Surface and Coatings Technology (SURF COAT TECH)

Publisher: Elsevier

Journal description

The increasing requirement for high technology materials with specific performance characteristics in various types of environments has dictated that these materials possess near-surface properties different from their bulk properties. Surface and Coatings Technology is a principal forum for the interchange of information on the science, technology and applications of thin and thick coatings and modified surfaces which alter the properties of materials. The scope includes all types of coatings and surface modification techniques (including physical vapour deposition, chemical vapour deposition, electroplating and surface modification by directed energy techniques). Of particular emphasis are the emerging advanced processes such as thermal spraying, sputter deposition, activated reactive evaporation, ion plating, molecular beam epitaxy, ion implantation and pulsed laser surface deposition. Contributions range from original scientific articles concerned with applied research or direct applications of coatings to reviews of current technology in specific areas. Articles are solicited on topics which include one or more of the following areas: (1) characterization of coatings and modified surfaces, which includes the determination of composition, structure, adhesion, and internal stresses; (2) the application of coatings and modified surfaces to alter the mechanical, chemical or optical properties of materials. Mechanical properties include friction, wear, erosion, hardness and load bearing capacity. Chemical properties include corrosion and oxidation. Optical and electro-optical properties include reflectivity, selective absorption and electroluminescence. Particular emphasis is also placed on the emerging surface engineering technologies and coatings with a diversity of applications such as diamond, diamond-like carbon, and cubic borin nitride. Other interdisciplinary areas include thermal barrier coatings and coatings for biomedical applications, materials conservation, and environmental applications. Technical Notes are also solicited for the Current Industrial Practices section which is intended for more engineering-oriented articles which should include, for example, developments of coatings deposition equipment (including production systems) and cost/benefit analysis for specific types of coatings.

Current impact factor: 2.20

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 2.199
2012 Impact Factor 1.941
2011 Impact Factor 1.867
2010 Impact Factor 2.135
2009 Impact Factor 1.793
2008 Impact Factor 1.86

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.10
Cited half-life 7.00
Immediacy index 0.30
Eigenfactor 0.04
Article influence 0.57
Website Surface and Coatings Technology website
Other titles Surface & coatings technology (Online), Surface and coatings technology
ISSN 1879-3347
OCLC 39265083
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
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  • Post-print
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    • Deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate only allowed where separate agreement between repository and the publisher exists.
    • Permitted deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate, may be required to comply with embargo periods of 12 months to 48 months .
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    • Must link to journal home page or articles' DOI
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • NIH Authors articles will be submitted to PubMed Central after 12 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 18/10/2013
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A novel thermal barrier coating (TBC) of glass-based composite with inclusions of Nickel, Y-PSZ, and corundum particles was prepared by sintering on K417G superalloy with a NiCoCrAlY bond-coat (BC). Aiming at prohibiting the interfacial reactions between BC and the composite top-coat (TC), pre-oxidation process of BC was carried out to form a continuous α-Al2O3 scale. However, a very thin but continuous layer of gahnite formed at the α-Al2O3 scale/TC interface as a result of their interfacial reactions during oxidation. Thus, the original unstable α-Al2O3/TC interface was replaced by the inactive gahnite/TC interface. Because of the extra protection of the gahnite interlayer as well as the barrier effect of the TC on oxygen permeation, the α-Al2O3 scale thickened very slowly, which made the composite TBC exhibit better oxidation resistance than the NiCoCrAlY coating at 1000 °C.
    Surface and Coatings Technology 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.surfcoat.2015.02.014
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    ABSTRACT: In the present investigation, a zirconium-cerium conversion coating (ZrCeCC) was developed on aerospace aluminum alloy (AA2024) by simple immersion technique. Zirconium conversion coating (ZrCC) was also prepared for comparison. Surface morphology of ZrCC and ZrCeCC specimens exhibited smooth and cracked patterns respectively. Elemental analysis showed presence of Zr and Ce in ZrCeCC specimen. XPS results indicated the presence of multiple oxidation states of Zr and Ce in the developed coatings. Potentiodynamic polarization results revealed the corrosion current density (icorr) values obtained for both coatings (between 0.6 and 0.85 μA/cm2) were lower than bare specimen (1.2 μA/cm2). However, ZrCeCC specimen exhibited the lowest icorr value of about 0.46 μA/cm2 after 168 h of immersion in 0.6M NaCl solution. EIS studies showed that higher coating resistance (Rcoat) value was obtained for ZrCeCC even after 168 h of immersion. The results obtained from simulated scratch cell test revealed a continuous increase in charge transfer resistance (Rct) value for bare specimen which was exposed along with ZrCeCC in 0.1 M NaCl solution. The self-healing behavior of ZrCeCC was confirmed from all electrochemical tests. After 168h of neutral salt spray exposure, surface of ZrCeCC was almost comparable with the conventional chromate conversion coating.
    Surface and Coatings Technology 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.surfcoat.2015.02.049
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    ABSTRACT: The development of coatings has become technologically significant in many industries. A common approach in high temperature applications is the production of new thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). Laser cladding (LC) can be an alternative method to thermal spraying in the production of high quality bond coats in TBCs. In this work, dense coatings that formed adequate metallurgical bonds with the substrate were obtained by overlapping coaxial laser cladding. The oxidation behavior of the coating specimens was assessed by air furnace oxidation tests at 1100 °C for up to 200 h. The coatings’ microstructures are composed of a γ matrix phase and β interdendritic phase, confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). At high temperatures, the growth and formation of oxide layers protect the underlying coating and substrate from oxidation at elevated temperatures. The possible formation and morphology of oxides on the oxidized surface were evaluated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), XRD and Atom Force Microscopy (AFM). The evaluation of the thickness and phases present in thermally grown oxide scales was evaluated using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy microanalysis (EDS), with a previous cut using the Focused Ion Beam Ga Column (FIB) method.
    Surface and Coatings Technology 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.surfcoat.2015.02.050
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    ABSTRACT: The variation of adhesive bond strength of cold sprayed 7075 and 7050 aluminium alloy coatings on 7050-T7351 Al alloy substrate with coating thickness was determined through shear and tensile tests. Generally, without heating the substrate, the shear bond strength decreases with the increase in cold sprayed coating thickness. The thickest 7075 cold sprayed coating produced on rectangular substrates, which were used to measure the shear bond strength, was 1.6 mm. Although thicker cold sprayed coating was produced on the end of the cylindrical substrate, which was used to measure the tensile bond strength in accordance with the ASTM C633 standard, increasing the coating thickness from 1.2 mm to 2.9 mm led to reduction in tensile bond strength from 10 MPa to 5.1 MPa. However, further increasing the coating thickness to 3.7 mm improved the bond strength due to the heating effect resulted from impact of the late stage spray on the pre-formed coating layers. When the rectangular substrates were heated at 175°C during cold spray, not only much thicker coatings were produced, the shear bond strength was also significantly increased. Hence, heating cold sprayed substrate is considered as an effective approach to produce thick and highly bonded coatings.
    Surface and Coatings Technology 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.surfcoat.2015.02.048
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    ABSTRACT: The alumina coatings of 100μm thickness were deposited on 6061 T6 Al-alloy through micro arc oxidation (MAO) technique. The phase composition across the coating thickness was evaluated using step-wise grinding followed by X-ray diffraction analysis. The microhardness and elastic modulus were measured through micro and nano indentation techniques respectively on the mounted and polished coating cross-section as a function of distance from substrate-coating interface. The coatings represent typical graded composite of α-Al2O3 and γ-Al2O3 phases and accompanied by a corresponding hardness and modulus gradient across the coating thickness. Tribological performance of MAO coatings was evaluated through pin-on-disc wear test under dry (un-lubricated) conditions. The results obtained suggest that the transition from γ-Al2O3 rich surface sub-layers to α-Al2O3 rich inner sub-layers is gradual. On the basis of above experimental results, the critical interrelationships between the coating phase composition, hardness distribution, modulus distribution and the accompanied sliding wear loss has been established. It was found that the simple rule of mixture explains (ROM) the hardness and modulus distribution as a function of phase gradient across the coating thickness while the inverse rule of mixture (I-ROM) is applicable in the case of sliding wear – phase gradient relationship. Further, the relationships established were utilized to evaluate the mechanical and tribological properties of pure α-Al2O3 and γ-Al2O3 phases. The properties of gamma alumina such as hardness, elastic modulus and sliding wear resistance have been reported for the first time in the present work. Further, the worn surface examination indicate that the formation of mechanically mixed layer (MML) which subsequently undergoes abrasive wear and micro-crack induced chipping as the predominant material removal mechanism during dry sliding wear tests.
    Surface and Coatings Technology 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.surfcoat.2015.02.047
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    ABSTRACT: The incorporation of a synthetic zeolite containing biocide cations in epoxy formulations to prevent biofilm formation and the biodegradation processes derived from its presence was studied. Biocidal action of Ag/Zn-exchanged A type zeolite against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, bacteria usually found in fluid containers from the oil refining industry, was determined by microbiological evaluation using molecular biology and traditional cultivation techniques. The minimum inhibitory concentration method (MIC) was adopted to assess the effect of Ag+ 1 and Zn+ 2 impregnated zeolites on microorganism growth. Cell quantification on biofilms detached from epoxy coated steel coupons indicate that P. aeruginosa cells contained in the biofilm significantly decreased as the zeolite percentage in the epoxy formulation was increased. An inhibitory effect of up to seven orders of magnitude was obtained when Ag/Zn-exchanged A zeolite having MIC value about 200 mg.L− 1 was used as additive in epoxy coatings formulations.
    Surface and Coatings Technology 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.surfcoat.2015.02.044
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, four pairs of 6061 aluminium alloy workpieces with different surface roughness were prepared for welding. The friction stir welding (FSW) technique was used for a butt-joint configuration of a single pass. The influence of different surface roughness of the workpieces coincided with a small welding tool shoulder diameter, and the tool pin was examined. The results demonstrated that spherical nano-sized grains of the joints were produced. The mechanical properties of the joints were significantly better at the least possible workpiece surface roughness. The experimental results also indicated that the tensile strength of FSW 6061 aluminium alloy was notably affected by joining at the different workpiece surface roughness selected. However, an improvement of the Vickers microhardness in the heat affected zone (HAZ) was also observed. The microhardness in the nugget zone (NZ) for the welded joint fabricated at the lowest value of the workpiece surface roughness was higher than that of the base metal (BM). The fractural surface of the cross-section of the tensile specimens has a gradient to change from brittle fracture to ductile fracture.
    Surface and Coatings Technology 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.surfcoat.2015.02.045
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    ABSTRACT: Ceramic films are formed on AM60 magnesium alloy by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) using a new fluorotitanate electrolyte system. Compared to the films obtained with traditional electrolytes, the film has the characteristics of self-sealing pores and different chemical compositions. To investigate the film’s growth mechanism, X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X–ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the phase structure and chemical composition. Mott-Schottky (M-S) curve measurements were used to study the electrical properties of the passive layer and the influence of the fluorine during initial film deposition. The NaF content in the new electrolyte plays an important role in improving compactness of the initial film. By increasing oxidation voltages in the MAO process, an increase of titanium oxides in the film is produced. Different melting points of film constituents and high titanium oxides content in the MAO film are key factors for forming self-sealing pores.
    Surface and Coatings Technology 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.surfcoat.2015.02.041
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    ABSTRACT: The carbon steel (CS) was anodized to coat with vertical arrays of nanotubes in a mixture of aqueous ammonium fluoride solution and ethylene glycol. As-anodized specimens were annealed at 450 °C for 4 h in Ar ambient. The fabricated iron oxide nanotube arrays (NTA) depicted a layer of nanotubes over 500 nm in length, about 80 nm in diameter and about 30 nm in wall thickness shown from scanning electron microscope images. X-ray diffraction pattern indicated that iron oxide NTA contained α-Fe2O3 as the main phase and Fe3O4 as the secondary phase. UV-visible absorption spectra revealed iron oxide NTA significantly absorbed light up to 700 nm. Potentiodynamic polarization curves of iron oxide NTA and CS were investigated in 0.5 wt.% NaCl solutions in the dark and under illumination supplied by solar simulator. We found that iron oxide NTA shows tremendous photoeffect under alternative illumination and dark. It was seen that potential of iron oxide NTA was more negative under illumination than in the dark and the corrosion rate of CS covered with NTA was obviously less than undecorated CS. In addition, the model of photoelectrochemical anticorrosion of iron oxide NTA was explored.
    Surface and Coatings Technology 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.surfcoat.2015.02.042
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of laser ablation coating removal (LACR), from high strength shipbuilding steel, on fatigue performance have been investigated relative to abrasive blasted specimens. It was shown that the fatigue behavior of the steel subjected to LACR is statistically unchanged from those of the baseline material. Residual stress, surface roughness and fractographic analyses were employed to rationalize the fatigue performance. X-ray measurements revealed tensile residual stress was induced in the surface by LACR. However, depth-resolved residual stress measurement showed that the tensile residual stress is limited to a shallow depth below which there is a deep case of balancing compressive residual stress. Finally, scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis of fracture surfaces showed that cracks initiated from valleys in the roughness profile. Thus, the observed fatigue performance is attributed to the combined effects of residual stress and surface roughness.
    Surface and Coatings Technology 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.surfcoat.2015.02.034
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    ABSTRACT: A single-layer radar-absorbing structure in the X-band (8.2 GHz to 12.4 GHz) was fabricated by blending conductive carbon black (CB) with the binder matrix of SiCf/AlPO4 composites. An oxidation protective glass coating was prepared on SiCf/AlPO4 composites using a simple and low-cost slurry technique. Oxidation test shows that, after oxidation in air at 1273 K for 50 h, the three-point bending strength of coated SiCf/AlPO4 composites keeps up to 200 MPa, and the complex permittivity has little difference with the as-received sample. By simulating the reflection loss, it was found that − 10 dB absorbing bandwidth can be more than 3 GHz for oxidation test-coated SiCf/AlPO4 composites in the range of 2.8 mm to 3.2 mm thickness.
    Surface and Coatings Technology 02/2015; 264. DOI:10.1016/j.surfcoat.2015.01.044
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    ABSTRACT: The paper reports a change in the morphology of coatings formed galvanostatically on titanium by plasma electrolytic oxidation in phosphoric/sulphuric acid mixtures, and investigated using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy. An initial grooved morphology, containing anatase, is transformed to a more usual porous morphology, which may also contain rutile. The coatings also contain phosphorus species, but comparatively small amounts of sulphur species. The morphological change occurs over a range of cell charge that is strongly dependent on the molar ratio of the acids but weakly dependent on the applied current. With the change in the coating morphology, the efficiency of coating formation reduces and the sparking becomes more localized and intense. Lap shear tests show that the grooved morphology provides a ~ 60% increase in the strength of adhesively-bonded joints compared with a porous morphology.
    Surface and Coatings Technology 02/2015; 4. DOI:10.1016/j.surfcoat.2015.02.036
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    ABSTRACT: This paper reports an electrochemical etching method for stainless steel and its effect in wetting, anti-corrosion and oil retention properties. Specimens of a 304 stainless steel were electrochemically etched in diluted Aqua Regia to form hierarchically-porous surface structures, while maintaining the steel's corrosion resistance. The surfaces consist of multi-scale hierarchical structure and are highly hydrophobic, but water drops stick to it instead of rolling off because of the presence of microscale bumps. Surface structures can be controlled by changing the voltage applied during the etching process. The etched structures significantly increased the steel's oil retention because of very high roughness and steep asperity. This surface modification method could be valuable to extend the lifetime of lubrication, to improve the effectiveness of protective coatings, and to achieve oil-infused surfaces.
    Surface and Coatings Technology 02/2015; 264. DOI:10.1016/j.surfcoat.2015.01.004
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    ABSTRACT: Zirconia coatings exhibiting widely technological applications were produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) on ZrN-coated Si substrates in alkaline electrolytes. Firstly, zirconium nitride films were deposited on the substrates by an air-based reactive sputtering technique. After that, the specimens were electrochemically oxidized in 2 M NaOH by applying voltages ranging from 42 to 55 V for 30 seconds. Spark discharge was observed over the specimens at the reaction voltages above 46 V. X-ray diffraction patterns show resultant coatings comprised mainly tetragonal ZrO2 with slightly monoclinic ZrO2. The existence of fully spark discharge, highly crystalline phases, porous morphology, and high growth rate characterized the PEO coatings. The highly conductive ZrN seedling layer could facilitate significantly the growth of the coatings. Three types of reaction regimes were identified, including electrochemical oxidation, transition of electrochemical oxidation to PEO, and PEO. Biocorrosion tests revealed the obtained PEO coatings could improve greatly the biocorrosion resistance. The formation mechanisms of the PEO-produced ZrO2 coatings are also discussed.
    Surface and Coatings Technology 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.surfcoat.2015.02.038
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    ABSTRACT: A systematic investigation concerning the effects of transition metals (TM = Y, Zr, Nb, Hf, and Ta) on the structure, elasticity and thermal decomposition of the TiN-based nitride coatings with a cubic rock-salt structure has been performed in terms of first-principles calculations. Calculated lattice parameters of Ti1 − xTMxN as a function of alloying concentration show positive derivations from the linearized Vegard's law, agreeing well with experimental and theoretical results. Positive enthalpies of mixing of Ti1 − xTMxN (TM = Y, Zr, and Hf) indicate that the formation of these alloys is energetically unfavored with respect to the mixing of the cubic phases. The predicted consolute temperature of Ti1 − xZrxN agrees reasonably well with previous theoretical findings. The miscibility gaps disappear in the case of alloying TiN with NbN and TaN. Predicted elastic stiffness constants C11, C12, and C44 together with the aggregate polycrystalline properties of Ti1 − xTMxN are determined by an efficient strain–stress method. The present results indicate that the above nitride alloys are mechanically stable and addition of Nb and Ta increases the ductility, with Ta possessing the largest effect.
    Surface and Coatings Technology 02/2015; 264. DOI:10.1016/j.surfcoat.2015.01.024
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    ABSTRACT: A radio-frequency magnetron sputtering technique operating in right-angle geometry (RAMS) with high plasma confinement was revised to produce thin films (15–570 nm) of fluorine-substituted hydroxyapatite, FHA, adapted to be used as nano-coatings for biomedical implants. An electron temperature of Teff ≈ 9.0 eV and a plasma electron density of 1.2 × 1015 m− 3 assured the nucleation of an amorphous fluorine-substituted hydroxyapatite phase on Si and Ti surfaces. With the aid of a Langmuir probe, the RAMS plasma energy was tuned to control the coating stoichiometry and the ratio between the crystalline and amorphous phases. The energy delivered over time from the bombardment of ions and electrons transformed the amorphous calcium phosphate phase into crystalline fluorine-substituted hydroxyapatite. The crystalline films were obtained at room temperature. The partial substitution of OH− for F− in the HA structure was confirmed by X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation in grazing-incidence mode, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy carried out on cross-section film samples prepared by a focused ion beam (FIB) technique revealed that the film ultrastructure was composed of columnar crystals oriented perpendicularly to the substrate surface. The crystals were connected to the substrate surface by ordered nanolayers, indicating the existence of a continuous binding between the two materials. This work demonstrates that the RAMS technique is able to produce FHA nano-coatings with controlled chemical compositions and structures on metallic implants for clinical applications.
    Surface and Coatings Technology 02/2015; 264. DOI:10.1016/j.surfcoat.2014.12.055
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    ABSTRACT: The coatings with a thickness more than 100 μm were formed on Zr-1% Nb alloy and technical pure Zr by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) in silicate-hypophosphite electrolyte at asymmetric electrical mode. It was found that the PEO coatings thickness on Zr-1% Nb alloy is about 30% more than that on zirconium. The barrier layer for Zr-1% Nb alloy is not regular and has metallic inclusions. For zirconium barrier layer is uniform and dense. The plasmatron high-temperature cycling (up to 2000 K) have shown that the coatings surface keeps original microstructure but its morphology becomes some rougher. The thermal conductivity of PEO coatings is several times less than the one of reference sample of yttria-stabilized zirconia.
    Surface and Coatings Technology 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.surfcoat.2015.02.039