Population Health Management

Publisher: Mary Ann Liebert

Description

  • Impact factor
    1.18
  • 5-year impact
    1.21
  • Cited half-life
    2.70
  • Immediacy index
    0.14
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.43
  • ISSN
    1942-7905
  • OCLC
    231763671
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Mary Ann Liebert

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    • Author cannot archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Author's final version or publisher's version/PDF
    • Publisher's version/PDF may be used
    • On author's personal website, institution's intranet, or institutional repository
    • Authors may deposit in funder's designated repository after 12 months
    • Set statement to accompany deposit (see policy)
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged
    • NIH authors will have their final paper, (post peer review, copy-editing and proof-reading) deposited in PubMed Central on their behalf
  • Classification
    ​ blue

Publications in this journal

  • Population Health Management 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The objective of this study is to examine how much of the relationships between unhealthy body weight, and health and productivity outcomes are attributable to health status, and how much can be ameliorated by weight loss or improvements in health. Cross-sectional and first-difference regressions were conducted of employees' body mass index (BMI) category, illness absences, presenteeism, medical spending, and disability leaves. Employees in the obese BMI category have significantly worse outcomes than employees in the healthy and overweight BMI categories. Controlling for physical and emotional health status mediates much of the observed relationships. Improved health, stress, and psychological distress are associated with reduced illness absence and presenteeism among overweight and obese employees. Obese employees who lost weight experienced reduced presenteeism. The findings suggest that overweight and obese employees can realize improved productivity without weight loss. (Population Health Management 2014;xx:xxx-xxx).
    Population Health Management 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The purpose of this retrospective, longitudinal study was to assess longitudinal associations between modifiable health risks and workplace absenteeism and presenteeism and to estimate lost productivity costs. Across the 4-year study period (2007-2010), 17,089 unique employees from a large US computer manufacturer with a highly technical workforce completed at least 1 health risk assessment. Generalized estimating equation models were used to estimate the mean population-level absenteeism and presenteeism for 11 modifiable health risks and adjust for 9 sociodemographic and employment-related factors. Because patient age was highly correlated with several other variables, the analysis was stratified by age (<45 vs. ≥45 years). For all ages, poor emotional health, inadequate exercise, tobacco use, and having a body mass index (BMI) greater than 35 (all P<.05) were consistently associated with both absenteeism and presenteeism. Having a BMI over 35 and poor emotional health were associated with the largest impact in absenteeism (0.46 days) and presenteeism (4.03 days), respectively. Younger and older workers had similar associations between health risks and presenteeism; however, hypertension, blood sugar, inadequate exercise, and alcohol were associated (P⪕.01) with greater absenteeism among older but not younger workers. The results suggest that productivity loss is strongly related to emotional health and obesity-related health risks (eg, BMI, exercise) but differs by age. These findings could help prioritize preventive health programs offered by employers at their worksite health centers. Given the aging of the US workforce, keeping older workers healthy and productive will be crucial to remaining competitive in the global economy. (Population Health Management 2014;xx:xxx-xxx).
    Population Health Management 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract In the chronic care model, a missed appointment decreases continuity, adversely affects practice efficiency, and can harm quality of care. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of a missed appointment and develop a model to predict an individual's likelihood of missing an appointment. The research team performed a retrospective study in an urban, academic, underserved outpatient internal medicine clinic from January 2008 to June 2011. A missed appointment was defined as either a "no-show" or cancellation within 24 hours of the appointment time. Both patient and visit variables were considered. The patient population was randomly divided into derivation and validation sets (70/30). A logistic model from the derivation set was applied in the validation set. During the period of study, 11,546 patients generated 163,554 encounters; 45% of appointments in the derivation sample were missed. In the logistic model, percent previously missed appointments, wait time from booking to appointment, season, day of the week, provider type, and patient age, sex, and language proficiency were all associated with a missed appointment. The strongest predictors were percentage of previously missed appointments and wait time. Older age and non-English proficiency both decreased the likelihood of missing an appointment. In the validation set, the model had a c-statistic of 0.71, and showed no gross lack of fit (P=0.63), indicating acceptable calibration. A simple risk factor model can assist in predicting the likelihood that an individual patient will miss an appointment. (Population Health Management 2014;xx:xxx-xxx).
    Population Health Management 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The objective of this study was to examine the utility of using electronic health record (EHR) data for periodic community health surveillance of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors through 2 research questions. First, how many years of EHR data are needed to produce reliable estimates of key population-level CVD health indicators for a community? Second, how comparable are the EHR estimates relative to those from community screenings? The study takes place in the context of the Heart of New Ulm Project, a 10-year population health initiative designed to reduce myocardial infarctions and CVD risk factor burden in a rural community. The community is served by 1 medical center that includes a clinic and hospital. The project screened adult residents of New Ulm for CVD risk factors in 2009. EHR data for 3 years prior to the heart health screenings were extracted for patients from the community. Single- and multiple-year EHR prevalence estimates were compared for individuals ages 40-79 years (N=5918). EHR estimates also were compared to screening estimates (N=3123). Single-year compared with multiyear EHR data prevalence estimates were sufficiently precise for this rural community. EHR and screening prevalence estimates differed significantly-systolic blood pressure (BP) (124.0 vs. 128.9), diastolic BP (73.3 vs. 79.2), total cholesterol (186.0 vs. 201.0), body mass index (30.2 vs. 29.5), and smoking (16.6% vs. 8.2%)-suggesting some selection bias depending on the method used. Despite differences between data sources, EHR data may be a useful source of population health surveillance to inform and evaluate local population health initiatives. (Population Health Management 2014;xx:xxx-xxx).
    Population Health Management 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract This retrospective cohort study evaluated associations of race/ethnicity and gender with outcomes of diabetes complications severity, health care resource utilization (HRU), and costs among Medicare Advantage health plan members with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Medical and pharmacy claims were evaluated for 333,576 members continuously enrolled from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2011, aged 18-89 years, with ≥1 primary diagnosis medical claim, or ≥2 claims with a secondary diagnosis of T2DM (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code 250.x0 or 250.x2). Complications severity assessment by Diabetes Complications Severity Index ranged from 0 (no complications) to 5+. Mean (SD) all-cause medical, pharmacy, and total costs were reported alongside all-cause HRU by place of service (outpatient, inpatient, emergency room [ER]) and number of visits. Multivariate regression showed being Hispanic, black, or male was associated with higher prevalence of more severe complications. This racial/ethnic disparity was more pronounced among females, among whom odds of having more severe complications were higher for Hispanic and black as compared to white females [(Hispanic vs. white odds ratio [OR], 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32-1.48), and (black vs. white OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.19-1.25)]. Regardless of gender, blacks had more ER visits than whites. White females incurred the highest total health care costs (mean annual costs: $13,086; 95% CI, $12,935-$13,240, vs. Hispanic females: $10,732; 95% CI, $10,406-$11,067). These effects held regardless of other demographic and clinical attributes. These findings suggest racial/ethnic and gender differences exist in certain T2DM clinical and economic outcomes. (Population Health Management 20xx;xx:xxx-xxx).
    Population Health Management 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The 2011 Institute of Medicine report on LGBT health recommended that sexual orientation and gender identity (SO/GI) be documented in electronic health records (EHRs). Most EHRs cannot document all aspects of SO/GI, but some can record gender of sexual partners. This study sought to determine the proportion of patients who have the gender of sexual partners recorded in the EHR and to identify factors associated with documentation. A retrospective analysis was done of EHR data for 40 family medicine (FM) and general internal medicine (IM) practices, comprising 170,570 adult patients seen in 2012. The primary outcome was EHR documentation of sexual partner gender. Multivariate logistic regression assessed the impact of patient, provider, and practice factors on documentation. In all, 76,767 patients (45%) had the gender of sexual partners recorded, 4.3% of whom had same-gender partners (3.5% of females, 5.6% of males). Likelihood of documentation was independently higher for women; blacks; those with a preventive visit; those with a physician assistant, nurse practitioner, or resident primary care provider (vs. attending); those at urban practices; those at smaller practices; and those at a residency FM practice. Older age and Medicare insurance were associated with lower documentation. Sexual partner gender documentation is important to identify patients for targeted prevention and support, and holds great potential for population health management, yet documentation in the EHR currently is low. Primary care practices should routinely record the gender of sexual partners, and additional work is needed to identify best practices for collecting and using SO/GI data in this setting.
    Population Health Management 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Hypertension is a prevalent chronic disease that requires ongoing management and self-care. The disease affects 31% of American adults and contributed to or caused the deaths of 348,000 Americans in 2008, fewer than 50% of whom effectively self-managed the disease. However, self-management is complex, with patients requiring ongoing support and easy access to care. Telehealth may help foster the knowledge and skills necessary for those with hypertension to engage in successful self-management. This paper considers the applicability, efficacy, associated risks, and cost-effectiveness of telehealth for individuals and populations with hypertension. Telehealth is a broad term, encompassing telemedicine and mobile health that is used for physician-patient interactions, diagnostics, care delivery, education, information sharing, monitoring, and reminders. Telemedicine may have considerable utility for people diagnosed with hypertension who have poor access or social barriers that constrain access, but potential risks exist. Telehealth technology is evolving rapidly, even in the absence of fully proven cost-effectiveness and efficacy. Considering the cost of inpatient and emergency department care for patients with hypertension, telehealth is a highly attractive alternative, but there are risks to consider. Incorporating telehealth, which is increasingly characterized by mobile health, can increase both the capacity of health care providers and the reach of patient support, clinical management, and self-care. Telehealth studies need improvement; long-term outcome data on cardiovascular events must be obtained, and robust risk analyses and economic studies are needed to prospectively evaluate the safety and cost savings for hypertension self-management. (Population Health Management 2014;xx:xxx-xxx).
    Population Health Management 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The health and economic burden of obesity among elderly individuals with asthma has not been adequately studied. This study assessed the association between obesity and asthma among the elderly and examined the impact of obesity on asthma-related and total health care costs among elderly individuals with asthma. This was a retrospective analysis of the 2006-2010 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) data. Individuals aged 65 years or older were included in the study. Individuals with asthma were identified by an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code of 493 or a Clinical Classification Code of 128. Individuals with a self-reported body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2) were considered to be obese. Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between obesity and asthma. Generalized linear models with gamma distribution and log link were used to assess the relationship between obesity and asthma-related and total direct medical costs. All analyses were conducted while accounting for the complex survey design of MEPS. In all, 675 elderly individuals were identified as having asthma, 292 of whom were obese. Obese elderly individuals were more likely to suffer from asthma as compared to the nonobese (odds ratio, 1.71; 95% confidence interval [CI],1.37-2.12). Obesity was a significant predictor of asthma-related costs (β: 0.537; 95% CI: 0.18-0.89; P= 0.003) and total health care costs (β: 0.154; 95% CI: 0.08-0.23; P=0.001) among elderly individuals with asthma after controlling for sociodemographics and comorbidities. Appropriate weight management measures should be recommended to obese elderly individuals with asthma to improve asthma control and reduce health care costs. (Population Health Management 2014;xx:xxx-xxx).
    Population Health Management 10/2014;
  • Population Health Management 10/2014; 17(5):316-317.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract When given the opportunity to become actively involved in the decision-making process, patients can positively impact their health outcomes. Understanding how to empower patients to become informed consumers of health care services is an important strategy for addressing disparities and variability in care. Patient credentialing identifies people who have a certain diagnosis and have achieved certain levels of competency in understanding and managing their disease. Patient credentialing was developed to meet 3 core purposes: (1) enhance patient engagement by increasing personal accountability for health outcomes, (2) create a mass customization strategy for providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered collaborative care, and (3) provide payers with a foundation for properly aligning health benefit incentives. The Patient Self-Management Credential for Diabetes, a first-of-its-kind, psychometrically validated tool, has been deployed within 3 practice-based research initiatives as a component of innovative diabetes care. Results from these projects show improved clinical outcomes, reduced health care costs, and a relationship between credential achievement levels and clinical markers of diabetes. Implementing patient credentialing as part of collaborative care delivered within various settings across the health care system may be an effective way to reduce disparities, improve access to care and appropriate treatments, incentivize patient engagement in managing their health, and expend time and resources in a customized way to meet individual needs. (Population Health Management 2014;xx:xxx-xxx).
    Population Health Management 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Back pain is one of the most common reasons for seeking care, and physical therapy (PT) can be an effective treatment option. However, PT coverage for back pain varies widely among private health plans, usually requiring high cost sharing, thereby potentially leading to member dissatisfaction and worse outcomes. In this study, a quasi-experimental design was used to estimate the impact of a new value-based insurance design for back pain-related PT on selected Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems survey items. Under this design, eligible members receive a bundle of 5 PT sessions for a 1-time co-payment; if deemed necessary, the bundle is renewable for 1 additional co-payment. The results indicate that the proportion of members reporting the highest satisfaction rating was higher by about 6 to 10 percentage points among those who received the PT bundle. The data also indicate that those PT bundle members who reported the highest satisfaction rating had improvements in their functional status scores that were roughly 3 to 4 times higher than those who reported a lower satisfaction rating. These findings suggest that providing a value-based insurance design for back pain-related PT can potentially improve health plan members' care experiences and their overall satisfaction. Further study is needed to determine its impact on back pain-related medical care utilization and cost of care. (Population Health Management 2014;xx:xxx-xxx).
    Population Health Management 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model is considered a promising approach to improving population health, but how elements of these advanced practice models relate to population health capability is unknown. To measure associations between family physicians' performance of population management with PCMH components, a cross-sectional survey was conducted with physicians accessing the American Board of Family Medicine Web site in 2011. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression tested associations between physician and practice demographics and specific PCMH features. The primary outcome was performance of population management. The final sample included 3855 physicians, 37.3% of whom reported performing population management. Demographic characteristics significantly associated with greater use of population management were female sex and graduation from an international medical school. PCMH components that remained associated with population management after adjustment were access to clinical case managers (odds ratio [OR]=2.01, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.69, 2.39), behavioral health collaboration (OR=1.49, 95% CI: 1.26, 1.77), having an electronic health record that supports meaningful use (OR=1.47, 95% CI: 1.25, 1.74), recent participation in a quality improvement project (OR=2.47, 95% CI: 2.12, 2.89), and routine measurement of patient difficulty securing an appointment (OR=2.87, 95% CI: 2.45, 3.37). Performance of population management was associated with several PCMH elements and resources not present in traditional primary care offices. Attention to these elements likely will enhance delivery of population management services in primary care. (Population Health Management 2014;xx:xxx-xxx).
    Population Health Management 09/2014;
  • Population Health Management 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract This study purports to examine the relationship of depression with physical activity, disability, arthritis-attributable burden (joint limitation, work limitation, social activity limitation, and joint pain), and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among arthritis patients. Data from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a nationally representative sample of noninstitutionalized adults in the United States, was used for the purpose of this study. Multivariable logistic regression was employed to address the study objectives. The final study sample included 167,068 arthritis patients, 45,459 of whom had comorbid depression. Arthritis patients with depression had lower odds of engaging in physical activity (odds ratio [OR]=1.070, confidence interval [CI] 1.006-1.139) and higher odds of being disabled (OR=1.411, CI 1.306-1.524). Arthritis patients with depression also had greater odds of arthritis-attributable joint limitations (OR=1.551, CI 1.460-1.648), work limitations (OR=1.506, CI 1.414-1.604), social activity limitations (OR=1.647, CI 1.557-1.742), and pain (OR=1.438, CI 1.364-1.517) as compared to those without depression. Arthritis patients with versus without depression had greater odds of poor general health status (OR=1.698, CI 1.586-1.819), physical HRQOL (OR=1.592, CI 1.486-1.704), mental HRQOL (OR=6.225, CI 5.768-6.718), and activity limitations (OR=2.345, CI 2.168-2.537). Study results indicate toward a negative functional impact of depression among arthritis patients. Policy makers should consider incorporating screening and management of depression into routine clinical care of arthritis patients. (Population Health Management 2014;xx:xxx-xxx).
    Population Health Management 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate medication adherence, medical services utilization, and combined medical and pharmacy expenditures associated with diabetes and hypertension value-based insurance design (VBID) plus health/disease coaching programs implemented by a large employer. A pre/post participant versus nonparticipant study design was used to measure medication possession ratios (MPRs), inpatient admissions, emergency room utilization, and combined medical and pharmacy expenditures for employees/spouses with diabetes (n=1090; average 23 months follow-up) and hypertension (n=3254; average 13 months follow-up) participating in a VBID plus health/disease coaching relative to eligible nonparticipants. Outcome measures were propensity score weighted and regression adjusted to estimate the independent impact of the programs. MPRs for diabetes and hypertension were significantly increased 3 to 4 percentage points for VBID participants, while MPRs for respective nonparticipants decreased by about 10 percentage points. Employer-paid pharmacy expenditures increased significantly for both participants with diabetes and hypertension while out-of-pocket patient co-payments decreased significantly. Medical expenditures for diabetes VBID participants decreased but not significantly. Hypertension participants experienced medical expenditure increases. Medical services utilization of inpatient admissions and emergency room visits underwent minimal change. Thus employer-sponsored diabetes and hypertension VBID plus health/disease coaching programs can be expected to lower patient co-payments and significantly increase medication adherence. Meanwhile, medical spending outcomes indicated that increased diabetes and hypertension pharmacy expenditures were partially offset by medical savings (for diabetes) but not sufficiently to be cost neutral. (Population Health Management 2014;xx:xxx-xxx).
    Population Health Management 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract To inform the design of an integrated health and social service program that will better coordinate care for individuals dually eligible for Medicare and Medicaid, a qualitative study was conducted using 13 focus groups. Participants consisted of a purposeful sample of dually eligible individuals (1) aged 65+ years (8 focus groups: N=71), and (2) aged 18-64 years with disabilities (5 focus groups: N=45), recruited in collaboration with the Connecticut Legislature's Medical Assistance Program Oversight Council and numerous community-based agencies across the state. Older adult participants included nursing home residents, community-dwelling healthy individuals and individuals with chronic illness or disability, family members of individuals with chronic illness or disability, and 1 community-dwelling group of Spanish-speakers. Younger adult participants included persons with physical, intellectual/developmental, and/or mental health disabilities, and parents, case managers, nurses, and residential managers of persons with intellectual/developmental disabilities. Through the constant comparative method, results clustered in 4 domains: current experiences, care coordination, consumer protection, and elements of an ideal health care program. Significant findings include difficulty finding providers who accept Medicare/Medicaid, medication management, age and racial/ethnic discrimination, and care coordination. Findings highlight the policy implications of designing a person-centered, coordinated dual coverage system. Desired elements of an ideal system include greater choice in providers of all types, including culturally competent medical and home care providers, increased coordination among medical providers and between medical and home care/social service providers, and a prominent role for pharmacists in counseling participants and in serving as part of care coordination teams. (Population Health Management 2014;xx:xxx-xxx).
    Population Health Management 09/2014;
  • Population Health Management 09/2014;
  • Population Health Management 09/2014;