The Journal of Toxicological Sciences

Current impact factor: 1.29

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 1.292
2013 Impact Factor 1.378
2012 Impact Factor 1.38
2011 Impact Factor 1.522
2010 Impact Factor 1.893

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.43
Cited half-life 5.30
Immediacy index 0.20
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.35
ISSN 1880-3989

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated the in vivo effects of exogenous glutathione and buthionine sulfoximine on arsenic methylation and antioxidant capacity in mice exposed to arsenic via drinking water. Thirty-six female albino mice were randomly divided into six groups. All groups were given free access to drinking water that contained arsenic continuously except the control group. After ten days, mice were treated with different levels of glutathione or buthionine sulfoximine. The levels of the metabolites of arsenic were determined in the liver and urine. The levels of glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were determined in the whole blood and liver. Our results showed that the increase of arsenic species in the liver as well as the decrease of blood and hepatic glutathione and total antioxidant capacity, were all relieved by exogenous glutathione consistently. We also observed the involvement of glutathione in promoting arsenic methylation and urinary elimination in vivo. Increase of total arsenic in the urine was mainly due to the increase of dimethylated arsenic. Furthermore, administration of glutathione increased the first methylation ratio and secondary methylation ratio in the liver and urine, which resulted in the consequent increase of dimethylated arsenic percent and decrease of inorganic arsenic percent in the urine. Opposite effects appeared with the administration of buthionine sulfoximine, a scavenger of glutathione. Our study indicated that exogenous glutathione not only accelerated the methylation and the excretion of arsenic, but also relieve the arsenic-induced oxidative stress. This provides a potential useful chemopreventive dietary component for human populations being at risk of arsenic exposure.
    The Journal of Toxicological Sciences 09/2015; 40(5):577-83. DOI:10.2131/jts.40.577
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    ABSTRACT: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) by nonenzymatic glycation reactions are extremely accumulated in the diabetic vascular cells, neurons, and glia, and are confirmed to play important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus -induced cardiovascular complications. Sirt 1, known as mammalian sirtuin, has been recognized to regulate insulin secretion and protect cells against oxidative stress, which is promoted by the accumulated AGEs in cardiovascular cells. In the present study, we treated human endothelial Eahy926 cells with AGEs, and determined the apoptosis induction, caspase activation, the Sirt 1 activity, the expression and acetylation of p53. Then we manipulated Sirt 1 activity with a Sirt 1 activator, Resveratrol (RSV), and a Sirt 1 inhibitor, sirtinol, in the AGE-BSA-treated Eahy926 cells, and then re-evaluated the apoptosis induction, caspase activation, the expression and acetylation of p53. Results demonstrated that AGEs induced apoptosis in the human endothelial Eahy926 cells, by promoting the cytochrome c release, activation of caspase 9/3. Also, the AGE-BSA treatment promoted the total p53 level and acetylated (Ac) p53, but reduced the Sirt 1 level and activity. On the other hand, the Sirt 1 inhibitor/activator not only deteriorated/ameliorated the promotion to p53 level and Ac p53, but also aggravated/inhibited the AGE-induced apoptosis and the promotion to apoptosis-associated signaling molecules. In conclusion, the present study confirmed the apoptosis promotion by AGEs in endothelial Eahy926 cells, by regulating the Sirt 1 activity and p53 signaling, it also implies the protective role of Sirt 1 activator against the AGE-induced apoptosis.
    The Journal of Toxicological Sciences 09/2015; 40(5):615-24. DOI:10.2131/jts.40.615
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    ABSTRACT: Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), with an age-related decline, regulates the proliferation and survival of multiple cell types, particularly stimulates cartilage matrix synthesis, and inhibits matrix degradation. The present study was to investigate the regulatory role of IGF-1 against hydrogen peroxide(H2O2)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in murine chondrocytic ATDC5 cells. We firstly determined mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in ATDC5 cells which were exposed to H2O2. We then constructed an IGF-1-overexpressed adenovirus (IGF-1-Ad) harboring the IGF-1 coding sequence, and investigated the regulatory role of the overexpressed IGF-1 against the H2O2-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in ATDC5 cells. It was demonstrated that H2O2 treatment promoted the mitochondrial dysfunction, and further reduced the viability and induced apoptosis of ATDC5 cells. However, the IGF-1 overexpression by adenovirus inhibited the H2O2-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and further inhibited the H2O2-promoted apoptosis in ATDC5 cells. In conclusion, the present study found that oxidative stress promoted mitochondrial dysfunction and induced apoptosis in the murine chondrocytic ATDC5 cells, and the adenoviral vector-expressed IGF-1 protected the murine chondrocytic ATDC5 cells against such mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. This study implies the protective role of IGF-1 against the oxidative stress in murine chondrocytic ATDC5 cells and demonstrates the promising anti-oxidative stress effect of the recombinant IGF-1-Ad against oxidative stress in chondrocytic cells.
    The Journal of Toxicological Sciences 09/2015; 40(5):585-95. DOI:10.2131/jts.40.585
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    ABSTRACT: Exposure to 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) causes methemoglobin (metHb) formation, hemolysis and negative heme balance in vivo, but the mechanistic details are poorly understood. In the present study, we examined the participation of metabolic activation in TNT-mediated hematotoxicity. Exposure of rats with TNT (300 mg/kg, i.p.) for 4 days resulted in a decrease of hematocrit value coupled to an increase in metHb formation. The red blood cells treated with 4-hydroxylamino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (HADNT), a metabolite of TNT, underwent readily hemolysis in vitro, whereas such a phenomenon was not seen with TNT. Consistent with this, HADNT is active toward metHb formation and the decrease in thiol content of the globin moiety compared with TNT and its metabolites 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (ADNT) and 4-acetylamino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (AADNT). Furthermore, interaction of purified rat oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb) with HADNT, but not TNT, ADNT, and AADNT, caused a concentration-dependent production of H2O2 and ferrylhemoglobin (ferrylHb) which is a highly oxidizing state formed by reaction of oxyHb with H2O2. Notably, hemin was released during interaction of oxyHb with HADNT. Taken together, these findings suggest that HADNT is an active metabolite that mediates TNT-induced hematotoxicity via formation of prooxidants such as H2O2 and ferrylHb.
    The Journal of Toxicological Sciences 09/2015; 40(5):597-604. DOI:10.2131/jts.40.597
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    ABSTRACT: Bisphenol A (BPA) is an environmental endocrine disrupter (EED). Previous studies by our group showed that pre- and postnatal administration of low-level BPA induced depression-like behavior in rats. In this study, we evaluated the effects of prenatal BPA on behavioral responses to a predator odor by using a novel cross-form apparatus consisting of 4 plastic chambers. On the first day, nothing was placed into the chambers (Session 1). On the second day, a predator odor (fox odor) was located in separate chambers at 2 opposite corners of the apparatus (Session 2). Pregnant Wistar rats were exposed to low-dose BPA (less than the reference dose) during the 7 days just before birth, and the offspring of the treated rats were evaluated as adults. The locomotor activity and avoidance response of each rat on both test days were compared. The control and BPA groups showed reduced locomotor activity in the presence of the predator odor, but the odor-avoidance response was significant only in the BPA rats. The BPA-exposed rats were obviously sensitive to the predator odor. These results suggest that prenatal BPA exposure has an amplifying effect on avoidance responses to predator odor stress.
    The Journal of Toxicological Sciences 09/2015; 40(5):569-75. DOI:10.2131/jts.40.569
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    ABSTRACT: Air freshener could be one of the multiple sources that release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the indoor environment. The use of these products may be associated with an increase in the measured level of terpene, such as xylene and other volatile air freshener components, including aldehydes, and esters. Air freshener is usually used indoors, and thus some compounds emitted from air freshener may have potentially harmful health impacts, including sensory irritation, respiratory symptoms, and dysfunction of the lungs. The constituents of air fresheners can react with ozone to produce secondary pollutants such as formaldehyde, secondary organic aerosol (SOA), oxidative product, and ultrafine particles. These pollutants then adversely affect human health, in many ways such as damage to the central nervous system, alteration of hormone levels, etc. In particular, the ultrafine particles may induce severe adverse effects on diverse organs, including the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems. Although the indoor use of air freshener is increasing, deleterious effects do not manifest for many years, making it difficult to identify air freshener-associated symptoms. In addition, risk assessment recognizes the association between air fresheners and adverse health effects, but the distinct causal relationship remains unclear. In this review, the emitted components of air freshener, including benzene, phthalate, and limonene, were described. Moreover, we focused on the health effects of these chemicals and secondary pollutants formed by the reaction with ozone. In conclusion, scientific guidelines on emission and exposure as well as risk characterization of air freshener need to be established.
    The Journal of Toxicological Sciences 09/2015; 40(5):535-50. DOI:10.2131/jts.40.535
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    ABSTRACT: Ochratoxin A (OTA), a toxin produced by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium, is one of the most abundant food-contaminating mycotoxins. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified OTA as a possible human carcinogen. Our previous study showed that there were high levels of OTA contaminations in wheat in the areas with high incidence of esophageal cancer in north China. This finding suggests that exposure to low levels of OTA may be a critical etiological factor for esophageal cancer in these areas. However, up to now, the potential biological effects of OTA on human esophageal epithelial cells have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we explored the cytotoxicity of OTA in human esophageal epithelium immortalized cells (Het-1A). We found that OTA could induce DNA strand breaks and chromosome aberrations in Het-1A cells. OTA-induced DNA damage was followed by G2 cell cycle arrest, and down-regulation of Cdc2 and cyclinB1 contributed to the OTA-induced G2 arrest in Het-1A cells. Additionally, OTA induced apoptosis in Het-1A cells by activating caspase-3. In conclusion, our results indicated that OTA could induce DNA damage, G2 arrest and apoptosis in Het-1A cells, which may be involved in the esophageal toxicity of OTA.
    The Journal of Toxicological Sciences 09/2015; 40(5):657-65. DOI:10.2131/jts.40.657
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    ABSTRACT: Mechanisms underlining oxidative stress-induced injury to cardiomyocytes during myocardial infarction (MI) or acute ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) are not well recognized. Forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factors have been defined as critical mediators of oxidative stress resistance in multiple cell types, but their cardioprotective functions have not been reported previously. In the present study, we investigated the promotion to FOXO1 by the treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) during the H2O2-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocyte H9c2 cells. We then silenced FOXO1 with FOXO1-specific siRNA, and re-evaluated the H2O2-induced apoptosis. In addition, we also examined the H2O2-induced autophagy and the autophagy induction post FOXO1 silence. Results demonstrated that H2O2 induced a significantly high level of apoptosis in H9c2 cells. Interestingly, the FOXO1 in both mRNA and protein levels were not significantly regulated, however, the phosphorylated form of FOXO1 was significantly promoted in the H2O2-treated H9c2 cells. On the other hand, post the significant knockout of FOXO1 with the transfection with FOXO1-specific siRNA, the apoptosis induction was more significant in H9c2 cells subjected to H2O2. In addition, we found a significantly higher level of autophagy induction in the H2O2-treated H9c2 cells. However, the autophagy was markedly reduced by the knockout of FOXO1. In summary, these data support the critical role for FOXO1 in promoting cardiomyocytes against oxidative stress probably through inducing autophagy.
    The Journal of Toxicological Sciences 09/2015; 40(5):637-45. DOI:10.2131/jts.40.637
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    ABSTRACT: Contradictory results have been reported for in vitro evaluations of whether zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are cytotoxic. Though there have been reports of ZnO NPs cytotoxicity due to Zn ions released from the nanoparticles, there have also been reports concluding that Zn ions are not cytotoxic. This inconsistency is mostly attributed to the types of cells used. In this research, we investigated the difference in the level of ZnO NPs cytotoxicity due to culturing conditions. The sensitivity of human lung epithelial cells to ZnO NPs cytotoxicity differed depending on the dispersing medium, physiological state of the cells resulting from their growth stage, and composition of the medium. Further, with regard to the toxicity of ZnO NPs, NPs internalized into cells had a greater cytotoxic effect than Zn ions released from ZnO NPs. Instead of inducing cell death, ZnO NPs internalized into cells slowed the rate of cell proliferation. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity of ZnO NPs depended greatly on the concentration of calcium ions (Ca(2+)) in the medium. When the concentration of Ca(2+) was low, the cytotoxicity of ZnO NPs increased markedly. However, the toxicity of ZnO NPs was mitigated by the addition of CaCl2 to the medium. Global gene expression analysis revealed that Ca(2+)-induced upregulation of cell cycle functions could be attributable to the mitigation of ZnO NP toxicity by Ca(2+).
    The Journal of Toxicological Sciences 09/2015; 40(5):625-35. DOI:10.2131/jts.40.625
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    ABSTRACT: It is crucial to evaluate the variations in the toxicity parameters in experimental animals during the development of new drugs. Reduced food intake has been reported to have an impact on the toxicity parameters in rats; however, there are few reports of such studies in dogs. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of reduced food intake on the general toxicity parameters and their reversibility in dogs. Male beagle dogs were fed 300 g/day of diet for 12 weeks in the control group, and 150 g/day for the first 8 weeks and 200 g/day for the subsequent 4 weeks in the low feeding group. During the following 4-week recovery period, the amount of feeding was set at 300 g/day. There were no clinical changes in any of the dogs. The low feeding group showed a body weight loss of 9.0%, 16.7% and 14.3% relative to the pre-test values at Week 4, 8 and 12, respectively. The following changes from the pre-test values and/or the control group in the examined parameters were observed in this group: decreased heart rate, prolonged PR interval on the ECG, decreased leukocyte count, and increased serum free fatty acid and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase levels. Significant changes of these parameters were not observed any more during the recovery period. This fact supports biological or physiological reaction to reduced food intake. These results are considered to represent useful information for toxicologists to distinguish between the direct effects of drugs and the changes attributable to reduced food intake.
    The Journal of Toxicological Sciences 07/2015; 40(4):523-33. DOI:10.2131/jts.40.523
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the validity of a newly established "three-odor detection (TOD)" procedure using one of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), limonene, food-restricted male mice were used. Five animals each were assigned to either TOD or single-odor detection (SOD). TOD was composed of two trainings and one test (TEST) session. Mice were trained to discriminate an odor of coffee from no odor and odors of coffee and cheese from no odor in trainings 1 and 2, respectively. In TEST, mice were required to discriminate odors of coffee, cheese, and limonene from no odor. In SOD, mice were required to discriminate an odor of limonene from no odor. Each training or test was conducted once a day until animals achieved a learning criterion (75% correct response rate for 2 consecutive days), or until a maximum number of sessions (20 sessions) was completed. The number of sessions for reaching the learning criterion of animals in TEST (8.2 ± 0.8) was smaller than that of animals in SOD (19.2 ± 0.8). Results indicated that mice in TOD detected low levels of VOCs more rapidly than animals in SOD. I concluded that TOD is a useful procedure for detecting low levels of VOCs.
    The Journal of Toxicological Sciences 07/2015; 40(4):479-83. DOI:10.2131/jts.40.479
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    ABSTRACT: We previously reported that hepatic necrosis induced by thioacetamide (TA), a hepatotoxicant, was attenuated in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD mice) in comparison with mice fed a normal rodent diet (ND mice). In this study, we focused on investigation of the mechanism of the attenuation. Hepatic content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), an oxidative stress marker, significantly increased in ND mice at 24 and 48 hr after TA administration in comparison to that in vehicle-treated ND mice. At these time points, severe hepatic necrosis was observed in ND mice. Treatment with an established antioxidant, butylated hydroxyanisole, attenuated the TA-induced hepatic necrosis in ND mice. In contrast, in HFD mice, hepatic TBARS content did not increase, and hepatic necrosis was attenuated in comparison with ND mice at 24 and 48 hr after TA dosing. Metabolomics analysis regarding hepatic glutathione, a biological antioxidant, revealed decreased glutathione and changes in the amount of glutathione metabolism-related metabolites, such as increased ophtalmate and decreased cysteine, and this indicated activation of glutathione synthesis and usage in HFD mice. Finally, after treatment with L-buthionine-S,R-sulfoxinine, an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis, TA-induced hepatic necrosis was enhanced and hepatic TBARS contents increased after TA dosing in HFD mice. These results suggested that activated synthesis and usage of hepatic GSH, which suppresses hepatic oxidative stress, is one of the factors that attenuate TA-induced hepatic necrosis in HFD mice.
    The Journal of Toxicological Sciences 07/2015; 40(4):509-21. DOI:10.2131/jts.40.509
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    ABSTRACT: Cisplatin is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents against various types of cancers; however, it is also associated with nephrotoxicity. Recently, it was reported that inflammatory mechanisms play a key role in the development of nephrotoxicity. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) have an anti-inflammatory effect and are metabolized by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH: encoded by EPHX2 gene). Here, we determined the change in sEH activity and EPHX2 expression in renal tissue associated with the development of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Cisplatin administration decreased hydrolase activity accompanied by down-regulation of sEH and EPHX2 expression. The down-regulation occurred prior to the elevation of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) gene expression or at treatment with low dose cisplatin. In addition, a negative correlation was found between EPHX2 expression and renal thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), and edaravone, a radical scavenger, administration did not down-regulate expression of this gene. The results of this study suggest that cisplatin decreased sEH activity through the down-regulation of sEH and EPHX2 expression, and this down-regulation was involved in a negative feedback loop to protect renal tissue from further damage. Thus, sEH is a potential therapeutic target of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.
    The Journal of Toxicological Sciences 07/2015; 40(4):451-7. DOI:10.2131/jts.40.451
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    ABSTRACT: Tributyltin (TBT) is an organotin used as an anti-fouling agent for fishing nets and ships and it is a widespread environmental contaminant at present. There is an increasing concern about imperceptible but serious adverse effect(s) of exposure to chemicals existing in the environment on various organs and their physiological functions, e.g. brain and mental function. Here, so as to contribute to improvement of and/or advances in in vitro cell-based assay systems for evaluating brain-targeted adverse effect of chemicals, we tried to evaluate cell-type-specific and differentiation-status-dependent variations in the cytotoxicity of TBT towards neurons and astrocytes using the four culture systems differing in the relative abundance of these two types of cells; primary neuron culture (> 95% neurons), primary neuron-astrocyte (2 : 1) mix culture, primary astrocyte culture (> 95% astrocytes), and passaged astrocyte culture (100% proliferative astrocytes). Cell viability was measured at 48 hr after exposure to TBT in serum-free medium. IC50's of TBT were 198 nM in primary neuron culture, 288 nM in primary neuron-astrocyte mix culture, 2001 nM in primary astrocyte culture, and 1989 nM in passaged astrocyte culture. Furthermore, in primary neuron-astrocyte mix culture, vulnerability of neurons cultured along with astrocytes to TBT toxicity was lower than that of neurons cultured purely in primary neuron culture. On the other hand, astrocytes in primary neuron-astrocyte mix culture were considered to be more vulnerable to TBT than those in primary or passaged astrocyte culture. The present study demonstrated variable cytotoxicity of TBT in neural cells depending on the culture condition.
    The Journal of Toxicological Sciences 07/2015; 40(4):459-68. DOI:10.2131/jts.40.459
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    ABSTRACT: Proparacaine is a widely used topical anesthetic in ophthalmic optometry and surgery, and has been reported to have cytotoxic effects on rabbit corneal endothelial cells after prolonged and repeated usage. Since rabbit is an exceptive mammal whose corneal endothelial cells still maintaining proliferation abilities even in adulthood, whether proparacaine has cytotoxic effects on human corneal endothelial (HCE) cells need to be further verified. Our objectives in the present study were to investigate the cytotoxicity to HCE cells of proparacaine and its underlying mechanisms in vitro and verify the cytotoxicity using cat corneal endothelial (CCE) cells in an in vivo model of cat corneas. Cytotoxic evaluation results indicated that a dose- and time-dependent toxic response of HCE cells to proparacaine over 0.03125% was rated based on morphology and viability, and a toxic response of CCE cells to 0.5% (clinical applied dosage) proparacaine was also rated based on cell density and histology. Importantly, treatment with proparacaine resulted in significant elevation of plasma membrane permeability, cell cycle arrest at S phase, fragmentation of genomic DNA, formation of apoptotic bodies, and externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) of HCE cells. Moreover, proparacaine demonstrated disrupting effects on mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP) of HCE cells and activating effects on caspase-3, -8 and -9. This study demonstrates that proparacaine has notable cytotoxicity to both HCE cells in vitro and CCE cells in vivo, and its dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity to HCE cells is achieved by inducing apoptosis via a mitochondrion-mediated caspase-dependent pathway. These findings provide new insights into the cytotoxicity and apoptosis-inducing effect of local anesthetics which should be used with great caution in the eye clinic.
    The Journal of Toxicological Sciences 07/2015; 40(4):427-36. DOI:10.2131/jts.40.427
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    ABSTRACT: Atrazine (ATR) is a widely used herbicide, although it is potentially ecotoxic. Increasing evidence indicates that ATR plays a critical role in inducing physiological changes to the endocrine and reproductive systems, and further may affect the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in the diencephalon, resulting in altered dopamine (DA) levels in the striatum, transport and storage-related protein abnormalities in the synaptic terminals, motor function deficits, and degeneration of DA neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). As the primary immunocytes in the central nervous system (CNS), microglial function to maintain the CNS microenvironment by preventing damage to healthy cells as well by regulating inflammatory responses. Several studies have demonstrated that microglial activation exerted an important effect on neuronal degeneration. In order to investigate dynamic changes of the microglial phenotype in the SN, rats received consecutive intraperitoneal injections of a vehicle or ATR at 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg body weight for a 14-day period and were then sacrificed at 1, 4, 7, or 14 days post-treatment, respectively. Here, we found that microglial activation by changes to phenotype emerged later in the low ATR exposure group than in the medium and high ATR exposure groups, and proliferating microglia were observed as well. Moreover, as two major inflammatory cytokines, expression of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-1β, emerged earlier post-ATR exposure, and a significant upregulation was observed in the medium and high ATR exposure groups. These results suggested that inflammatory reactions regulated by microglia occurred in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which may explain the severe DA neuron degeneration with the phagocytic phenotype of microglia in the SN that emerged earlier in the medium and high ATR exposure groups than in the low ATR exposure group. Taken together, our findings suggest that microglial activation might be involved in the dose- and time-dependent ATR-induced DA neuron degeneration in the SN.
    The Journal of Toxicological Sciences 07/2015; 40(4):437-50. DOI:10.2131/jts.40.437