GHP Medicare Advantage plan members who were enrolled in the program, measuring its impact in terms of all-cause hospital admission rates, readmission rates, and total cost of care. The results indicate significant reductions in probability of all-cause admission (odds ratio [OR] 0.77; P<0.01), 30-day and 90-day readmission (OR 0.56, 0.62; P<0.05), and cost of care (11.3%; P<0.05). The estimated return on investment was 3.3. These findings imply that telemonitoring can be an effective add-on tool for managing elderly patients with heart failure. (Population Health Management 2014;xx:xxx-xxx).
    Population Health Management 05/2014;
  • Population Health Management 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate an Emergency Room having a Decision-Support (ERDS) program designed to appropriately reduce ER use among frequent users, defined as 3 or more visits within a 12-month period. To achieve this, adults with an AARP Medicare Supplement Insurance plan insured by UnitedHealthcare Insurance Company (for New York residents, UnitedHealthcare Insurance Company of New York) were eligible to participate in the program. These included 7070 individuals who elected to enroll in the ERDS program and an equal number of matched nonparticipants who were eligible but either declined or were unreachable. Program-related benefits were estimated by comparing the difference in downstream health care utilization and expenditures between engaged and not engaged individuals after using propensity score matching to adjust for case mix differences between these groups. As a result, compared with the not engaged, engaged individuals experienced better care coordination, evidenced by a greater reduction in ER visits (P=0.033) and hospital admissions (P=0.002) and an increase in office visits (P<0.001). The program was cost-effective, with a return on investment (ROI) of 1.24, which was calculated by dividing the total program savings ($3.41 million) by the total program costs ($2.75 million). The ROI implies that for every dollar invested in this program, $1.24 was saved, most of which was for the federal Medicare program. In conclusion, the decrease in ER visits and hospital admissions and the increase in office visits may indicate the program helped individuals to seek the appropriate levels of care. (Population Health Management 2014;xx:xxx-xxx).
    Population Health Management 05/2014;
  • Population Health Management 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The objective was to estimate health care costs and utilization for Medicare beneficiaries with type 1 (T1DM) or type 2 (T2DM) diabetes and their respective matched control cohorts. A retrospective claims cohort analysis was used to assess direct health care cost and utilization of health services in 2009 for patients aged 65-89 who were enrolled in a Medicare Advantage Plus prescription drug plan. Patients were matched 1:1 with patients without diabetes. All-cause health care costs for 2009 were calculated as the sum of all medical and pharmacy claims. The analysis included 6562 patients with T1DM and an equal number of matched controls, and 194,775 patients with T2DM and an equal number of matched controls. There were no significant demographic differences between cohorts for matched variables. Patients with T2DM had significantly higher mean Deyo/Charlson Comorbidity Index scores compared with their controls (2.47 versus 0.77; P<0.001), although all groups reported a high rate of costly comorbidities such as hypertension and heart disease. Mean all-cause health care costs per patient per year were significantly higher for patients with T1DM and T2DM versus controls for inpatient hospitalizations; outpatient, office, and emergency room visits; pharmacy expenditures; and total health care costs for 2009 (T1DM group: $20,701±$30,201; T1DM-matched control group: $6,537±$10,441; T2DM group: $10,437±$18,518; T2DM-matched control group: $6,505±$11,140). Diabetes escalates health care costs for Medicare Advantage Plus patients compared with patients in the same plan without diabetes, regardless of comorbidities. (Population Health Management 2014;xx:xxx-xxx).
    Population Health Management 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract In the United States, patient usage of costly emergency departments (EDs) has been portrayed as a major factor contributing to health care expenditures. The homeless are associated with ED frequent users, a population often blamed for inappropriate ED use. This study examined the characteristics and costs associated with homeless ED frequent users. A retrospective cross-sectional review of hospital records for ED visits in 2006 at an urban academic medical center was performed. Frequent users were defined as having greater than 4 ED visits in one year. Homeless status was determined by self-report and review by an interdisciplinary team. A total of 5440 (8.9%) ED visits were made by 542 frequent users, 74 (13.7%) of whom were homeless and made 845 ED visits. Homeless frequent users had a median age of 47 years (39-56 interquartile range), were predominantly male (85.1%), and insured by Medicaid (59.5%). Most (44.2%) visits by homeless frequent users occurred between 1500-2259 hours and had an Emergency Severity Index of Level 3 (55.5%). Sixty-four percent of visits resulted in homeless patients being discharged back to the street; only 4.0% had a specific discharge plan addressing homelessness. Total charges and payments for all homeless frequent users were $4,812,615 and $802,600, respectively. The single top frequent user accrued charges of $482,928. ED frequent users are disproportionately homeless and their costs are significant. ED discharge planning should address the additional risks faced by homeless individuals. ED-based interventions that specifically target the most expensive homeless frequent users may prove to be cost-effective. (Population Health Management 2014;xx:xxx-xxx).
    Population Health Management 05/2014;
  • Population Health Management 05/2014;

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