Journal of Environmental Radioactivity

Publisher: Elsevier

Description

  • Impact factor
    3.67
  • 5-year impact
    1.49
  • Cited half-life
    6.20
  • Immediacy index
    0.48
  • Eigenfactor
    0.01
  • Article influence
    0.42
  • ISSN
    1879-1700

Publisher details

Elsevier

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  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Batch sorption and column transport experiments for uranium (U) were conducted with saprolite.•The pH-dependency of U sorption was apparent in pH sorption edges.•Sorption isotherms showed a solids concentration effect.•Appropriate batch design is necessary to be utilized for modeling dynamic systems.
    Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 01/2015; 139.
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    ABSTRACT: Saturated porous media allocated between two reservoirs.•Analytical solution of the isotope transport equation.•Transport considers diffusion, sorption and decay chain.
    Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 01/2015; 139.
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    ABSTRACT: The paper summarizes results of monitoring of 137Cs activities in game species roaming in the woods over the territory of the Czech Republic for the time interval of 1986–2012. Geometric means and other statistical characteristics were estimated from the data sets on the assumption of log-normal distribution of the data from the time interval 2004–2012 where the character of data distribution had displayed no significant change. Geometric means (in Bq/kg) in meat were: wild boar 5.1, red deer 1.9, roe deer 0.77 and feathered game 0.14. The mean value in the less frequent game amounted to 0.36 Bq/kg. The geometrical standard deviation (GSD) widely varied from 1.6 to 21 for the studied species. Based on mass activity dependence on time, we assessed the effective and environmental half-lives of activity decline. For red deer and roe deer, the effective 137Cs half-life was 2.9 and 3.2 years, and environmental half-life 3.2 and 3.6 years respectively. The effective half-life of 137Cs in wild boar of 38 years was determined with large uncertainty and it shows constant influx of 137Cs activity to the digestive tract of wild boars. A statistically significant season-based 137Cs level was found in red deer and wild boar. Higher winter and spring activities of 137Cs in wild boar are linked with decreasing access to naturally occurring food with lower 137Cs content (chestnuts, acorns, and beech nuts), making boar grub around for ground-deposited food (often for mushrooms with higher activity). Higher winter activities of 137Cs in red deer meat, most probably, are due to lower access to green diet in winter. The average annual committed effective dose for Czech population based on estimates of game species meat consumption between 2004 and 2012 was insignificant, only 0.03 μSv.
    Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 01/2015; 139:18-23.
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    ABSTRACT: We assessed the concentration ratios of 137Cs in earthworms/dry soil.•The distribution of radio-caesium was relatively uniform throughout the earthworm body without any distinguishable accumulation in specific organs or tissues.•We estimated the absorbed dose rate of radio-caesium for earthworms.
    Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 01/2015; 139.
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    ABSTRACT: Soil samples were all acidic.•Physicochemical properties and enzyme activities of soil were all increased along with decreased uranium concentration.•The 232Th concentration was significantly correlated with 226Ra, while 226Ra was significantly correlated with 40K.•In each sample site, Proteobacteria was the flora with absolute superiority, with Serratia sp. of Proteobacteria as the dominant strain.
    Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 01/2015; 139.
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    ABSTRACT: We estimate and map indoor terrestrial gamma rays in France.•Two geostatistical methods are compared to obtain the best estimation.•We use measurements results and a map of geological uranium potential.•The average gamma dose rate increases with classes of geological U potential.•The estimates are improved by using multi colocated co-kriging.
    Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 01/2015; 139.
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    ABSTRACT: Inter-varietal variation in Cs and Sr accumulation was derived from the literature.•Mean inter-varietal variation for both Cs and Sr accumulation was ≈2.•The relationship between Cs and K, and Sr and Ca accumulation was investigated.•No significant relationship between Cs and K accumulation was found.•A significant linear relationship between Ca and Sr accumulation was found.
    Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 01/2015; 139.
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    ABSTRACT: Normal seasonal variation of the atmospheric radon concentration was determined by accurately fitting with a sinusoidal model.•The seasonal variation in data was affected by atmospheric turbulence.•The normal radon pattern was used to extract precursory changes before earthquakes.
    Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 01/2015; 139.
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    ABSTRACT: Soil-to-plant transfer of radiocesium ((137)Cs) in four cruciferous vegetables as influenced by cattle manure-based compost amendment was investigated. Komatsuna, mustard, radish and turnip were cultivated in three different (137)Cs-contaminated fields at Nihonmatsu City in Fukushima Prefecture from June to August 2012. Results revealed that organic compost amendments stimulated plant biomass production and tended to induce higher (137)Cs concentration in the cruciferous vegetables in most cases. Among the studied sites, Takanishi soil possessing low exchangeable potassium (0.10 cmolc kg(-1)) was associated with an increased concentration of (137)Cs in plants. Radiocesium transfer factor (TF) values of the vegetables ranged from 0.025 to 0.119. The increase in (137)Cs TFs was dependent on larger plant biomass production, high organic matter content, and high sand content in the studied soils. Average (137)Cs TF values for all study sites and compost treatments were higher in Komatsuna (0.072) and radish (0.059), which exhibited a higher biomass production compared to mustard and turnip. The transferability of (137)Cs to vegetables from soils was in the order Komatsuna > radish > mustard > turnip. The highest (137)Cs TF value (0.071) of all vegetables was recorded for a field where the soil had high organic matter content and a high clay proportion of 470 g kg(-1) consisting of Al-vermiculite clay mineral. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 12/2014; 140C:148-155.
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    ABSTRACT: There are a large number of sites across the UK and the rest of the world that are known to be contaminated with (226)Ra owing to historical industrial and military activities. At some sites, where there is a realistic risk of contact with the general public there is a demand for proficient risk assessments to be undertaken. One of the governing factors that influence such assessments is the geometric nature of contamination particularly if hazardous high activity point sources are present. Often this type of radioactive particle is encountered at depths beyond the capabilities of surface gamma-ray techniques and so intrusive borehole methods provide a more suitable approach. However, reliable spectral processing methods to investigate the properties of the waste for this type of measurement have yet to be developed since a number of issues must first be confronted including: representative calibration spectra, variations in background activity and counting uncertainty. Here a novel method is proposed to tackle this issue based upon the interrogation of characteristic Monte Carlo calibration spectra using a combination of Principal Component Analysis and Artificial Neural Networks. The technique demonstrated that it could reliably distinguish spectra that contained contributions from point sources from those of background or dissociated contamination (homogenously distributed). The potential of the method was demonstrated by interpretation of borehole spectra collected at the Dalgety Bay headland, Fife, Scotland. Predictions concurred with intrusive surveys despite the realisation of relatively large uncertainties on activity and depth estimates. To reduce this uncertainty, a larger background sample and better spatial coverage of cores were required, alongside a higher volume better resolution detector. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 11/2014; 140C:130-140.
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    ABSTRACT: We measured vertical distributions of radiocesium (134Cs and 137Cs) at stations along the 149°E meridian in the western North Pacific during winter 2012, about ten months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) accident. The Fukushima-derived 134Cs activity concentration and water-column inventory were largest in the transition region between 35 and 40°N approximately due to the directed discharge of the contaminated water from the FNPP1. The bomb-derived 137Cs activity concentration just before the FNPP1 accident was derived from the excess 137Cs activity concentration relative to the 134Cs activity concentration. The water-column inventory of the bomb-derived 137Cs was largest in the subtropical region south of 35°N, which implies that the Fukushima-derived 134Cs will also be transported from the transition region to the subtropical region in the coming decades. Mean values of the water-column inventories decay-corrected for the Fukushima-derived 134Cs and the bomb-derived 137Cs were estimated to be 1020 ± 80 and 820 ± 120 Bq m−2, respectively, suggesting that in winter 2012 the impact of the FNPP1 accident in the western North Pacific Ocean was nearly the same as that of nuclear weapons testing. Relationship between the water-column inventory and the activity concentration in surface water for the radiocesium is essential information for future evaluation of the total amount of Fukushima-derived radiocesium released into the North Pacific Ocean.
    Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Radioargon isotopes, particularly 37Ar, are currently being considered for use as an On-Site Inspection (OSI) relevant radionuclide within the context of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). In order to understand any soil air measurements taken during an OSI, the radioargon background due to cosmic ray induced activation along with other sources must be understood. An MCNP6 model was developed using the cosmic ray source feature within the code to examine the neutron flux at ground level as a function of various conditions: date during the solar magnetic activity cycle, latitude of sampling location, geology of the sampling location, and sampling depth. Once the cosmic neutron flux was obtained, calculations were performed to determine the rate of radioargon production for the main interactions. Radioargon production was shown to be highly dependent on the soil composition, and a range of 37Ar production values at 1 m depth was found with a maximum production rate of 4.012 atoms/sec/m3 in carbonate geologies and a minimum production rate of 0.070 atoms/sec/m3 in low calcium granite. The sampling location latitude was also shown to have a measurable effect on the radioargon production rate, where the production of 37Ar in an average continental crust is shown to vary by a factor of two between the equator and the poles. The sampling date's position within the solar magnetic activity cycle was also shown to cause a smaller change, less than a factor of 1.2, in activation between solar maxima and solar minima.
    Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The mining activities taking place in Gauteng province, South Africa have caused millions of tons of rocks to be taken from underground to be milled and processed to extract gold. The uranium bearing tailings are placed in an estimated 250 dumps covering a total area of about 7000 ha. These tailings dumps contain considerable amounts of radium and have therefore been identified as large sources of radon. The size of these dumps make traditional radon exhalation measurements time consuming and it is difficult to get representative measurements for the whole dump.In this work radon exhalation measurements from the non-operational Kloof mine dump have been performed by measuring the gamma radiation from the dump fairly accurately over an area of more than 1 km2. Radon exhalation from the mine dump have been inferred from this by laboratory-based and in-situ gamma measurements. Thirty four soil samples were collected at depths of 30 cm and 50 cm. The weighted average activity concentrations in the soil samples were 308 ± 7 Bq kg−1, 255 ± 5 Bq kg−1 and 18 ± 1 Bq kg−1 for 238U, 40K and 232Th, respectively. The MEDUSA (Multi-Element Detector for Underwater Sediment Activity) γ-ray detection system was used for field measurements.The radium concentrations were then used with soil parameters to obtain the radon flux using different approaches such as the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) formula. Another technique the MEDUSA Laboratory Technique (MELT) was developed to map radon exhalation based on (1) recognising that radon exhalation does not affect 40K and 232Th activity concentrations and (2) that the ratio of the activity concentration of the field (MEDUSA) to the laboratory (HPGe) for 238U and 40K or 238U and 232Th will give a measure of the radon exhalation at a particular location in the dump. The average, normalised radon flux was found to be 0.12 ± 0.02 Bq m−2 s−1 for the mine dump.
    Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Concentrations of organically bound tritium (OBT) and tritiated water (HTO) were measured over two growing seasons in vegetation and soil samples obtained in the vicinity of four nuclear facilities and two background locations in Canada. At the background locations, with few exceptions, OBT concentrations were higher than HTO concentrations: OBT/HTO ratios in vegetation varied between 0.3 and 20 and values in soil varied between 2.7 and 15. In the vicinity of the four nuclear facilities OBT/HTO ratios in vegetation and soils deviated from the expected mean value of 0.7, which is used as a default value in environmental transfer models. Ratios of the OBT activity concentration in plants ([OBT]plant) to the OBT activity concentration in soils ([OBT]soil) appear to be a good indicator of the long-term behaviour of tritium in soil and vegetation. In general, OBT activity concentrations in soils were nearly equal to OBT activity concentrations in plants in the vicinity of the two nuclear power plants. [OBT]plant/[OBT]soil ratios considerably below unity observed at one nuclear processing facility represents historically higher levels of tritium in the environment. The results of our study reflect the dynamic nature of HTO retention and OBT formation in vegetation and soil during the growing season. Our data support the mounting evidence suggesting that some parameters used in environmental transfer models approved for regulatory assessments should be revisited to better account for the behavior of HTO and OBT in the environment and to ensure that modelled estimates (e.g., plant OBT) are appropriately conservative. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 11/2014; 140C:105-113.
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    ABSTRACT: Ventilation is the primary means of controlling radon and its daughter concentrations in an underground uranium mine environment. Therefore, prediction of air quantity is the vital component for planning and designing of ventilation systems to minimise the radiation exposure of miners in underground uranium mines. This paper comprehensively describes the derivation and verification of an improved mathematical model for prediction of air quantity, based on the growth of radon daughters in terms of potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC), to reduce the radiation levels in uranium mines. The model also explains the prediction of air quantity depending upon the quality of intake air to the stopes. This model can be used to evaluate the contribution of different sources to radon concentration in mine atmosphere based on the measurements of radon emanation and exhalation. Moreover, a mathematical relationship has been established for quick prediction of air quantity to achieve the desired radon daughter concentration in the mines.
    Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Dust storms in the Middle East are common during spring. Some of these storms are massive and carry a large amount of dust from faraway regions, which pose health and pollution risks. The huge dust storm event occurred in early May, 2012 was investigated for its radioactive content using gamma ray spectroscopy. Dust samples were collected from Northern Jordan and it was found that the storm carried a large amount of both artificial and natural radioactivity. The average activity concentration of fallout 137Cs was 17.0 Bq/kg which is larger than that found in soil (2.3 Bq/kg), and this enrichment is attributed to particle size effects. 7Be which is of atmospheric origin and has a relatively short half-life, was detected in dust with relatively large activity concentrations, as it would be expected, with an average of 2860 Bq/kg, but it was not detected in soil. Despite the large activity concentration of 7Be, dose assessment showed that it does not contribute significantly to the effective dose through inhalation. The concentrations of the primodial nuclides 40K, 232Th and 238U were 547, 30.0 and 49.3 Bq/kg, respectively. With the exception of 40K, these were comparable to what was found in soil.
    Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The Tertiary Limestone Aquifer (TLA) is one of the major regional hydrogeological systems of southern Australia. Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) of freshwater from the TLA occurs through spring creeks, beach springs and diffusively through beach sands, but the magnitude of the total flux is not known. Here, a range of potential environmental tracers (including temperature, salinity, 222Rn, 223Ra, 224Ra, 226Ra, 228Ra, and 4He) were measured in potential sources of SGD and in seawater along a 45 km transect off the coastline to evaluate SGD from the TLA. Whilst most tracers had a distinct signature in the sources of water to the coastline, salinity and the radium quartet had the most distinct SGD signal in seawater. A one-dimensional advection-dispersion model was used to estimate the terrestrial freshwater component of SGD (Qfw) using salinity and the recirculated seawater component (Qrsw) using radium activity in seawater. Qfw was estimated at 1.2–4.6 m3 s−1, similar in magnitude to previously measured spring creek discharge (∼3 m3 s−1) for the area. This suggests that other terrestrial groundwater discharge processes (beach springs and diffuse discharge through beach sands) were no more than 50% of spring creek discharge. The largest component of total SGD was Qrsw, estimated at 500–1000 m3 s−1 and possibly greater. The potential for wave, storm, or buoyancy-driven porewater displacement from the seafloor could explain the large recirculation flux for this section of the Southern Ocean Continental Shelf.
    Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Earthworms are the most suitable biological indicators of radioactive pollution because they are the parts of nutritional webs, and are present in relatively high numbers. Four months old Eisenia fetida were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation, namely 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55 & 60 Gy to study the effects of radiation on different reproductive parameters. The number of cocoons laid and the hatchlings emerged were recorded for all the selected doses. There was no reduction in cocoon production, however; decreasing size and weight of the cocoons was observed from the samples exposed to 20 Gy and above doses. Significant reductions in the hatchlings were recorded in earthworms exposed to 10 Gy and above doses. The dose response curves for a percentage reduction in hatchlings were constructed. Exposure to radiation dose of 1 and 2 Gy did not show any reduction, however, there was ≈10%, ≈50% and ≈90% decrease in the hatchlings in samples exposed to 3, 15 and 45, 50, 55 and 60 Gy doses respectively. Delayed hatchability was also reported at al exposure level. Histology of irradiated earthworms revealed that the structural damage in the seminal vesicles was prominent at the exposed dose of 3 Gy onwards with complete degeneration on exposure to 60 Gy of gamma radiation.
    Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 11/2014;