Emotion

Publisher: American Psychological Association, American Psychological Association

Journal description

Current impact factor: 3.88

Impact Factor Rankings

Additional details

5-year impact 5.24
Cited half-life 4.70
Immediacy index 0.25
Eigenfactor 0.02
Article influence 2.06
Other titles Emotion (Washington, D.C.: Online), Emotion
ISSN 1931-1516
OCLC 48668559
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

American Psychological Association

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    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • APA will submit NIH author articles to PubMed Central, after author completion of form
  • Classification
    ‚Äč green

Publications in this journal

  • Emotion 09/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: The behavioral urgency hypothesis suggests that stimuli signaling potential danger will receive attentional priority. However, results from the gaze cueing paradigm have failed to consistently show that emotional expression modulates gaze following. One possible explanation for these null results is that participants are repeatedly exposed to the same emotional expressions during the typical gaze cueing procedure. We employed a relatively novel gaze cueing method in which participants were presented with 2 unique (or "rare") trials during an experimental block. Specifically, either 2 fearful face trials appeared within a block of happy faces or 2 happy face trials appeared within a block of fearful faces. Results showed that when participants were repeatedly exposed to the same emotional expression, gaze cueing was independent of face type. However, when the emotional expression was a rare event, significantly larger cueing occurred for fearful than for happy faces. These results support the behavioral urgency hypothesis and show that emotional expression does indeed modulate gaze following. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
    Emotion 08/2015; DOI:10.1037/emo0000050
  • Jessica P Lougheed · Peter Koval · Tom Hollenstein
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    ABSTRACT: According to social baseline theory (Beckes & Coan, 2011), load sharing is a feature of close relationships whereby the burden of emotional distress is distributed across relationship partners. Load sharing varies by physical closeness and relationship quality. We investigated the effect of load sharing on emotional arousal via galvanic skin response, an indicator of sympathetic nervous system arousal, during a social stressor. Social stress was elicited in 66 adolescent girls (Mage = 15 years) using a spontaneous public-speaking task. Mother-daughter dyads reported their relationship quality, and physical closeness was manipulated by having mothers either touch or not touch their daughter's hand during the performance. We found evidence of load sharing among dyads who held hands, independent of relationship quality. However, without physical contact, load sharing was only evident among dyads with higher relationship quality. Thus, high relationship quality buffers against threat in a similar way to the physical comfort of a loved one. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
    Emotion 08/2015; DOI:10.1037/emo0000105
  • Ellen Poliakoff · Alya Latif · Anna M Maehr · Hannah Marshall · Andrea Roesser · Tom Scurr · Victoria Short · Grace A Whitaker · Karen Lander
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    ABSTRACT: Inhibition of return (IOR) is an attentional effect that has been much researched in the spatial domain, whereby people are slower to respond to stimuli presented in a previously attended location. Recently, Chao (2010) reported that participants were slower to respond to a negative schematic facial target compared with a positive facial target if they had previously viewed a cue with a negative expression, which he interpreted as IOR in the purely emotional domain. That is, once their attention is drawn away, people are slower to reattend to negative emotions. Here, we investigated whether this effect could be observed when controlling for the valence of the target and when using a more naturalistic human facial expression as a cue. We replicated Chao's findings using real face cues, observing slower responses for negative cues followed by negative versus positive targets, and faster responses for positive cues followed by positive versus negative targets. However, our reanalysis indicates that these effects are better accounted for by the valence (positive/negative) of the target, with responses being slower to negative compared with positive facial expressions regardless of the preceding cue. In conclusion, orienting in the emotional domain could not be measured using a cue-target task, as the effect of responding to emotional targets eclipsed any potential emotional cuing effect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
    Emotion 08/2015; DOI:10.1037/a0039508
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    ABSTRACT: There is much evidence suggesting that trait anxiety is associated with impairments in the cognitive control of attention. Recent findings, though, have suggested that anxiety may also influence perception, conversely enhancing early information processing. The present study investigated this claim within a visual detection task. Participants searched for a target letter among a number of nontarget letters, varied to modulate the demands or load on perception, while also reporting whether an additional stimulus appeared on trials. Self-reported trait anxiety levels did not affect performance in the letter search task under any level of load. However, visual detection for the additional stimulus, as measured by d' sensitivity, was positively correlated with levels of anxiety regardless of the perceptual difficulty of the search task. These results suggest that trait vulnerability to anxiety is associated with improved visual detection, providing direct evidence that anxiety may modulate sensory processing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
    Emotion 08/2015; 15(4):477-483. DOI:10.1037/a0039449
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    ABSTRACT: The discovery of genetic variants associated with psychological traits deepens our knowledge about causes and consequences of individual differences. In psychology, the standard approach to identify these variants is the "candidate gene study." In a candidate gene study, a limited set of genetic variants is selected based on their hypothesized or known biological function, and these variants are tested for association with the psychological trait of interest. The successful replication of published candidate gene studies, however, is alarmingly scarce. In this article we describe the challenges to successfully identifying genetic associations, and review the candidate gene studies published in Emotion. We conclude that the implementation of 4 methodological guidelines developed by the Behavior Genetics Association for evaluating candidate gene studies will help to increase the credibility of candidate gene study findings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
    Emotion 08/2015; 15(4):531-537. DOI:10.1037/emo0000076
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    ABSTRACT: Previous research has demonstrated that heightened ruminative disposition is characterized by an attentional bias to depressogenic information at 1,000-ms exposure durations. However, it is unknown whether this attentional bias reflects facilitated attentional engagement with depressogenic information, or impaired attentional disengagement from such information. The present study was designed to address this question. In keeping with recent theoretical proposals, our findings demonstrate that heightened ruminative disposition is associated only with impaired attentional disengagement from depressogenic information, and does not involve facilitated attentional engagement with such information. In addition to resolving this key issue, the present study provided converging support for the previous claim that rumination-linked attentional bias is specific to depressogenic information, and also lends weight to the contention that rumination-linked attentional bias may be evident only when controlled attentional processing is readily permitted by using stimulus exposure durations of 1,000 ms. We discuss the theoretical implications of these findings and highlight key issues for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
    Emotion 07/2015; DOI:10.1037/emo0000103
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    ABSTRACT: Previous findings indirectly suggest that the more people perceive their time in life as limited, the more they value calm. No study, however, has directly tested this hypothesis. To this end, using a combination of survey, experience sampling, and experimental methods, we examined the relationship between future time perspective and the affective states that people ideally want to feel (i.e., their "ideal affect"). In Study 1, the more people reported a limited time perspective, the more they wanted to feel calm and experience other low-arousal positive states. In Study 2, participants were randomly assigned to a limited time or an expanded time condition. Participants in the limited time condition reported valuing calm and other low arousal positive states more than those in the expanded time condition. We discuss the implications of these findings for broadening our understanding of the factors that shape how people ideally want to feel, and their consequences for decision making. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
    Emotion 07/2015; DOI:10.1037/emo0000094
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    ABSTRACT: Researchers frequently disagree about the latent structure of emotions. Taxometric analysis-a method for determining whether the latent structure of a construct is best defined as categorical or purely dimensional-can be a useful tool for resolving these debates. The present study used taxometric analysis to investigate the latent structure of envy. Scholars disagree about whether envy is necessarily malicious or whether it can also be benign. Van de Ven, Zeelenberg, and Pieters (2009) claim that benign envy exists, and that it is distinct from malicious envy. Much of their evidence for this claim relies on latent class analysis, which can be biased toward creating categories with data that actually vary dimensionally (Cleland, Rothschild, & Haslam, 2000; Uebersax, 1999). Therefore, taxometric analysis provides a more conservative test for an underlying categorical structure. A daily diary procedure was used to measure participants' day-to-day experiences of envy. The results support van de Ven et al.'s claim that benign envy exists, and that is distinct from malicious envy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
    Emotion 07/2015; DOI:10.1037/emo0000102
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    ABSTRACT: We report three experiments examining the effects of positive versus negative valence and perceptual load in determining attention capture by irrelevant emotional distractors. Participants performed a letter search task searching for one of two target letters (X or N) in conditions of either low perceptual load (circular non-target letters) or high perceptual load (angular non-target letters that are similar to the target letters). On 25% of the trials an irrelevant emotional distractor was presented at the display center and participants were instructed to ignore it. The distractor stimulus was either positive or negative and was selected from three different classes: IAPS pictures of erotica or mutilated bodies (Experiment 1), happy or angry faces (Experiment 2) and faces associated with gain or loss in a prior value-learning phase involving a betting game (Experiment 3). The results showed a consistent pattern of interaction of load and valence across the three experiments. Irrelevant emotional distractors produced interference effects on search RT in conditions of low load, with no difference between negative and positive valence. High perceptual load however consistently reduced interference from the negative-valence distractors, but had no effect on the positive-valence distractors. As these results were consistently found across three different categories of emotional distractors, they suggest the general conclusion that attentional capture by irrelevant emotional distractors depends on both their valence and the level of perceptual load in the task and highlight the special status of distractors associated with pleasure.
    Emotion 07/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: This research explores the effect of emotional states on visual detection. Previous research has shown that emotional states characterized by an intolerance of uncertainty, such as anxiety, can affect performance on visual detection tasks. It is unclear, however, to what extent these effects are a result of increased perceptual ability, a decisional bias, or both. The present study used signal detection theory to determine whether uncertain emotional states affect perceptual discriminability and/or decisional bias. In 2 experiments, an anxious, angry, or calm emotional state was induced, and participants were asked to identify which of a series of noisy images contained an embedded target image. The target images were either faces or houses. Emotional state had no effect on decisional bias for either target, but the ability to detect a face was higher for anxious participants. No effect on discriminability was found for houses. These results suggest that emotional state can change perceptual discriminability, but that this change may be limited to certain stimulus classes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
    Emotion 07/2015; DOI:10.1037/emo0000091
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    ABSTRACT: Quickly and accurately perceiving the potential for aggression in others is adaptive and beneficial for self-protection. Superior detection of facial threat is demonstrated by studies in which transient threat indices (i.e., angry expressions) are identified more efficiently than are transient approach indices (i.e., happy expressions). Not all signs of facial threat are temporary, however: Persistent, biologically based craniofacial attributes (e.g., low eyebrow ridge) are also associated with a perceived propensity for aggression. It remains unclear whether such static properties of the face elicit comparable attentional biases. We used a novel visual search task of faces for the present study that lacked explicit displays of emotion, but varied on perceived threat via manipulated craniofacial structure. A search advantage for threatening facial elements surfaced, suggesting that efficient detection of threat is not limited to the perception of anger, but rather extends to more latent facial signals of aggressive potential. Although all stimuli were primarily identified as emotionally neutral, thus confirming that the effect does not require emotional content, individual variation in the perception of structurally threatening faces as angry was associated with a greater detection advantage. These results indicate that attributing anger to objectively emotionless faces may serve as a mechanism for their heightened salience and influence important facets of social perception and interaction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
    Emotion 06/2015; DOI:10.1037/emo0000090