Surface and Coatings Technology (SURF COAT TECH )

Publisher: Elsevier


The increasing requirement for high technology materials with specific performance characteristics in various types of environments has dictated that these materials possess near-surface properties different from their bulk properties. Surface and Coatings Technology is a principal forum for the interchange of information on the science, technology and applications of thin and thick coatings and modified surfaces which alter the properties of materials. The scope includes all types of coatings and surface modification techniques (including physical vapour deposition, chemical vapour deposition, electroplating and surface modification by directed energy techniques). Of particular emphasis are the emerging advanced processes such as thermal spraying, sputter deposition, activated reactive evaporation, ion plating, molecular beam epitaxy, ion implantation and pulsed laser surface deposition. Contributions range from original scientific articles concerned with applied research or direct applications of coatings to reviews of current technology in specific areas. Articles are solicited on topics which include one or more of the following areas: (1) characterization of coatings and modified surfaces, which includes the determination of composition, structure, adhesion, and internal stresses; (2) the application of coatings and modified surfaces to alter the mechanical, chemical or optical properties of materials. Mechanical properties include friction, wear, erosion, hardness and load bearing capacity. Chemical properties include corrosion and oxidation. Optical and electro-optical properties include reflectivity, selective absorption and electroluminescence. Particular emphasis is also placed on the emerging surface engineering technologies and coatings with a diversity of applications such as diamond, diamond-like carbon, and cubic borin nitride. Other interdisciplinary areas include thermal barrier coatings and coatings for biomedical applications, materials conservation, and environmental applications. Technical Notes are also solicited for the Current Industrial Practices section which is intended for more engineering-oriented articles which should include, for example, developments of coatings deposition equipment (including production systems) and cost/benefit analysis for specific types of coatings.

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Publications in this journal

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The wear resistance of components can be changed remarkably by surface coatings. New processing methods offer many possibilities to tailor the wear resistance of surfaces to match design criteria. Computational modelling and simulation is a systematic approach to optimise the wear performance. Modelling of physical surface phenomena can be carried out on all spatial scale levels, from sub-atomic one to macrolevel and for the various stages in material development, from material processing to structures, properties and performance. The interactions between the coating matrix, the reinforced particles, degraded material phases and defects like pores, cracks and voids are of crucial importance for the wear performance of composite coatings. This has been modelled by synthetic artificial models to find general design rules and by real image based models to find out the wear behaviour of specific coatings. The effect of particle size, morphology, clusters, mean free path and porosity was simulated for thermal spray WC–CoCr coatings. Four main very typical mechanisms for crack initiation resulting in surface failure have been identified: brittle carbide fracture, ductile binder cracking, interface failure, and cracking from pre-existing porosities and defects. The most important coating properties having a crucial effect on coating wear resistance are defects in the coating structure as they can create detrimental stress peaks and high strain levels, particle clustering is most critical for the durability of the structure, the elasticity of the particle is of great importance as well as matrix hardness and particle morphology.
    Surface and Coatings Technology 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, a new flexible method of oxidation-assisted dealloying (OAD) is proposed to fabricate porous CuO nanoplate-films. In OAD, stainless-steel (SS)-substrated amorphous Cu0.7Al0.3 thin films are applied for corrosion rather than free-standing crystalline Cu-Al alloy ribbons used in conventional dealloying. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field-emission SEM (FESEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrum testing are carried out for a detailed characterization. It is observed that as-fabricated CuO nanoplate-films present a porous structure with high porosity and large surface area, which is adjustable depending on the concentration of alkaline electrolyte. The OAD processes are also studied detailedly by stopping the corrosion and the oxidation mechanisms are thus revealed. UV-Vis spectrum testing result demonstrates that the band gap of as-fabricated porous CuO nanoplate-films is estimated to be 2.01 eV.
    Surface and Coatings Technology 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The evolution of microstructure and chemistry was studied for AZ31 Mg alloy substrates after grinding, acid cleaning, alkaline cleaning, cerium-based conversion coating (CeCC) deposition, and phosphate post-treatment. Grinding provided a homogeneous surface with comparable amounts of oxides and hydroxides species. After acid treatment, this layer was ~ 90 nm thick, predominantly composed of oxide species (~ 85 at.%), and Mg deficient compared to the alloy chemistry. Treatment in an alkaline solution selectively removed Al species and produced a porous hydroxide layer. Immersion of the substrate in a cerium solution resulted in spontaneous deposition of a CeCC. Analysis revealed that the as-deposited CeCC contained more than 60 at.% Ce(IV) species with nodular CeO2 nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous Ce(III)-rich matrix. After post-treatment in a phosphate solution, the coating was transformed into a dense, homogenous layer with fewer cracks than the as-deposited CeCC and the content of Ce(IV) species decreased to ~ 50 at.%. The post-treated CeCC had a nodular morphology and contained a mixture of CeO2/CePO4•H2O nanocrystal species embedded in an amorphous matrix. Electrochemical results of as-deposited and post-treated CeCCs indicated an increase of ~ 4 × in the corrosion resistance compared to ground uncoated AZ31 Mg alloys in a 0.05 M NaCl electrolyte. However, the impedance spectra of the CeCCs at low frequencies showed that post-treated coatings not only have higher impedance but may also act as a barrier for active corrosion species. In general, each of the five processing steps had functionalized the surface of the AZ31 Mg alloy by reducing active cathodic sites, modifying the chemistry, changing the structure or forming protective layers. Understanding the coating evolution has provided insights on the surface preparation of Mg alloys and a basis for studying the response and evolution of these coatings after exposure to corrosive and ambient environments.
    Surface and Coatings Technology 03/2014;
  • Surface and Coatings Technology 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Al-Ti-N/Al-Cr-B-N multilayer films were synthesized by means of cathodic arc evaporation. The influence of the individual layer thicknesses on mechanical and tribological properties was systematically investigated and compared with Al-Cr-B-N single layer films. Al-Cr-B targets with 10 and 20 at.% B, respectively, were used in combination with Al-Ti targets, having an Al/Ti ratio of 1. The multilayer films exhibit enhanced hardness and significantly reduced residual compressive stress together with improved wear resistance compared to Al-Cr-B-N single layer films.
    Surface and Coatings Technology 03/2014; 246:57-63.
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    ABSTRACT: Development of industrial plasma coaters regarding throughput and precision necessitate the utilization of appropriate modeling tools. Thus, a parallel computing simulation environment for gas flows and gas discharges has been implemented at Fraunhofer IST. The simulation environment, called PIC-MC is based upon the particle-in-cell Monte Carlo approach. While many PIC-MC studies reported in literature are restricted to simplified two-dimensional geometries, we put much effort in enabling three-dimensional simulation studies by optimization of the underlying field solver modules in particular. This involves the parallelization of the magnetic field solver based on the boundary element method which is now capable of handling industrial sized magnetron array arrangements. Furthermore the scaling behavior of the parallel electric field solver based on the Taylor extrapolation method has been improved. With recent software optimizations and better availability of parallel high performance computing hardware, 3D magnetron discharge simulations are now becoming feasible at low and moderate power density. In this work we present PIC-MC simulation results for a dual magnetron discharge set-up with anode bars. We especially investigate the discharge dynamic and the resulting electron flux for magnetically shielded anodes. By applying our simulation tool we can reproduce experimentally observed features such as electron flux constrictions forming local “hot spots” on the anode bars. The PIC-MC simulation allows for better understanding of this phenomenon which could severely damage the sputter equipment.
    Surface and Coatings Technology 02/2014; 241:30-32.
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    ABSTRACT: Molybdenum oxide thin films are prepared with different volume ratios of formaldehyde solution and sodium molybdate solution ranging from 0 to 0.5:10 via hydrothermal method. The results characterized from XRD and TEM demonstrate that the all of the as-prepared films are MoO3 hexagonal structures. The SEM images reveal that the surface of the film formed without formaldehyde consists of hexagonal prisms, and the surface morphology of the film to be composed of fibration structures when the volume ratio of formaldehyde solution and sodium molybdate solution is 0.1:10. When increasing the volume ratio of formaldehyde solution and sodium molybdate solution, the surface morphologies of the films transformation to flower-like structures are observed. It is found that the higher the content of formaldehyde, the more complete the flower-like structures. The most ordered flower-like molybdenum oxide film which has the best photochromic performance exhibits a maximum color difference value of 8.921 when the volume ratio of formaldehyde solution and sodium molybdate solution is 0.3:10.
    Surface and Coatings Technology 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Calcium-phosphate-slurry processing is a useful technique for fabricating bioactive layers on titanium substrates. This process involves burying a Ti substrate in calcium phosphate slurry, followed by heating the slurry containing the Ti substrate in air. In the present study, we determined the optimum heating temperature for this process. The mechanical strength of the layer was reduced owing to an increase in the layer thickness at increased heating temperatures. The highest strength was obtained with a heating temperature of 898 K. Though varying the heating temperature changed the surface roughness, no difference in cytotoxicity was observed among the substrates. On the other hand, increasing the heating temperature improved the precipitation of calcium phosphate onto the treated substrates, showing promise for their extensive osteogenesis. A heating temperature of 898 K was determined to be optimal for fabricating bioactive titanium with good biocompatibility and excellent mechanical strength.
    Surface and Coatings Technology 01/2014; 239:185–190.
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    ABSTRACT: Zn/Fe and Zn/Fe–P liquid–solid diffusion couples were annealed at 450 °C to investigate the effect of phosphorus in steel on the growth kinetics of Fe–Zn intermetallic compounds in diffusion zone. The results show that phosphorus in steel can delay or suppress the growth of Г phase and promote the growth of ζ phase. The higher the content of phosphorus in steel is, the faster the growth of the ζ phase is. The growth kinetics of the total layer of Fe–Zn intermediate phases in Zn/Fe–0.123 wt.%P diffusion couple is the same as that in Zn/Fe diffusion couple. But the growth behavior of Fe–Zn intermediate phases in Zn/Fe–0.340 wt.%P diffusion couple differs remarkably from that in Zn/Fe diffusion couple. The diffusion path model is introduced to explain this phenomenon.
    Surface and Coatings Technology 01/2014; 240:63–69.
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    ABSTRACT: Autocatalytic duplex Ni–P/Ni–W–P coatings were deposited on AZ31B magnesium alloy using stabilizer free nickel carbonate bath. Some of the coated specimens were passivated in chromate solution with and without heat treatment. Plain Ni–P coatings were also prepared for comparison. Coatings were characterized for their surface morphology, composition and corrosion resistance. Energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDX) showed that the phosphorous content in the Ni–P coating is 6 wt.% and for Ni–W–P it reduced to 3 wt.% due to the codeposition of tungsten in the Ni–P coating. Marginal increase in P and W contents was observed on passivated coupons along with Cr (0.18 wt.%) and O (2.8 wt.%) contents. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) examination of these coating surfaces exhibited the nodular morphology. Chromate passivated surfaces showed the presence of uniformly distributed bright Ni particles along with nodules. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies were carried out in deaerated 0.15 M NaCl solution to find out the corrosion resistance of the coatings. Among the coatings developed, duplex-heat treated-passivated (duplex-HTP) coatings showed lower corrosion current density (icorr) and higher polarization resistance (Rp) indicating the improved corrosion resistance. The charge transfer resistance (Rct) value obtained for the duplex-HTP was about 170 times higher compared to that for Ni − P coating.
    Surface and Coatings Technology 01/2014; 240:103–109.
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    ABSTRACT: The current study has been undertaken to determine friction, adhesion and wear mechanisms of tribological coatings for elevated temperature applications of Ti–6Al–4V alloy. Sliding wear characteristics of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings and polycrystalline diamond (PCD) was studied and compared with those of conventional N-based coatings, which exhibited a high coefficient of friction (COF) due to titanium adhesion to the coating surface. Hydrogenated DLC (H-DLC) and W containing DLC (W-DLC) coatings offered low and stable COF values of 0.11–012 at 25 °C while the PCD had the lowest COF of 0.05 at 25 °C. At temperatures > 200 °C H-DLC's COF increased rapidly accompanied by high coating wear. At 100 °C W-DLC had a COF of 0.06 which increased to 0.46–0.54 between 200 °C and 300 °C similar to that of H-DLC. However, at 400 °C W-DLC's COF decreased to 0.07, and a low COF of 0.08 persisted at temperatures as high as 500 °C. The governing mechanisms of the low friction of W-DLC observed at elevated temperatures were revealed by studying the compositions of the coating surfaces and the transfer layers formed on Ti–6Al–4V. Raman spectroscopy indicated that at 25 °C the transfer layers were rich in carbon, whereas at 500 °C they consisted mainly of tungsten trioxide (WO3) that formed on W-DLC's surface.
    Surface and Coatings Technology 01/2014; 241:93–104.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Titanium dioxide in its anatase form is widely used in photocatalytic applications due to its high photocatalytic activity, stability and low cost. Titania coatings directly deposited by conventional magnetron sputtering tend to have an amorphous microstructure. For the anatase structure to develop, substrate heating or post-deposition thermal treatment is usually required, with the anatase crystal phase generally forming at temperatures in excess of 400 ºC. This precludes the choice of thermally sensitive substrate materials for the photoactive coating. Depending on the nature of the driving voltage waveform, high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) has been shown to deliver a relatively low thermal flux to the substrate, whilst still allowing the direct deposition of crystalline titania coatings. Consequently, this technique offers the potential to deposit photocatalytically active titania coatings directly onto polymeric substrates and, therefore, open up a range of new applications. In the present work a range of titanium dioxide thin films were deposited by HiPIMS onto glass substrates in order to study the influence of various process parameters, such as pressure, pulse frequency and pulse duration on coating structure and photocatalytic properties. The photocatalytic properties of the coatings were assessed by their ability to degrade the organic dye methylene blue under UV and fluorescent light irradiation. The degradation rate of methylene blue was calculated by measuring its absorption peak height at 665 nm in continuous mode under UV/fluorescent light source. The hydrophilic properties of the coatings were also investigated by measuring the contact angle of water droplets on the coating surfaces. Experimentally, the optimum conditions to maximise the photocatalytic performance of the coatings were found. The influence of various deposition parameters on the photocatalytic properties and crystal structure of the coatings is discussed. Optimised coatings then were deposited onto polymeric substrates, such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polycarbonate, to assess the suitability of using this method for high-energy, low-temperature deposition of photoactive titania coatings and the relevance of the optimised condition were tested for other types substrates than glassIt was found that titania coatings deposited by HiPIMS directly onto polymeric substrates showed relatively high levels of activity in their as-deposited state. The ability to deposit crystalline titania with photocatalytic functionality at temperatures low enough to enable the use of polymer substrates is a significant advance in the field.It could potentially allow the production of high volumes of photocatalytic material on substrates, such as polymer web; which is not possible with current deposition techniques.
    Surface and Coatings Technology 01/2014;
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nanocomposite coatings consisting of Ti(C,N) nanocrystallites embedded in an amorphous carbon-based matrix were studied. The coatings were deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtering in an industrial-scale deposition system. The microstructure andmechanical properties of the films were studied as a function of the N2 -fraction in the sputter gas and the deposition temperature. It was suggested that the chemical compositions and deposition rates were governed by a complex interplay betweentarget poisoning and chemical sputtering of the growing film. From the chemical compositions, the content of amorphous matrix was estimated to be up to 57%. It was found that the highest amount of crystalline material was obtained at low N2 -fractions in the sputter gas, which coincided with the highest concentration of titanium in the coatings. An overall dependence of the hardness and the elastic modulus on the estimated content of amorphous phase was found for amorphous phase contents exceeding about 20%. It was suggested that the mechanical properties were mainly controlled by the amorphous matrix. A pin-on-disc test revealed that a higher N2 -fraction in the sputter gas resulted in a higher wear rate, whereas similar friction coefficients were obtained independent on the N2 -fraction.
    Surface and Coatings Technology 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To improve oxidation resistance of C/C composites, SiC coating was prepared on the mild-oxidized composites by pack cementation method. Through short time mild-oxidation at 800-1100 oC, thick transition coating could be obtained at interface and minimize the mismatch of thermal expansion coefficient (CTE) between SiC coating and C/C composites. Oxidation resistance of SiC coating was improved obviously, owing to the decrease of crack size. After 14 h oxidation at 1500 oC, the sample mild-oxidized at medium temperature with SiC coating still gained weight 0.3%, but the bending strength was only 83.7% of original strength. However, bending strength of sample mild-oxidized at high temperature with SiC coating increased by 17.2%.
    Surface and Coatings Technology 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The CrNx coatings were deposited on 316 L stainless steel and silicon (100) wafer by multi-arc ion plating with different N2 flow rates. Composition, microstructures and mechanical properties of the as-deposited CrNx coatings were systematically investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), nano-indentation and scratch tester. The friction and wear properties of CrNx coatings were investigated by ball-on-disk tribometer in artificial seawater. The results showed that the coatings transformed from a mixture of Cr + Cr2N to single-phase Cr2N,and then Cr2N + CrN to pure CrN phase with the increase of N2 flow rate. The coatings were all dense except for the one deposited at 200 sccm, which clearly exhibited a typical columnar structure. With the increase of N2 flow rate, the friction coefficients first decreased to 0.196 at 100 sccm then slightly increased to 0.215 at 200 sccm in seawater. However, the depth of wear track and wear rate were lowest at 125 sccm, which could be attributed to the denser structure related to better corrosion resistance consisted of Cr2N and CrN phases.
    Surface and Coatings Technology 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: WC and CeO2 particles reinforced in-situ synthesized NiAl matrix (WC/CeO2/NiAl) composite coatings were prepared on aluminum alloys by laser surface alloying. The microstructure, microhardness and fracture toughness as well as the tribological properties at 25 °C and 400 °C of the composite coatings were investigated. The results show that the WC/CeO2/NiAl composite coating contains the phases of NiAl, WC, W2C, γ-(Fe,Ni), CrB, Cr23C6, Al3Ni2 and CeNi5. Due to the synergistic strengthening effects of WC and CeO2 particles, the average grain size of the composite coating is reduced, and the microhardness and fracture toughness are increased. The friction coefficient and wear loss of the composite coatings rise in ascending order with the temperature, which are smaller than those of the WC/NiAl composite coatings, the NiAl coatings and the substrates. As the temperature increases from 25 °C to 400 °C, the wear mechanisms of the composite coatings change from micro-cutting wear into multi-plastic deformation wear and slight oxidative wear.
    Surface and Coatings Technology 01/2014; 244:123–130.
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    ABSTRACT: Chromium coatings were electrodeposited from trivalent chromium sulfate based electrolyte, containing sodium hypophosphite as a complexing agent. The effects of this agent on morphology, composition, deposition rate, and corrosion behavior of coatings were investigated. Results indicated that, the addition of (0.0–0.75 M) sodium hypophosphite to the electrolyte: 1) resulted in co-deposition of chromium with (12.0–17.4 wt.%) phosphorus; 2) decreased the deposition rate from 17.0 μm/h for Cr–C to 7.8 μm/h for Cr–17.2 wt.% P coatings; 3) deteriorated the corrosion performance of the coatings due to an increase in micro-crack density and porosity. However, the addition of (0.45 M) sodium hypophosphite to the trivalent chromium chloride based electrolyte, decreased corrosion current density of electrodeposited coatings from 2.8 to 1.4 μA/cm2.
    Surface and Coatings Technology 01/2014; 244:158–165.
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    ABSTRACT: Bismuthate erbium (Er)-doped waveguide amplifiers consist of an Er-doped core surrounded by an Er-free cladding film with lower refractive index. The propagation loss of a waveguide critically depends on both the thickness and the refractive index of its core and cladding films; hence, these two properties of such films must be controlled. We studied the influence of magnetic fields on a batch-to-batch variation of the refractive index of Er-free multicomponent cladding glass films deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. We successfully controlled the variation in the refractive indices of the films to within 0.001 throughout the lifetime of the target by applying the design techniques of a weak magnetic field and flat magnetic field lines to a magnetic array for sputtering. We also found that the self-bias voltage maintained a high value irrespective of target consumption. This phenomenon is thought to be related to stabilization of the deposition rate and the refractive index of the films under the experimental sputtering conditions.
    Surface and Coatings Technology 01/2014;

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