Food Analytical Methods (FOOD ANAL METHOD )

Publisher: Springer Verlag

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  • Impact factor
    1.97
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    Impact factor
  • 5-year impact
    2.07
  • Cited half-life
    2.30
  • Immediacy index
    0.24
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.45
  • Other titles
    SpringerLink
  • ISSN
    1936-9751
  • OCLC
    288980005
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Computer File

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Springer Verlag

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    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The knowledge about mineral content of slim teas is of great importance since the consumption of these beverages has rapidly increased for the past several years. An increasing popularity of these tea products is mainly attributed to their nutritional properties, flavor, taste and health effects. Therefore, the main goal of the present work was to develop a precise and accurate method of the multi-element analysis of slim teas by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) without the need for a laborious and tedious sample treatment preceding spectrometric measurements. Five sample preparation procedures, i.e., the total decomposition in a mixture of HNO3 and H2O2 solutions using closed vessel microwave-assisted or open vessel hot-plate systems, the solubilisation in aqua regia or a tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide solution and the extraction in a diluted HNO3 solution, were compared. The performance of the compared procedures was determined in terms of the precision and the accuracy of results achieved and limits of detection of elements. It was found that the solubilisation in aqua regia gave the best results, i.e., limits of detection between 0.15 and 98.4 ng l−1, the precision within 0.6−3.0 % and the accuracy better than 5 %. The developed method of the analysis, being a useful alternative to time-consuming wet digestion procedures, was successfully applied to the analysis of five slim tea products.
    Food Analytical Methods 11/2014; 7(10).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this study, we reported bromine speciation analysis using a microchip electrophoresis-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (MCE-ICP-MS)-hyphenated system with sensitivity enhancement by the field-amplified sample injection technique. Satisfactory separation of bromide and bromate within 35 s was achieved in the 1.5-cm separation channel under an electric field of approximately −260 V cm−1 in the buffer environment of 65 mM NaAc-HAc (pH 8.0). The sensitivities were improved by 12.8 for bromide and 12.0 for bromate by preparing the standards or samples in 3 mM sodium acetate instead of the background electrolyte. The detection limits for Br− and BrO3− were 0.18 and 0.22 μg L−1, respectively, and the precisions of the migration time and reproducibilities of peak height and area were all lower than 4 %. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed method was successfully applied for speciation analysis of bromine in bread samples. Recoveries of BrO3− and Br− in six bread samples were between 97.2 and 105.2 %. The good agreement between the determined values by the proposed MCE-ICP-MS method and the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ICP-MS method was obtained. All results prove its advantages including high sensitivity, high efficiency, and low operation cost, which are beneficial to routine analysis of bromine speciation in environmental, biological, and food fields.
    Food Analytical Methods 11/2014; 7(10).
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    ABSTRACT: The adulteration of honey is generally a concern of consumers and management departments of safety and quality. Adding low-price honey to high-price honey is often seen in the market. In this study, a reliable and simple method of liquid chromatography–electrochemical detection (LC-ECD) was presented to detect the adulteration of acacia honey which was added with rape honey at different levels (5–50 %, w/w). Chromatographic separation was carried out with a reversed phase column, and the mobile phase was methanol/2 % (v/v) aqueous acetic acid. Fingerprints of authentic honeys showed that the contents of chlorogenic acid were higher in acacia honey (1.738 mg kg−1), while those of ellagic acid were much lower (0.274 mg kg−1) in rape honey, so the chlorogenic acid and ellagic acid could be considered as possible markers of acacia and rape honeys, respectively. Samples were classified by cluster analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) according to the contents of phenolic acids. The results of PCA showed that chlorogenic acid and ellagic acid were the major variables, and no adulterated sample was identified as authentic honey. The results of cluster analysis (CA) indicated that the samples were appropriately divided into three main clusters, and adulterated samples were identified. Therefore, acacia honey adulteration with rape honey could be undoubtedly detected by LC-ECD combined with chemometric methods down to the level of 5 %.
    Food Analytical Methods 11/2014; 7(10).
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    ABSTRACT: Crystal violet (CV) is forbidden but still used in some aquaculture operations due to its low cost and high effectiveness against some fish diseases. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) coupled with partial least squares (PLS) regression is applied to analyze trace amounts of CV and its metabolite leucocrystal violet (LCV) in fish fillets. Two different laser sources (633 and 780 nm) and three different gold nanosubstrates (included gold nanospheres and two commercial gold substrates) were used as SERS substrates to achieve optimal analytical results. Gold nanoparticles (diameter 55.4 ± 4.5 nm) as synthesized via a reduction method resulted in better sensitivity and accuracy results than the two commercial substrates. The minimum detectable concentration for CV standard solutions was 0.5 ng/mL with the use of gold nanospheres as substrate, compared to 10 and 50 ng/mL with the two commercial substrates. The R 2 of actual CV concentrations versus the values predicted (cross-validation) with PLS models ranged from 0.963 to 0.989. For CV contaminated fish muscles, the minimum detectable concentration of CV was 1 ng/g, and the PLS model (n = 64, 20 for prediction) for total CV and LCV in fish muscles was less satisfied (cross-validation R 2 = 0.889; prediction R 2 = 0.857) compared to those for standard solutions due to the interferences of nontargeted components in fish extract, but the results still indicated the possibility of applying SERS with chemometrics to determine trace amounts of CV and LCV in complex sample systems, such as fish muscles.
    Food Analytical Methods 11/2014; 7(10).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Titratable acidity (TA) and fermentation index (FI) are important quality indicators of cocoa beans. This paper attempted the simultaneous analysis of these indicators by electronic tongue (ET) and two multivariate calibrations. ET was used for data acquisition, while partial least squares (PLSs) and principal component support vector machine regression (PC-SVMR) were used to build the calibration models. Some parameters were optimized simultaneously by leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) in calibrating the model. The performance of the model was tested according to root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficient (R pre) in the prediction set. The results revealed that PC-SVMR model was superior to PLS model in this work. The optimal PC-SVMR model for TA was R pre = 0.960 and RMSEP = 0.0077, while for FI, this was R pre = 0.954 and RMSEP = 0.058. This study demonstrated that ET together with SVMR could be used to analyze titratable acidity and fermentation index in cocoa beans for quality control purposes.
    Food Analytical Methods 11/2014; 7(10).
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    ABSTRACT: Phenolic compounds were determined in artichoke (Cynara scolymus), garlic (Allium sativium) and spinach (Spinacia oleracea) using a single method based on simple extraction and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS). Several compounds belonging to different families, such as phenolic acids, isoflavones, flavones and flavonols, were determined. The analytical procedure was validated in all the matrices, obtaining recoveries ranging from 60 to 120 % with reproducibility values (expressed as relative standard deviations (RSDs)) lower than 26 %. Limits of quantification (LOQs) were always equal to or lower than 50 μg/kg, except to kaempferol and its glucosides in spinach (LOQs = 75 μg/kg). Artichoke showed higher concentration of phenolic compounds (837.2 mg/kg dry weight (DW)) than garlic (26.5 mg/kg DW) or spinach (64.5 mg/kg DW). Apigenin 7-O-glucoside (from 147.0 to 722.7 mg/kg DW) was found to be the major flavonoid in all samples of artichoke investigated, while chlorogenic acid, whose concentration ranged from 37.8 to 734.7 mg/kg DW, is the major phenolic acid in this matrix. Regarding garlic, caffeic acid (from 1.7 to 28.3 mg/kg DW) and quercetin (from 9.0 to 18.9 mg/kg DW) were the compounds detected at higher concentrations, although in general the total content was very low in relation to other matrices. In relation to spinach, ferulic acid was the major phenolic compound, and its concentration ranged from 18.0 to 41.4 mg/kg DW.
    Food Analytical Methods 11/2014; 7(10).
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    ABSTRACT: A rapid, sensitive, and selective detection method of nitrite in foods and water was established by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) based on the diazo reaction of nitrite with p-nitroaniline and 1-naphthylamine in acidic solution. The azo dye (4-(4-nitrophenyldiazenyl)naphthalene-1-aminium, NNA), which was derived from the diazo reaction, was determined by SERS using citrate-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as SERS substrates. The concentrations of nitrite in samples were finally calculated from the intensities of SERS signals generated by NNA in the testing solutions. By using the present method combined with a portable miniature Raman spectrometer, on-site determination of nitrite could be performed easily and efficiently. The effects of several experimental parameters on the intensity of SERS signals, such as the volume of AgNP solution and the mixing time of AgNPs and NNA, were investigated. The linear range of the method was 0.1–10.0 mg L−1. The limits of detection (LODs) were 0.01, 0.03, and 0.05 mg L−1 at 720, 1,459, and 1,609 cm−1, respectively. The method was applied to the determination of nitrite in real food and water samples, with recoveries in the range of 86.9–103.4 % and relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 9.64 %.
    Food Analytical Methods 10/2014; 7(9).
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    ABSTRACT: Employing a graphene-modified glassy carbon electrode, a sensitive and convenient electrochemical method for the determination of phoxim by linear sweep voltammetry was developed. The electrochemical behavior of phoxim at the modified electrode was studied by cyclic voltammetry. In citric acid–phosphate buffers, the modified electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytical effect on the reduction of phoxim and this was further used for the determination of phoxim. Under optimized analytical conditions, the reduction peak current showed a linear relationship with the concentration of phoxim in a range of 5.97 to 5,966 μg L−1, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9993 and a detection limit of 2.39 μg L−1. The proposed method shows excellent sensitivity, selectivity, and linearity and has been successfully applied for the determination of phoxim in a variety of food samples with satisfactory results.
    Food Analytical Methods 10/2014; 7(9).
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    ABSTRACT: A new and practical sample enrichment method termed ionic liquid-based ultrasound-assisted in situ solvent formation microextraction (IL-UA-ISFME) was combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) for preconcentration and trace determination of vanadium in real samples. In this sample enrichment methodology, a hydrophilic ionic liquid (IL) ([Hmim][BF4]) was added to the aqueous media containing an ion-exchange reagent (NaPF6), in order to obtain a hydrophobic IL ([Hmim][PF6]) as the microextraction solvent. The hydrophobic extraction solvent formed under these conditions was completely dispersed into the sample solution using ultrasonic radiation. Vanadium was complexed with N-benzoyl-N-phenylhydroxylamine (BPHA), and extracted into the IL phase during the dispersion of the hydrophobic IL. Main variables affecting the recommended method was studied in details and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the combined methodology provided a linear dynamic range of 15–2,500 ng l−1, a limit of detection (LOD) of 4.7 ng l−1 and a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 4.0 %. The accuracy and validity of the method was checked by analyzing a certified standard reference material of water (SRM-1643e). Finally, the developed method was utilized for quantitation of vanadium in real water and milk samples.
    Food Analytical Methods 10/2014; 7(9).
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    ABSTRACT: An efficient analytical method for the quantitative determination of migration levels of antioxidants and UV absorbers in food contact materials by ultra-performance liquid chromatography has been developed. The analytical method showed good linearity, presenting regression coefficients (R 2 ≥ 0.9981) for all compounds. The limits of detection and quantification were between 0.03 and 0.32 mg L−1 and between 0.08 and 1.06 mg L−1 for 29 analytes, respectively. According to European Union Directive No. 10/2011, five food simulants were investigated: 3 % (w/v) acetic acid, 10 % (v/v) ethanol, 20 % (v/v) ethanol, 50 % (v/v) ethanol, and fatty food simulant (isooctane). Recoveries were in the range of 88.43 ∼ 115.28 %, with relative standard deviations between 0.33 ∼ 8.43 %. Migration levels of antioxidants and UV absorbers were determined. Irganox 1010, Irganox 1076, and Tinuvin 120 were found in the majority of the samples generally together with the phosphate Irgafos 168 and its oxidized product. These levels were lower than limits allowed by legislation.
    Food Analytical Methods 10/2014; 7(9).
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    ABSTRACT: This current study was carried out to investigate the ability of hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technique and multivariate classification for the differentiation of lychee varieties. A total of 122 lychee samples from three varieties (“Baila,” “Jizhui,” and “Guiwei”) were used. The relationship between reflectance spectra and lychee varieties were established. Principal component analysis (PCA) was implemented on the region of interest (ROI) image to reduce data dimensionality and visualize the cluster trend. The first two principal components (PCs) explained over 97 % of variances of all spectral bands. Linear (soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) and partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA)) and nonlinear (back propagation neural network (BPNN) and support vector machine (SVM)) multivariate classification methods were used to develop discrimination models. The results revealed that SVM model achieved the best result, with the identification rate of 100 % in the calibration set and 87.81 % in the prediction set. BPNN had a discrimination rate of 100 % for the training set and 85.37 % for prediction set, while PSL-DA and SIMCA model had a discrimination rate of 78.05 % and 60.98 % for prediction sets, respectively. The nonlinear classification methods used were superior to the linear ones. The overall results showed that HSI system with SVM classification tool could be used in identification of lychee varieties.
    Food Analytical Methods 10/2014; 7(9).
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    ABSTRACT: The elemental analysis of Spanish palm dates by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is reported for the first time. To complete the information about the mineral composition of the samples, C, H, and N are determined by elemental analysis. Dates from Israel, Tunisia, Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Iran have also been analyzed. The elemental composition have been used in multivariate statistical analysis to discriminate the dates according to its geographical origin. A total of 23 elements (As, Ba, C, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, H, In, K, Li, Mg, Mn, N, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, V, and Zn) at concentrations from major to ultra-trace levels have been determined in 13 date samples (flesh and seeds). A careful inspection of the results indicate that Spanish samples show higher concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, and Ni than the remaining ones. Multivariate statistical analysis of the obtained results, both in flesh and seed, indicate that the proposed approach can be successfully applied to discriminate the Spanish date samples from the rest of the samples tested.
    Food Analytical Methods 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abietic acid (AA) and dehydroabietic acid (DHAA) are major components of rosin, and both of them are well-recognized causes of skin allergy. Rosin was once widely used for removal of duck feathers in China. In the present study, an analytical method was developed for simultaneous determination of AA and DHAA in duck meats. AA and DHAA were extracted with acetonitrile and cleaned by solid-phase extraction, followed by chromatographic separation on C18 column with methanol/2 mM phosphoric acid (86/14, v/v) as mobile phase. AA was detected by photodiode array detection (PAD) at 240 nm, while DHAA was detected by fluorescence detection (FLD) with excitation and emission at 225 and 287 nm, respectively. Limits of quantification for AA and DHAA were 50 and 15 μg/kg, respectively. The method was applied to analysis of AA and DHAA residues in meats of rosin-defeathered ducks and commercial ducks. The results indicated that removal of duck feathers by means of rosin could lead to residues of AA and DHAA in duck skins, and 5 out of 32 commercial ducks were found to be contaminated by AA and DHAA, ranging from 1,556.1 to 9,638.7 μg/kg and 476.4 to 2,623.8 μg/kg, respectively. The proposed method could be used to identify those rosin-defeathered ducks and to monitor the illegal use of rosin in duck processing.
    Food Analytical Methods 09/2014; 7(8).
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    ABSTRACT: Total intact glucosinolate content in broccoli leaf extracts (Ramoso calabrese cultivar) has been determined by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry with the aim of detecting potential differences in this value due to the effects of the drying temperature or the working and storage conditions (temperature and light exposure). Those broccoli leaf extracts were obtained with two different sample treatments based on heating the sample (microwave or oven), and using boiling water as extraction solvent. Significant differences were observed in the total intact glucosinolate content depending on the drying temperature and light exposure under typical working conditions. Meanwhile, those differences were less remarkable when the extracts were stored at low temperature and protected from light exposure.
    Food Analytical Methods 09/2014; 7(8).
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    ABSTRACT: A modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) method for the simultaneous determination of 70 pesticides in tea was developed using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Prior to acetonitrile extraction of the target compounds from tea matrix, samples were soaked in distilled water to improve the extraction efficiency. A mixture of adsorbents containing primary–secondary amine, octadecylsilane, graphite carbon black, and multiwalled carbon nanotubes was applied for the cleanup. Additional steps of concentration and solvent exchange were performed to reduce the amount of co-extracts and to decrease the limit of detection of the method. For all pesticides, good linear calibrations with coefficients (R 2) ≥0.99 were obtained at the concentration levels of 10, or 50 to 1,000 μg ml−1. The limits of quantifications (LOQs) were 5–25 μg ml−1, respectively. The recovery rates of samples spiked with 20, 100, and 200 μg kg−1 of analytes ranged from 71 % to 105 %. In addition, the relative standard deviations were lower than 20 %. A total of 331 tea samples were analyzed using this method, and the levels of five pesticide residues in nine tea samples exceeded the strictest maximum residual limits (MRLs).
    Food Analytical Methods 09/2014; 7(8).
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    ABSTRACT: Based on the enhancing effect of Cd2+ on luminol–Co2+ chemiluminescence (CL) system, a sensitive method for determining picogram Cd2+ in rice by flow injection (FI)–CL was proposed. It was found that the CL intensity increments were proportional to the concentrations of Cd2+, giving a calibration graph linear over the Cd2+ concentrations ranging from 7.0 to 5,000.0 pmol L−1, with a detection limit of 2.0 pmol L−1 (3σ) and relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 3.2, 2.8, and 2.5 % for 30.0, 300.0, and 1,000.0 pmol L−1 Cd2+ (n = 5), respectively. At a flow rate of 2.0 mL min−1, a complete determination of Cd2+ including sampling and washing could be accomplished within 36 s, giving a sample throughput of 100 h−1. The contents of Cd2+ in rice were found to be 0.07–0.10 mg kg−1. The proposed method was also applied to the determination of Cd2+ in spiked human serum samples with recoveries from 95.9 to 106.3 % and RSDs less than 4.0 %.
    Food Analytical Methods 09/2014; 7(8).
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    ABSTRACT: The liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method to determine five thyreostats in cow’s milk has been developed and validated according to 2002/657/EC criteria. Thyreostats were extracted with methanol from the milk after the precipitation of the protein. Then, the derivatisation of analytes with 3-iodobenzylbromide was performed and derivatives were analysed on a Poroshell C18 column with triple quadrupole MS detection. For all compounds, good recoveries were obtained; the decision limit CCα and the detection capability CCβ of five thyreostats do not exceed 2.2 and 3.8 μg L−1, respectively. Thirty-four samples of milk were tested for the presence of thyreostats; in 13, thiouracil was found above the decision limit. The highest concentration in raw milk reached a value of 4.2 μg L−1. To the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to report the presence of naturally occurring thiouracil in cow’s milk.
    Food Analytical Methods 09/2014; 7(8).