Journal of Applied Psychology

Publisher: American Psychological Association


  • Impact factor
  • 5-year impact
  • Cited half-life
  • Immediacy index
  • Eigenfactor
  • Article influence
  • Other titles
    Journal of applied psychology (Online), Journal of applied psychology
  • ISSN
  • OCLC
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

American Psychological Association

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
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    • Author can archive a post-print version
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    • Copy of authors final peer-reviewed manuscript as accepted for publication
    • Post-print on author's web-site or employers server only, after acceptance
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to APA journal home page or article DOI
    • Article must include the following statement: 'This article may not exactly replicate the final version published in the APA journal. It is not the copy of record.'
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • APA will submit NIH author articles to PubMed Central, after author completion of form
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Social networks can be important sources of information and insights that may spark employee creativity. The cross-fertilization of ideas depends not just on access to information and insights through one’s direct network – the people one actually interacts with – but at least as much on access to the indirect network one’s direct ties connect one to (i.e., people one does not interact with directly, but with whom one’s direct ties interact). We propose that the reach efficiency of this indirect network – its non-redundancy in terms of interconnections – is positively related to individual creativity. To help specify the boundaries of this positive influence of the indirect network, we also explore how many steps removed the indirect network still adds to creativity. In addition, we propose that the efficiency (non-redundancy) of one’s direct network is important here, because more efficient direct networks give one access to indirect networks with greater reach efficiency. Our hypotheses were supported in a multilevel analysis of multisource survey data from 223 sales representatives nested within 11 divisions of a Chinese pharmaceutical company. This analysis also showed that the creative benefits of reach efficiency were evident for three and four degrees of separation but were greatest for indirect ties that depend only on one’s direct ties.
    Journal of Applied Psychology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Employee psychological empowerment is widely accepted as a means for organizations to compete in increasingly dynamic environments. Previous empirical research and meta-analyses have demonstrated that employee psychological empowerment is positively related to several attitudinal and behavioral outcomes including job performance. While this research positions psychological empowerment as an antecedent influencing such outcomes, a close examination of the literature reveals that this relationship is primarily based on cross-sectional research. Notably, evidence supporting the presumed benefits of empowerment has failed to account for potential reciprocal relationships and endogeneity effects. Accordingly, using a multiwave, time-lagged design, we model reciprocal relationships between psychological empowerment and job performance using a sample of 441 nurses from 5 hospitals. Incorporating temporal effects in a staggered research design and using structural equation modeling techniques, our findings provide support for the conventional positive correlation between empowerment and subsequent performance. Moreover, accounting for the temporal stability of variables over time, we found support for empowerment levels as positive influences on subsequent changes in performance. Finally, we also found support for the reciprocal relationship, as performance levels were shown to relate positively to changes in empowerment over time. Theoretical and practical implications of the reciprocal psychological empowerment-performance relationships are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
    Journal of Applied Psychology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to understand how an important construct in social psychology-confidence in one's beliefs-could both (a) influence the effectiveness of organizations' recruiting processes and (b) be changed during recruitment. Using a sample of recruits to a branch of the United States military, the authors studied belief confidence before and after recruits' formal visits to the organization's recruiting stations. Personal sources of information had a stronger influence on recruits' belief confidence than impersonal sources. Moreover, recruits' confidence in their initial beliefs affected how perceptions of the recruiter changed their employer images. Among participants with low-initial confidence, the relation between recruitment experiences and employer images was positive and linear across the whole range of recruitment experiences. Among recruits with high-initial confidence, however, the recruitment experience-image relationship was curvilinear, such that recruitment experiences were related to images only at more positive recruitment experiences. The relationship between recruitment experiences and changes in belief confidence was also curvilinear, such that only more positive recruitment experiences led to changes in confidence. These results indicate not only that belief confidence influences the effectiveness of recruiting efforts but also that recruiting efforts can influence belief confidence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
    Journal of Applied Psychology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Range restriction is a common problem in personnel selection and other contexts in applied psychology. For many years researchers have used corrections that assume range restriction was direct, even when it was known that range restriction was indirect. Hunter, Schmidt, and Le (2006) proposed a new correction for cases of indirect range restriction that greatly increases its potential usefulness due to its reduced information requirements compared to alternatives. The current study examines the applicability of Hunter et al.'s correction to settings where its assumed structural model is violated by including the measures that are to be involved in corrections in the original selection composite. We conclude that Hunter et al.'s correction should generally be preferred when compared to its common alternative, Thorndike's Case II correction for direct range restriction. However, this is due to the likely violation of one of the other assumptions of the Hunter et al. correction in most applied settings. Correction mechanisms and practical implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
    Journal of Applied Psychology 07/2014; 99(4):587-598.
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    ABSTRACT: Integrating leader-member exchange (LMX) research with role engagement theory (Kahn, 1990) and role system theory (Katz & Kahn, 1978), we propose a multilevel, dual process model to understand the mechanisms through which LMX quality at the individual level and LMX differentiation at the team level simultaneously affect individual and team performance. With regard to LMX differentiation, we introduce a new configural approach focusing on the pattern of LMX differentiation to complement the traditional approach focusing on the degree of LMX differentiation. Results based on multiphase, multisource data from 375 employees of 82 teams revealed that, at the individual level, LMX quality positively contributed to customer-rated employee performance through enhancing employee role engagement. At the team level, LMX differentiation exerted negative influence on teams' financial performance through disrupting team coordination. In particular, teams with the bimodal form of LMX configuration (i.e., teams that split into 2 LMX-based subgroups with comparable size) suffered most in team performance because they experienced greatest difficulty in coordinating members' activities. Furthermore, LMX differentiation strengthened the relationship between LMX quality and role engagement, and team coordination strengthened the relationship between role engagement and employee performance. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
    Journal of Applied Psychology 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Drawing on the group-norms theory of organizational citizenship behaviors and person-environment fit theory, we introduce and test a multilevel model of the effects of additive and dispersion composition models of team members' personality characteristics on group norms and individual helping behaviors. Our model was tested using regression and random coefficients modeling on 102 research and development teams. Results indicated that high mean levels of extraversion are positively related to individual helping behaviors through the mediating effect of cooperative group norms. Further, low variance on agreeableness (supplementary fit) and high variance on extraversion (complementary fit) promote the enactment of individual helping behaviors, but only the effects of extraversion were mediated by cooperative group norms. Implications of these findings for theories of helping behaviors in teams are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
    Journal of Applied Psychology 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We integrate deontological ethics (Folger, 1998, 2001; Kant, 1785/1948, 1797/1991) with conservation of resources theory (Hobfoll, 1989) to propose that an employee's repeated exposure to violations of moral principle can diminish the availability of resources to appropriately attend to other personal and work domains. In particular, we identify customer unethical behavior as a morally charged work demand that leads to a depletion of resources as captured by employee emotional exhaustion. In turn, emotionally exhausted employees experience higher levels of work-family conflict, relationship conflict with coworkers, and job neglect. Employee emotional exhaustion serves as the mediator between customer unethical behavior and such outcomes. To provide further evidence of a deontological effect, we demonstrate the unique effect of customer unethical behavior onto emotional exhaustion beyond perceptions of personal mistreatment and trait negative affectivity. In Study 1, we found support for our theoretical model using multisource field data from customer-service professionals across a variety of industries. In Study 2, we also found support for our theoretical model using multisource, longitudinal field data from service employees in a large government organization. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
    Journal of Applied Psychology 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Despite widespread use of forced distribution rating systems (FDRSs), the potential for this performance appraisal method to lead to adverse impact (AI) in a layoff context has yet to be examined empirically. Thus, the current study uses a Monte Carlo simulation to examine the likelihood of encountering AI violations when an FDRS is used in the context of layoffs. The primary research questions included an examination of how AI violations change depending on the definition of the employment action (i.e., retention vs. layoff), the length of the repeated layoffs, and whether or not laid off employees are replaced each year. The current study also examined the impact of the size of the organization, the percentage of the workforce laid off, and the type of AI calculation method used on the likelihood of AI violations. Results suggest that defining the employment action as layoffs (rather than as retentions) may result in a greater likelihood of AI violations, and AI violations are likely to peak in the 1st year of use. Further, replacing laid off employees may result in higher levels of AI over time as compared with not replacing layoffs. Additionally, the greatest risk for AI occurs when the organization size is large (i.e., N = 10,000) and when certain AI calculation methods are used. Results are discussed in terms of their practical and legal implications for organizations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
    Journal of Applied Psychology 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In this temporally lagged study of employees in a service organization, we examined the ways in which feedback regarding organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) may affect employees' motives to continue performing OCBs over time. Building on the self-regulation approach to citizenship (Bolino, Harvey, & Bachrach, 2012), we propose and test an overall model of OCB motive, others' attribution and feedback, and motive fulfillment to determine their impact on continuing OCB. Using a total sample of 213 employees and structural equation modeling, we found support for most of our model, indicating that instances of OCB initiate a chain of events that can ultimately lead individuals to alter their OCB patterns, based on their own motives, others' motive attributions, and feedback. We also find that feedback regarding OCB can influence motive fulfillment and the motivations to engage in future OCB, although this feedback is most powerful when it comes from peers, as opposed to managers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
    Journal of Applied Psychology 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated whether team-level knowledge sharing moderates the effects of individual-level expertise dissimilarity on individual employees' creativity in research and development (R&D) project teams. Expertise dissimilarity-defined as the difference in expertise and knowledge between a focal team member and her or his fellow team members-was operationalized in terms of the research department to which each member belonged. In Study 1, multilevel analyses of data collected from 200 members of 40 R&D project teams in a telecommunications company revealed that a team member with expertise dissimilar to that of her or his teammates was more likely to exhibit creativity when the project team as a whole engaged in higher levels of tacit, rather than explicit, knowledge sharing. In contrast, a member whose expertise was similar to that of her or his teammates was more likely to exhibit creative behavior when the team engaged in higher levels of explicit, rather than tacit, knowledge sharing. These findings were largely replicated in Study 2 using data collected from 82 members of 25 project teams from another telecommunications company. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
    Journal of Applied Psychology 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Despite evidence that men are typically perceived as more appropriate and effective than women in leadership positions, a recent debate has emerged in the popular press and academic literature over the potential existence of a female leadership advantage. This meta-analysis addresses this debate by quantitatively summarizing gender differences in perceptions of leadership effectiveness across 99 independent samples from 95 studies. Results show that when all leadership contexts are considered, men and women do not differ in perceived leadership effectiveness. Yet, when other-ratings only are examined, women are rated as significantly more effective than men. In contrast, when self-ratings only are examined, men rate themselves as significantly more effective than women rate themselves. Additionally, this synthesis examines the influence of contextual moderators developed from role congruity theory (Eagly & Karau, 2002). Our findings help to extend role congruity theory by demonstrating how it can be supplemented based on other theories in the literature, as well as how the theory can be applied to both female and male leaders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
    Journal of Applied Psychology 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This research tested the idea that the risk of exclusion from one's group motivates group members to engage in unethical behaviors that secure better outcomes for the group (pro-group unethical behaviors). We theorized that this effect occurs because those at risk of exclusion seek to improve their inclusionary status by engaging in unethical behaviors that benefit the group; we tested this assumption by examining how the effect of exclusion risk on pro-group unethical behavior varies as a function of group members' need for inclusion. A 2-wave field study conducted among a diverse sample of employees working in groups (Study 1) and a constructive replication using a laboratory experiment (Study 2) provided converging evidence for the theory. Study 1 found that perceived risk of exclusion from one's workgroup predicted employees' engagement in pro-group unethical behaviors, but only when employees have a high (not low) need for inclusion. In Study 2, compared to low risk of exclusion from a group, high risk of exclusion led to more pro-group (but not pro-self) unethical behaviors, but only for participants with a high (not low) need for inclusion. We discuss implications for theory and the management of unethical behaviors in organizations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
    Journal of Applied Psychology 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Bootstrapping is an analytical tool commonly used in psychology to test the statistical significance of the indirect effect in mediation models. Bootstrapping proponents have particularly advocated for its use for samples of 20-80 cases. This advocacy has been heeded, especially in the Journal of Applied Psychology, as researchers are increasingly utilizing bootstrapping to test mediation with samples in this range. We discuss reasons to be concerned with this escalation, and in a simulation study focused specifically on this range of sample sizes, we demonstrate not only that bootstrapping has insufficient statistical power to provide a rigorous hypothesis test in most conditions but also that bootstrapping has a tendency to exhibit an inflated Type I error rate. We then extend our simulations to investigate an alternative empirical resampling method as well as a Bayesian approach and demonstrate that they exhibit comparable statistical power to bootstrapping in small samples without the associated inflated Type I error. Implications for researchers testing mediation hypotheses in small samples are presented. For researchers wishing to use these methods in their own research, we have provided R syntax in the online supplemental materials. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
    Journal of Applied Psychology 04/2014;