Topics in Companion Animal Medicine (TOP COMPANION ANIM M )

Publisher: Elsevier


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    Topics in companion animal medicine
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Publications in this journal

  • Topics in Companion Animal Medicine 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Hypoadrenocorticism (Addison’s disease) is an uncommon condition in dogs and even more rare in cats. Hypoadrenocorticism is most often caused by immune mediated destruction of the adrenal glands resulting in decreased mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid production. Although less common, atypical hypoadrenocorticism, characterized by a lack of glucocorticoid production only, is also reported. Hypoadrenocorticism causes a wide variety of clinical symptoms including gastrointestinal upset, weakness, weight loss, and hypovolemia. Laboratory and diagnostic findings vary but classic abnormalities include hyperkalemia, hyponatremia, azotemia, anemia, and lack of a stress leukogram. However, many other diseases present with similar symptoms and diagnostic findings. Definitive diagnosis requires adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation testing to demonstrate low basal and post-adrenocorticotropic hormone cortisol levels. The prognosis for hypoadrenocorticism is good with appropriate mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid supplementation.
    Topics in Companion Animal Medicine 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Acupuncture for analgesia is growing rapidly in popularity with veterinarians and pet owners. This paper summarizes the mechanisms of analgesia derived from acupuncture and reviews current literature on the topic. Areas covered include the local effects at area of needle insertion, systemic effects secondary to circulating neurotransmitters and changes in cell signaling, central nervous system effects including the brain and spinal cord, and myofascial trigger point and pathology treatment. Clinical applications are discussed and suggested in each section. When used by appropriately trained professionals, acupuncture offers a compelling and safe method for pain management in our veterinary patients and should be strongly considered as a part of multimodal pain management plans.
    Topics in Companion Animal Medicine 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In dogs muscles make up 44% to 57% of total body weight and can serve as source of both pain and dysfunction when myofascial trigger points are present. However, rarely is muscle mentioned as a generator of pain in dogs, and even mentioned less is muscle dysfunction. The veterinary practitioner with interest in pain management, rehabilitation, orthopedics, and/or sports medicine must be familiar with the characteristics, etiology, and precipitating factors of myofascial trigger points. Additionally, the development of examination and treatment skill is needed to effectively manage myofascial trigger points in dogs.
    Topics in Companion Animal Medicine 02/2014;
  • Topics in Companion Animal Medicine 02/2014;
  • Topics in Companion Animal Medicine 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The term laser is an acronym for the light amplification of the stimulation of the emission of radiation. Interestingly, it was also referred to as the light oscillation of the stimulation of the emission of radiation - but loser is not a wonderful acronym. Laser therapy, also known as therapeutic laser, low-level laser therapy (LLT), cold laser, or just laser, is becoming more and more popular in the treatment of animals. It has also recently been pointed out as photobiomodulation and this has become a popular term for the introduction of laser. Therapeutic lasers are popular in the treatment of many musculoskeletal, orthopedic and neurological conditions in the animal population. Common conditions include osteoarthritis, soft tissue injuries, wound management, intervertebral disc disease and acute and chronic pain. Additional applications include post surgical pain management, acupuncture point stimulation, and dermatological issues.
    Topics in Companion Animal Medicine 01/2014;
  • Topics in Companion Animal Medicine 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) is a devastating disease that most commonly affects large and giant-breed dogs. Though a number of risk factors have been associated with the development of GDV, the etiology of GDV remains unclear. Abnormal gastric motility patterns and delayed gastric emptying have been previously described in dogs following GDV. Work evaluating the effects of gastropexy procedures and changes to gastric motility after experimental GDV has not found the same changes as those found in dogs with naturally-occurring GDV. While the role of abnormal gastric motility in dogs with GDV will need to be clarified with additional research, such study is likely to be facilitated by improved access to and development of noninvasive measurement techniques for the evaluation of gastric emptying and other motility parameters. In particular, the availability of FDA-approved wireless motility devices for the evaluation of gastrointestinal motility is particularly promising in the study of GDV and other functional gastrointestinal diseases of large and giant breed dogs.
    Topics in Companion Animal Medicine 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Sudden onset vestibular dysfunction in the canine is a commonly seen condition in veterinary practice, with some veterinarians reporting several cases each month. However, traditional veterinary medicine has little to offer these patients other that symptomatic relief for the severe nausea that accompanies the vertigo and supportive advice for the owners. Owners of affected dogs are informed that these symptoms usually resolve within a few days. As physical therapists, we often see cases of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in our human practice clinics, and effective protocols for diagnosis and treatment of the condition have been developed for this condition. A modified testing and repositioning postural maneuver used successfully on twelve canine patients in our canine rehabilitation clinic (The Canine Fitness Centre, Calgary, Alberta, Canada) is hereby described.
    Topics in Companion Animal Medicine 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: As it matures, the field of animal rehabilitation is welcoming utilization of interventions that have proven efficacy in the specialty of physical therapy for human patients. More recently, manual therapy techniques have become more accepted. Range of motion (ROM) and stretching techniques, mobilization or manipulation of soft tissues, peripheral joints, and the spine, neuromuscular facilitation techniques, techniques unique to osteopathy, chest physical therapy, manual lymphatic drainage techniques, and neural mobilization techniques are now commonly incorporated in clinical practice and these interventions are more commonly cited in the veterinary literature. The following is a brief review of these manual therapy approaches including goals, effects, indications, precautions, and contraindications.
    Topics in Companion Animal Medicine 01/2014;
  • Topics in Companion Animal Medicine 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A non-pharmaceutical approach to managing pain is one that does not employ a medication. The use of such approaches, in conjunction with pharmaceuticals as part of multi-modal methods to managing pain, is becoming more popular as evidence is emerging to support their use. Cold therapy, for one, is utilized to reduce the inflammation and tissue damage seen in acute injuries and can be very effective at reducing acute pain. Incorporating the use of superficial heat therapy when treating pain associated with chronic musculoskeletal conditions is often employed as heat increases blood flow, oxygen delivery, and tissue extensibility. Acupuncture is gaining acceptance in veterinary medicine. Research is confirming that release of endogenous endorphins and enkephalins from the application of needles at specific points around the body can effectively control acute and chronic pain. The use of two newer therapies—extracorporeal shockwave therapy and platelet-rich plasma—represent an attempt to eliminate the causes of pain at the tissue level by promoting tissue healing and regeneration. Reviewed in this article, these therapies are intended to be utilized in conjunction with pharmaceuticals as part of a multi-modal approach to pain management.
    Topics in Companion Animal Medicine 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This review paper summarizes what is known as well as what is undetermined concerning the inherited and environmental pathogenesis of gastric dilatation-volvulus in dogs. The disorder primarily affects large and giant, deep-chested breeds. A concise description of a typical dog affected with gastric dilatation-volvulus is presented.
    Topics in Companion Animal Medicine 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To review the veterinary literature for evidence-based and common clinical practice supporting the post-operative management of dogs with gastric dilatation and volvulus (GDV). Etiology GDV involves rapid accumulation of gas in the stomach, gastric volvulus, increased intragastric pressure and decreased venous return. GDV is characterized by relative hypovolemic-distributive and cardiogenic shock, during which the whole body may be subjected to inadequate tissue perfusion and ischemia. Therapy Intensive post-operative management of the GDV patient is essential for survival. Therapy in the post-operative period is focused on maintaining tissue perfusion along with intensive monitoring for prevention and early identification of ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and consequent potential complications such as hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias, acute kidney injury (AKI), gastric ulceration, electrolyte imbalances and pain. In addition, early identification of patients in need for re-exploration due to gastric necrosis, abdominal sepsis or splenic thrombosis is crucial. Therapy with IV lidocaine may play a central role in combating IRI and cardiac arrhythmias. Prognosis The most serious complications of GDV are associated with IRI and consequent systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiple organ dysfunction (MODS). Other reported complications include hypotension, AKI, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), gastric ulceration and cardiac arrhythmias. Despite appropriate medical and surgical treatment, the reported mortality rate in dogs with GDV is high (10%-28%). Dogs with GDV who suffer from gastric necrosis or develop AKI have higher mortality rates.
    Topics in Companion Animal Medicine 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In veterinary school we learn much about how to repair bone fractures, ligament injuries, and neuropathies. The idea, of course, is to return some level of function to a damaged appendage and decrease pain. When a limb cannot be salvaged for medical or financial reasons we are taught that dogs and cats do “great” on three legs. Three legs may mean a less functional limb or outright total amputation. We espouse this doctrine to our clients. Indeed most of us have countless stories of tri-ped patients acclimating to their disability with aplomb. While it is true that many patients adapt, learning to ambulate and negotiate their environment, this is functional adaptation – not necessarily the highest quality of life. As a profession we have come to expect – even accept – that limited mobility, limb breakdown, and chronic neck or back pain are unavoidable consequences. The short and long-term consequences of limb loss or altered limb function are not benign as once thought. Further, the quality of care demanded by clients is rising and the breadth of knowledge afforded by technology and global communication spawns innovative therapies readily accessible to the computer savvy pet owner. Recent examples of therapeutic innovations include: dentistry, acupuncture, chiropractic, and rehabilitation. Often there is no precedent for these new therapies in animals, and the onus rests with the veterinary community to educate itself in order to provide best care for patients and clients and to establish evidence-informed best practice. The newest emerging therapeutic modality is Veterinary Orthotics and Prosthetics (V-OP). Like the previously mentioned modalities, the origin lies in human health care and subsequently leaps to veterinary health care.
    Topics in Companion Animal Medicine 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) is a common and catastrophic disease of large and giant breed dogs. Treatment of GDV includes medical stabilization followed by prompt surgical repositioning of the stomach in its normal anatomic position. In order to prevent reoccurrence, gastropexy is used to securely adhere the stomach to the body wall. Effective gastropexy decreases the recurrence of GDV from as high as 80% to less than 5%. The purpose of this article is to describe the history, indications and techniques for gastropexy. Gastropexy was first reported in veterinary medicine in 1971 for management of gastric reflux, and later in 1979 for treating and preventing the recurrence of GDV. Gastropexy is indicated in all dogs that undergo surgical correction of GDV. Additionally, prophylactic gastropexy should be strongly considered at the time of surgery in dogs undergoing splenectomy for splenic torsion and potentially other splenic pathology, and in dogs of at-risk breeds, such as Great Danes, that are undergoing exploratory celiotomy for any reason due to evidence for increased risk of GDV in these patients. While there are numerous techniques described, gastropexy is always performed on the right side of the abdomen, near the last rib. Ensuring an anatomically correct gastropexy location is vital to prevent post-operative complications such as partial pyloric outflow obstruction. Gastropexy can be performed as part of an open surgical approach to the abdomen, or using a minimally invasive technique. When combined with surgical correction of GDV, gastropexy is almost always performed as an open procedure. The stomach is repositioned, the abdomen explored, and then a permanent gastropexy is performed. Techniques used for open gastropexy include incisional, belt-loop, circumcostal, and incorporating gastropexy, as well as gastrocolopexy. Each are described below. Incisional gastropexy is currently the most commonly performed method of surgical gastropexy in dogs; it is quick, relatively easy, safe and effective. Minimally invasive techniques for gastropexy are often used when gastropexy is performed as an elective, isolated procedure. Minimally invasive techniques include the grid approach, endoscopically guided mini-approach and laparoscopic gastropexy. Laparoscopic gastropexy is the least invasive alternative, however requires special equipment and significant surgical expertise to perform. The authors consider it a veterinarians responsibility to educate the owners of at-risk large and giant dog breeds about prophylactic gastropexy given such a favorable risk: benefit profile.
    Topics in Companion Animal Medicine 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Working as a veterinarian in remote field locations can be physically and intellectually challenging. A collaborative multi-disciplinary approach is often required for successful data collection. Technologies and methodologies frequently need to be modified to work in these harsh field environments. This article will describe a collaboration in southeastern Mongolia collecting blood for sera analytes and physiologic data from Eurasian Black Vulture (Aegypius monachus) chicks during a tagging operation.
    Topics in Companion Animal Medicine 11/2013; 28(4):143-150.
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    ABSTRACT: The Amur leopard is at the point of extinction. At present there are fewer than 35 in the wild. Their natural habitat ranges from China to the North Korean peninsula to Primorsky Krai in Russia. A reintroduction plan has been proposed to increase the population in the wild; however, this proposed plan still has many questions to be answered as to how effective it will be. The main objective is to reintroduce animals from a select group within the Far Eastern leopard programme or the Species Survival programme, which consist of leopards from select populations in the Northern Hemisphere. Zoos are central to the success of this plan, providing suitable breeding pairs to breed animals for reintroduction and also raising much needed funds to finance the project. Zoos are also central in educating the public about the critical status of the Amur leopard and other endangered animals of the world. Veterinary surgeons, by the very nature of their professional skills, are at the forefront of this seemingly endless battle against extinction of thousands of species that are critical to maintaining the balance of our fragile ecosystem. Veterinarians can analyze the health risks and health implications of reintroduction on the animals to be reintroduced and also on the native population. A world without large cats is a world hard to imagine. If we look closer at the implications of extinction, we see the domino effect of their loss and an ecosystem out of control.
    Topics in Companion Animal Medicine 11/2013; 28(4):163-166.
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    ABSTRACT: Polar bears are one of the most iconic animals on our planet. Worldwide, even people who would never see one are drawn to these charismatic arctic ice hunters. They are the world's largest terrestrial carnivore, and despite being born on land, they spend most of their lives out on the sea ice and are considered a marine mammal. Current global studies estimate there are around 20,000 animals in some 19 discrete circumpolar populations. Aside from pregnant females denning in the winter months to give birth, the white bears do not hibernate. They spend their winters on the sea ice hunting seals, an activity they are spectacularly adapted for. Research on these animals is incredibly difficult because of the inhospitable surroundings they inhabit and how inaccessible they make the bears. For many years, the sum of our understanding of the natural history of polar bears came from tracks, scats, the remains of their kills, abandoned dens, and anecdotal observations of native hunters, explorers, and early biologists. Nonetheless, the last 40 years have seen a much better picture of their biology emerge thanks to, first, dedicated Canadian researchers and, later, truly international efforts of workers from many countries. Veterinarians have contributed to our knowledge of the bears by delivering and monitoring anesthesia, obtaining blood samples, performing necropsies, investigating their reproduction, conducting radiotelemetry studies, and examining their behavior. Recently, new technologies have been developed that revolutionize the study of the lives and natural history of undisturbed polar bears. These advances include better satellite radiotelemetry equipment and the development of remote-controlled miniature devices equipped with high-definition cameras. Such new modalities provide dramatic new insights into the life of polar bears. The remarkable degree of specialized adaptation to life on the sea ice that allowed the bears to be successful is the very reason that the bears are so vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Polar bears have few alternatives if their habitat (the sea ice) and their access to their ringed seal prey rapidly disappear. Predictions that polar bears may be able to adjust and sustain themselves on alternative food sources are not based on reality. Spring breakup of the sea ice is happening much earlier as well as fall freezeup is getting later, thereby prolonging the open water period that the bears are shore bound. If trends continue and the ice continues to disappear, the effect on polar bears would be devastating. Veterinarians must stay involved in polar bear studies and in multidisciplinary conservation studies dealing with threatened and endangered species worldwide. On account of their training, veterinarians can offer a unique skill set that can provide access to a number of technologies critical to conservation efforts. The oath veterinarians take on graduation from veterinary school charges them to be sworn to the "conservation of animal resources" and in the education of the public. We are only as good as the oaths we keep.
    Topics in Companion Animal Medicine 11/2013; 28(4):135-142.