Journal of medical toxicology: official journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania. Press

Description

  • Impact factor
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  • 5-year impact
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  • Other titles
    Journal of medical toxicology (Online), Journal of medical toxicology
  • ISSN
    1937-6995
  • OCLC
    163567183
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • Badria A Al Hatali, Said A Al Mazroui, Abdullah S Alreesi, Robert J Geller, Brent W Morgan, Ziad N Kazzi
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    ABSTRACT: Carpet vipers (Echis) are found across the semiarid regions of west, north, and east Africa; west, south, and east Arabia; parts of Iran and Afghanistan north to Uzbekistan; and in Pakistan, India, and Sri Lanka. Recently, a new species belonging to the Echis genus, Echis omanensis has been recognized in Oman. Not much is known about the clinical manifestations of envenomation from its bite. A 63-year-old snake keeper presented to the emergency department shortly after being bitten by an Oman carpet viper (E. omanensis). The incident occurred during expression of the venom at a research center. The patient complained of severe pain and swelling of the left index finger, which extended to the mid-forearm within 1 h. His vital signs remained stable, with no evidence of systemic manifestations. He was treated initially with analgesics and tetanus toxoid. Due to rapidly progressive swelling and the potential for a delayed coagulopathy, the Saudi National Guard polyvalent snake antivenom was administered according to the Ministry of Health protocol. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit, remained hemodynamically stable, and had normal serial coagulation tests, with subsequent resolution of the swelling. We report the first case of an E. omanensis bite in which the patient developed rapidly progressive local toxicity, which improved after administration of the Saudi polyvalent antivenom.
    Journal of medical toxicology: official journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The NBOMes (N-benzyl-oxy-methyl derivatives of known 2C phenylethylamines) are a new and growing class of potent synthetic stimulants. Case reports provide the bulk of available safety and clinical data for clinicians. We report two cases of NBOMe intoxication with 25C-NBOMe (the first lab-confirmed US case) and 25B-NBOMe, respectively, both confirmed via triple quadrapole mass spectrometry.
    Journal of medical toxicology: official journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology 11/2014;
  • Journal of medical toxicology: official journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology 10/2014;
  • Journal of medical toxicology: official journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Citalopram is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) with cardiac and neurologic toxicities as well as the potential for serotonin syndrome. In most instances, patients recover fully from toxic ingestions of SSRIs. We describe a fatal case of a citalopram overdose.
    Journal of medical toxicology: official journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Phenol is a caustic that may cause cutaneous or gastrointestinal burns depending on the route of exposure. Significant absorption may result in systemic toxicity. We present a case of topical phenol exposure resulting in cutaneous burns and systemic phenol toxicity.
    Journal of medical toxicology: official journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology 10/2014;
  • Journal of medical toxicology: official journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Pancreatitis and laboratory interference are rarely reported complications of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) therapy. We report a case of significant laboratory interference after ILE administration.
    Journal of medical toxicology: official journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Elevated concentrations of serum acetaminophen-protein adducts, measured as protein-derived acetaminophen-cysteine (APAP-CYS), have been used to support a diagnosis of APAP-induced liver injury when histories and APAP levels are unhelpful. Adducts have been reported to undergo first-order elimination, with a terminal half-life of about 1.6 days. We wondered whether renal failure would affect APAP-CYS elimination half-life and whether continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF), commonly used in liver failure patients, would remove adducts to lower their serum concentrations. Terminal elimination half-lives of serum APAP-CYS were compared between subjects with and without renal failure in a prospective cohort study of 168 adults who had ingested excessive doses of APAP. APAP-CYS concentrations were measured in plasma ultrafiltrate during CVVHDF at times of elevated serum adduct concentrations. Paired samples of urine and serum APAP-CYS concentrations were examined to help understand the potential importance of urinary elimination of serum adducts. APAP-CYS elimination half-life was longer in 15 renal failure subjects than in 28 subjects with normal renal function (41.3 ± 2.2 h versus 26.8 ± 1.1 h [mean ± SEM], respectively, p < 0.001). CVVHDF failed to remove detectable amounts of APAP-CYS in any of the nine subjects studied. Sixty-eight percent of 557 urine samples from 168 subjects contained no detectable APAP-CYS, despite levels in serum up to 16.99 μM. Terminal elimination half-life of serum APAP-CYS was prolonged in patients with renal failure for reasons unrelated to renal urinary adduct elimination, and consideration of prolonged elimination needs to be considered if attempting back-extrapolation of adduct concentrations. CVVHDF did not remove detectable APAP-CYS, suggesting approximate APAP-protein adduct molecular weights ≥ 50,000 Da. The presence of urinary APAP-CYS in the minority of instances was most compatible with renal adduct production and protein shedding into urine rather than elimination of serum adducts.
    Journal of medical toxicology: official journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology 10/2014;
  • Journal of medical toxicology: official journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Oleander poisoning typically results in cardiac arrhythmias, hyperkalemia, and gastrointestinal irritation, and can be fatal. Oleander extracts have also been studied experimentally as hypoglycemic agents. Here, we describe a dog with confirmed oleander toxicosis presenting with classical symptoms and also hypoglycemia. After excluding other likely causes of hypoglycemia, the finding was attributed to oleander toxicosis, which has not been previously reported in dogs. A 7-year-old female spayed Maltese was presented to the emergency service after ingesting oleander leaves. Toxicosis was confirmed by measurement of digoxin using a competitive binding immunoassay, patient level 0.7 ng/mL (0.9 nmol/L) 24-h post-ingestion. Clinical symptoms included vomiting, cardiac arrhythmia, mild hyperkalemia, and hypoglycemia. Treatment was successful with aggressive supportive care, and the dog was discharged from the hospital after 48 h and made a full recovery. This case reviews the presentation and treatment of oleander toxicity but also highlights possible effects of oleander on blood sugar in dogs. Hypoglycemia in this dog, attributed to oleander poisoning, is interesting as it supports experimental research into hypoglycemic properties of oleander extracts.
    Journal of medical toxicology: official journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology 09/2014;
  • Journal of medical toxicology: official journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology 09/2014;
  • Journal of medical toxicology: official journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The need to treat withdrawal syndromes is a common occurrence in outpatient, inpatient ward, and intensive care unit (ICU) settings. A PubMed and Google Scholar search using alpha2-adrenoreceptor agonist (A2AA), specific A2AA agents, withdrawal syndrome and nicotine, and alcohol and opioid withdrawal terms was performed. A2AA agents appear to be able to modulate many of the signs and symptoms of significant withdrawal syndromes but are also capable of significant side effects, which can limit clinical use. Non-opioid oral A2AA agent use for opioid withdrawal has been well established. Pharmacologic combination therapy that utilizes A2AA agents for withdrawal syndromes appears promising but requires further formal testing to better define which other agents, under what condition(s), and at what A2AA doses are needed. The A2AA dexmedetomidine may be useful as an adjunctive agent in treating severe alcohol withdrawal syndromes in the ICU. In general, the current data does not support the routine use of A2AA as the primary or sole agent to treat ethanol/alcohol or nicotine withdrawal syndromes. Specific A2AA agents such as lofexidine has been shown to have a primary role in non-opioid-based treatment of opioid withdrawal syndrome and dexmedetomidine in combination with benzodiazepines has been shown to have potential in the treatment of severe ICU-based alcohol withdrawal syndrome.
    Journal of medical toxicology: official journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology 09/2014;
  • Journal of medical toxicology: official journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Seven goats and one ram presented with clinical signs including regurgitation, obtundation, anorexia, apparent pain, and bloat. The animals had escaped from their barn, and it was discovered that they had ingested leaves of Pieris japonica, Japanese pieris, a grayanotoxin-containing plant. Animals were treated with antibiotics, calcium borogluconate, B vitamins, and activated charcoal within the first 24-h postexposure, which was followed by the recovery of the ram and two goats and the death of two goats. Approximately 36 h after Japanese pieris ingestion, one of the three remaining anorectic goats was dosed with intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE). This goat recovered within a few hours. The remaining two goats were given ILE the next day and appeared to recover, but one died a week later of aspiration pneumonia.
    Journal of medical toxicology: official journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: 4,4'-Dimethylaminorex is a stimulant novel psychoactive substance (NPS) first detected in Europe in November 2012. It is a derivative of 4-methylaminorex, a substance controlled under Schedule 1 of the 1971 United Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substances. There is currently no information on the availability or cost of these substances from Internet suppliers. An Internet snapshot study was undertaken in English using established European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) methodology to determine the availability of 4-methylaminorex and 4,4'-dimethylaminorex in April 2014. Twenty Internet sites selling 4-methylaminorex were identified, 18 selling in US dollars and two in GB Pound Sterling. Fourteen (70 %) Internet sites had a minimum purchase amount of ≥10 g (compared to user doses of 10-25 mg). For the 18 suppliers selling in US$, 9 quoted a fixed price per gram irrespective of the amount ordered and 11 had a reducing price per gram with increasing purchase quantity (US$30.8 ± 34.2/g for 1 g purchase to US$15.2 ± 20.3/g for 1 kg purchase). Only one Internet site selling 4,4'-dimethylaminorex was identified, selling in Euros. The minimum purchase quantity was 500 mg. The price per gram reduced from 36.08/g for a 500 mg purchase to 2.20/g for a 100 g purchase. This Internet snapshot demonstrated that there was a greater availability from Internet suppliers of products advertised as 4-methylaminorex than 4,4'-dimethylaminorex, despite the 4-methylaminorex being an internationally controlled substance. Whilst this may reflect misunderstanding by suppliers, it has the potential to put those purchasing at risk of contravening border control and/or local law enforcement legislation. The use of methodology such as Internet snapshot surveys is of increasing interest to clinical/medical toxicologists in their understanding of the supply, availability and cost of novel psychoactive substances.
    Journal of medical toxicology: official journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology 08/2014;