The Anatomical Record Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology (ANAT REC )

Publisher: American Association of Anatomists, John Wiley & Sons


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    Anatomical record (Hoboken, N.J.: 2007), The anatomical record (Hoboken, N.J.: 2007)
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John Wiley & Sons

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Several missense mutations in the Z‐band protein, myotilin, have been implicated in human muscle diseases such as myofibrillar myopathy, spheroid body myopathy, and distal myopathy. Recently, we have reported the cloning of chicken myotilin cDNA. In this study, we have investigated the expression of myotilin in cross‐striated muscles from developing chicken by qRT‐PCR and in situ hybridizations. In situ hybridization of embryonic stages shows myotilin gene expression in heart, somites, neural tissue, eyes and otocysts. RT‐PCR and qRT‐PCR data, together with in situ hybridization results point to a biphasic transcriptional pattern for MYOT gene during early heart development with maximum expression level in the adult. In skeletal muscle, the expression level starts decreasing after embryonic day 20 and declines in the adult skeletal muscles. Western blot assays of myotilin in adult skeletal muscle reveal a decrease in myotilin protein compared with levels in embryonic skeletal muscle. Our results suggest that MYOT gene may undergo transcriptional activation and repression that varies between tissues in developing chicken. We believe this is the first report of the developmental regulation on myotilin expression in non‐mammalian species. Anat Rec, 297:1596–1603, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    The Anatomical Record Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology 09/2014; 297(9).
  • Article: Highlights
    The Anatomical Record Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology 01/2013; 296(4).
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    ABSTRACT: The Y‐Box‐Binding Protein‐1 (YB‐1) is known to regulate the processes of transcription, translation, cellular response to drug treatment and viral infection as well as DNA repair among others. As gastric cancer is a common cancer with a high incidence in countries in Asia, we evaluated the association of YB‐1 with the malignant potential of gastric cancer cells in vitro. YB‐1 mRNA expression levels were first determined by real‐time RT‐PCR in two adherent gastric cancer cell lines (viz., MKN7 and NUGC3 gastric cancer cells) and a normal GES‐1 gastric epithelial cell line. Poorly differentiated NUGC3 gastric cancer cells were found to have the highest YB‐1 gene expression among the adherent cells. YB‐1 gene expression was also observed to be higher in non‐adherent SNU5 gastric cancer cells compared to more aggressive SNU16 cells. Silencing of the YB‐1 gene by siRNA in NUGC3 cells was associated with a significant reduction of the YB‐1 protein by more than 55% as verified by Western blot analysis. Down‐regulation of YB‐1 protein expression was further demonstrated qualitatively by immunocytochemistry and immunofluorescence staining. Silencing of the YB‐1 gene induced significant inhibition of cell migration in NUGC3 cells by 60% but did not influence cell invasion. Although epithelial‐mesenchymal‐transition (EMT) is known to be associated with the migratory phenotype in cancer cells, there was no change in the expression of EMT genes when YB‐1 expression was modulated. YB‐1 appears to have an integral role in cancer cell migration, a process which is important for gastric cancer metastasis. Anat Rec, 296:891–898, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    The Anatomical Record Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology 01/2013; 296(6).
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    ABSTRACT: This review presents some of the major historical events that advanced the body of knowledge of the anatomy of the inner ear and its sensory receptors as well as the biology of these receptors that underlies the sensory functions of hearing and balance. This knowledge base of the inner ear's structure/function has been an essential factor for the design and construction of prosthetic devices to aid patients with deficits in their senses of hearing and balance. Prosthetic devices are now available for severely hearing impaired and deaf patients to restore hearing and are known as cochlear implants and auditory brain stem implants. A prosthetic device for patients with balance disorders is being perfected and is in an animal model testing phase with another prosthetic device for controlling intractable dizziness in Meniere's patients currently being evaluated in clinical testing. None of this would have been possible without the pioneering studies and discoveries of the investigators mentioned in this review and with the work of many other talented investigators to numerous to be covered in this review. Anat Rec, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    The Anatomical Record Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology 01/2012; 295(11).
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    ABSTRACT: This review covers the design, structure, and function of auditory brainstem implants. Auditory brainstem implants (ABIs) are auditory prostheses initially designed to treat deafness in patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). NF2 typically results in deafness due to disruption of the cochlear nerves. When the tumors are removed the auditory nerve is usually cut or nonfunctional anymore. In these cases, patients cannot benefit from peripheral devices such as cochlear implants (CI). Another cause of VIII nerve loss is bilateral temporal bone fracture. Worldwide, more than 500 persons have received an ABI after removal of the tumors that occur with NF2. More recently, some extensions of indications have been proposed to include subjects who would not benefit enough from a cochlear implant (i.e. cochlear ossification). The ABI is similar in design and function to a CI, except that the electrode is placed on the first auditory relay station in the brainstem, the cochlear nucleus (CN). The ABI electrode array is a small paddle that contains plate electrode contacts. The CN has not a single linear tonotopic organization from base to apex like the cochlea but different tonotopic subunits. The CN comprises multiple neuron types that are characterized by specific properties (morphology, regional distribution and cell‐membrane characteristics), synaptic input and responses to acoustic stimuli. As the ABI electrode array is placed along the surface of the CN, each electrode likely activates a variety of neuron types, possibly with different characteristic frequencies. Patients undergoing ABI have variable benefit with regard to sound and speech comprehension. For the majority of patients, this improvement is essentially obtained by an augmentation of lip reading performances. Speech comprehension without lip‐reading is not as good as with cochlear implants. Anat Rec, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    The Anatomical Record Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology 01/2012; 295(11).
  • The Anatomical Record Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology 01/2012; 295(11).
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    ABSTRACT: Evaluating stress and strain fields in anatomical structures is a way to test hypotheses that relate specific features of facial and skeletal morphology to mechanical loading. Engineering techniques such as finite element analysis are now commonly used to calculate stress and strain fields, but if we are to fully accept these methods we must be confident that the applied loading regimens are reasonable. Multibody dynamics analysis (MDA) is a relatively new three dimensional computer modeling technique that can be used to apply varying muscle forces to predict joint and bite forces during static and dynamic motions. The method ensures that equilibrium of the structure is maintained at all times, even for complex statically indeterminate problems, eliminating nonphysiological constraint conditions often seen with other approaches. This study describes the novel use of MDA to investigate the influence of different muscle representations on a macaque skull model (Macaca fascicularis), where muscle groups were represented by either a single, multiple, or wrapped muscle fibers. The impact of varying muscle representation on stress fields was assessed through additional finite element simulations. The MDA models highlighted that muscle forces varied with gape and that forces within individual muscle groups also varied; for example, the anterior strands of the superficial masseter were loaded to a greater extent than the posterior strands. The direction of the muscle force was altered when temporalis muscle wrapping was modeled, and was coupled with compressive contact forces applied to the frontal, parietal and temporal bones of the cranium during biting.
    The Anatomical Record Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology 06/2008; 291(5):491-501.
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    ABSTRACT: The Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis) is uniparous and has a slow reproduction cycle due to a long gestation period and long interval between births. Even though protected by law, hunting remains one of the main causes hindering the natural population growth of this species in the wild. The histology and reproductive anatomy provide information on the history and reproductive status of the female and offer a tool for the conservation of the species. The present study describes the anatomy of the female reproductive tract in T. inunguis. It is based on materials from three reproductive tracts fixed in 10% buffered formalin. The ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, and external genitalia are described. The hymen presents two tiny openings separated by a segment that, upon rupturing during the first copulation, should make up a single vaginal opening. A still intact hymen and the absence of placental scars in the uterus were found in one specimen. Additionally, the presence of a hemorrhagic body and Graafian follicles on the right ovary were observed, as well as whitish scars and among them, possible corpora albicantia. These findings suggest that T. inunguis undergoes infertile estrus cycles before its first gestation. Macroscopically, counting of the whitish scars is hindered by the small diameter of these structures. It is not possible to differentiate between the scars resulting from ruptured (corpora albicantia) and nonruptured follicles (regressed corpora atretica). The presence of whitish scars on both ovaries of the same specimen suggests their bilateral function in T. inunguis.
    The Anatomical Record Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology 06/2008; 291(5):557-64.
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    ABSTRACT: Claudin-5, a tight junctional protein associated with ion and size selectivity, has been found in the uterus of skinks. This study has generated critical information about the molecular assembly of the tight junction at various stages of the reproductive cycle in the skink uterus. Recent studies looking at tight junctional proteins found occludin expression in the tight junction region of uterine epithelial cells in the skink uterus; however, occludin did not disclose any further information about the ions and size of ions permeating across the paracellular pathway. A approximately 22-kDa claudin-5 band was detected in the uterus of the skinks present in this study and immunohistochemistry revealed that claudin-5 redistributes to the tight junction region of the lateral plasma membrane of uterine epithelial cells in late stage pregnancy/gravidity. This finding indicates that the tight junction becomes more assembled to precisely regulate ion and solute permeation in late stage pregnancy/gravidity. Claudin-5 with its functional role as a molecular sieve due to the formation of ion and size selective pores suggests that permeation of ions smaller than 0.8 kDa are restricted when claudin-5 is redistributed to the tight junction region of the later plasma membrane. This report is the first description of the molecular mechanisms that may be involved in regulating nutrient provision in the reptilian uterus.
    The Anatomical Record Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology 06/2008; 291(5):547-56.
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    ABSTRACT: We addressed the brain drainage system as inferred by the endocranial morphology of the occipito-temporal region of the El Sidrón Neandertal specimen SD-1219. Morphological details of the endocranial surface and its anatomical implications were analyzed for the reconstruction of the dural sinus drainage pattern and its comparison with Neandertals and other hominids. The specimen SD-1219 shows a pattern in which the superior sagittal sinus goes into the right transverse sinus. Comparative analyses with a large sample of fossil hominids reveal a pattern of the SD-1219 fossil that is typical for Neandertals. The analysis of the proportions of the occipital lobes prints within the occipital fossae reveals that the left occipital pole projects toward the right. This possibly indicates brain asymmetry (petalia) in this Neandertal individual, similar to that observed in some modern human brains. Conversely, no such asymmetry was observed in the cerebellar fossae. A particular feature of this fossil is the presence of two crests, located at the middle of the left cerebellar fossa that can be related to either an imprinting of a cerebellar fissure or some bone response to mechanical influence on internal bone surface morphology during cerebellar development. Specific aspects of the paleoneurology of Neandertals are discussed. Further quantitative studies on the endocranial morphology of the occipito-temporal and -mastoid region will shed light on the paleoneurological significance of this important anatomical region for the understanding of human evolution.
    The Anatomical Record Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology 06/2008; 291(5):502-12.

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