Journal of the American College of Surgeons (J AM COLL SURGEONS )

Publisher: American College of Surgeons, Elsevier


Visit the Journal of the American College of Surgeons Web site maintained by the American College of Surgeons at Subscription orders and inquiries should be mailed to: Journal of the American College of Surgeons P.O. Box 2127 Marion, OH 43306-8227 Phone numbers: Voice, toll-free (US only): (800)214-8489 Voice, outside the US: (740)382-3322 Fax: (740)382-5866 Agent Inquiries: Tel: (815)734-1223 Fax: (815)734-1207 The Journal of the American College of Surgeons (JACS) is a monthly journal publishing peer-reviewed original contributions on all aspects of surgery. These contributions include but are not limited to original clinical studies, review articles, and experimental investigations with clear clinical relevance. In general, case reports will not be considered for publication. As the official journal of the American College of Surgeons, JACS has the goal of providing its readership the highest quality rapid retrieval of information relevant to surgeons.

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    Journal of the American College of Surgeons website
  • Other titles
    Surgical forum., Surgical forum supplement., Journal of the American College of Surgeons, International abstracts of surgery
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    Periodical, Internet resource
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    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

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Publications in this journal

  • Journal of the American College of Surgeons 04/2014; 218(4):511-8.
  • Journal of the American College of Surgeons 04/2014; 218(4):869-74.
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    ABSTRACT: Post-burn hyperglycemia leads to graft failure, multiple organ failure, and death. A hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp is used to keep serum glucose between 60 and 110 mg/dL. Because of frequent hypoglycemic episodes, a less-stringent sliding scale insulin protocol is used to maintain serum glucose levels between 80 and 160 mg/dL after elevations >180 mg/dL. We randomized pediatric patients with massive burns into 2 groups, patients receiving sliding scale insulin to lower blood glucose levels (n = 145) and those receiving no insulin (n = 98), to determine the differences in morbidity and mortality. Patients 0 to 18 years old with burns covering ≥30% of the total body surface area and not randomized to receive anabolic agents were included in this study. End points included glucose levels, infections, resting energy expenditure, lean body mass, bone mineral content, fat mass, muscle strength, and serum inflammatory cytokines, hormones, and liver enzymes. Maximal glucose levels occurred within 6 days of burn injury. Blood glucose levels were age dependent, with older children requiring more insulin (p < 0.05). Daily maximum and daily minimum, but not 6 am, glucose levels were significantly different based on treatment group (p < 0.05). Insulin significantly increased resting energy expenditure and improved bone mineral content (p < 0.05). Each additional wound infection increased incidence of hyperglycemia (p = 0.004). There was no mortality in patients not receiving insulin, only in patients who received insulin (p < 0.004). Muscle strength was increased in patients receiving insulin (p < 0.05). Burn-induced hyperglycemia develops in a subset of severely burned children. Length of stay was reduced in the no insulin group, and there were no deaths in this group. Administration of insulin positively impacted bone mineral content and muscle strength, but increased resting energy expenditure, hypoglycemic episodes, and mortality. New glucose-lowering strategies might be needed.
    Journal of the American College of Surgeons 04/2014; 218(4):783-95.
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z0011 trial demonstrated that axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) could be safely avoided in selected breast cancer patients with limited nodal disease and having breast conservation therapy. However, for node positive (N+) mastectomy patients, full ALND remains the standard of care. Hypothesizing that omission of complete ALND is safe in many N+ breast cancer patients, a hybrid procedure called conservative axillary regional excision (CARE) was developed, consisting of removal of sentinel nodes and other palpable nodes (without intraoperative frozen section or reoperation for N+). A retrospective review of patients undergoing mastectomy with CARE between 2002 and 2010 was performed. Data collected included demographics; staging; number of lymph nodes removed; adjuvant, antihormonal, and radiation therapies; recurrence; lymphedema; and survival data. Recurrence-free survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using Cox proportional hazards. Five hundred and eighty-seven patients underwent mastectomy with CARE. Mean follow-up was 5.1 years. A median of 8 nodes were removed. There were 7 patients with local recurrence, of which 3 were axillary recurrences. Lymphedema developed in 20 (3.4%) patients, 75% of which had neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Lymphedema development was associated with the number of lymph nodes removed (p = 0.05) and radiation therapy (p = 0.004). Conservative axillary regional excision is an excellent model for understanding the role of limited axillary surgery in mastectomy patients. The locoregional recurrence rate among N1 patients having CARE is low (3.4%). Conservative axillary regional excision is also associated with low rates of lymphedema. These data support the use of limited ALND in selected N+ mastectomy patients.
    Journal of the American College of Surgeons 04/2014; 218(4):819-24.
  • Journal of the American College of Surgeons 04/2014; 218(4):856-68.
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    ABSTRACT: This study analyzed the impact of chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) on early and late clinical outcomes of carotid artery stenting (CAS) using serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). There were 313 CAS patients classified into 3 groups: normal (serum creatinine <1.5 mg/dL or GFR ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)); moderate CRI, and severe CRI (serum creatinine ≥3 or GFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2)). Major adverse events ([MAE] stroke, death, and myocardial infarction) were compared for all groups. Using serum creatinine, perioperative stroke rates for normal, moderate, and severe CRI were: 5%, 0%, and 25%, respectively, (p = 0.05) vs 4.6%, 3.7%, and 11.1%, respectively, (p = 0.44) using GFR. The perioperative MAE rates for symptomatic patients were 9.3% and 0% (p = 0.355) and 2% and 5.9% (p = 0.223) for asymptomatic patients for normal and moderate/severe CRI, respectively, using serum creatinine vs 8.1% and 7.8%, respectively, for symptomatic patients and 2.5% and 3%, respectively, for asymptomatic patients using GFR. At a mean follow-up of 21 months, late MAE rates in normal vs moderate/severe CRI patients were 8.2% and 14%, respectively, (p = 0.247) using serum creatinine vs 6.6% and 13.3%, respectively, (p = 0.05) using GFR. Late MAE rates for symptomatic patients in normal vs moderate/severe CRI were: 8.7% vs 27%, respectively, (p = 0.061) using serum creatinine and 5.7% vs 18.8%, respectively, (p = 0.026) using GFR. Late death rate was 0.55% in normal vs 7.6% (p = 0.002) for moderate/severe CRI. Freedom from MAE at 3 years in symptomatic patients was 81% in normal and 46% in moderate/severe CRI (p = 0.0198). A multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that a GFR of < 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) had an odds ratio of 1.6 (p = 0.222) of having a MAE after CAS. The GFR was more sensitive in detecting late MAE after CAS. Carotid artery stenting in moderate CRI patients can be done with a satisfactory perioperative outcome; however, late death was significant.
    Journal of the American College of Surgeons 04/2014; 218(4):797-805.
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    ABSTRACT: Nonoperative management (NOM) of blunt splenic injury is well accepted. Substantial failure rates in higher injury grades remain common, with one large study reporting rates of 19.6%, 33.3%, and 75% for grades III, IV, and V, respectively. Retrospective data show angiography and embolization can increase salvage rates in these severe injuries. We developed a protocol requiring referral of all blunt splenic injuries, grades III to V, without indication for immediate operation for angiography and embolization. We hypothesized that angiography and embolization of high-grade blunt splenic injury would reduce NOM failure rates in this population. This was a prospective study at our Level I trauma center as part of a performance-improvement project. Demographics, injury characteristics, and outcomes were compared with historic controls. The protocol required all stable patients with grade III to V splenic injuries be referred for angiography and embolization. In historic controls, referral was based on surgeon preference. From January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2012, there were 168 patients with grades III to V spleen injuries admitted; NOM was undertaken in 113 (67%) patients. The protocol was followed in 97 patients, with a failure rate of 5%. Failure rate in the 16 protocol deviations was 25% (p = 0.02). Historic controls from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2009 were compared with the protocol group. One hundred and fifty-three patients with grade III to V injuries were admitted during this period, 80 (52%) patients underwent attempted NOM. Failure rate was significantly higher than for the protocol group (15%, p = 0.04). Use of a protocol requiring angiography and embolization for all high-grade spleen injuries slated for NOM leads to a significantly decreased failure rate. We recommend angiography and embolization as an adjunct to NOM for all grade III to V splenic injuries.
    Journal of the American College of Surgeons 04/2014; 218(4):644-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Wilms tumor (WT) is the most common childhood kidney cancer worldwide and arises in children of black African ancestry with greater frequency and severity than other race groups. A biologic basis for this pediatric cancer disparity has not been previously determined. We hypothesized that unique molecular fingerprints might underlie the variable incidence and distinct disease characteristics of WT observed between race groups. To evaluate molecular disparities between WTs of different race groups, the Children's Oncology Group provided 80 favorable histology specimens divided evenly between black and white patients and matched for disease characteristics. As a surrogate of black sub-Saharan African patients, we also analyzed 18 Kenyan WT specimens. Tissues were probed for peptide profiles using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight imaging mass spectrometry. To control for histologic variability within and between specimens, cellular regions were analyzed separately as triphasic (containing blastema, epithelia, and stroma), blastema only, and stroma only. Data were queried using ClinProTools and statistically analyzed. Peptide profiles, detected in triphasic WT regions, recognized race with good accuracy, which increased for blastema- or stroma-only regions. Peptide profiles from North American WTs differed between black and white race groups but were far more similar in composition than Kenyan specimens. Individual peptides were identified that also associated with WT patient and disease characteristics (eg, treatment failure and stage). Statistically significant peptide fragments were used to sequence proteins, revealing specific cellular signaling pathways and candidate drug targets. Wilms tumor specimens arising among different race groups show unique molecular fingerprints that could explain disparate incidences and biologic behavior and that could reveal novel therapeutic targets.
    Journal of the American College of Surgeons 04/2014; 218(4):707-20.
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    ABSTRACT: Short-term outcomes of morbidity, mortality, and quality of life after pneumonectomy worsen with increasing age. The impact of age on long-term outcomes has not been well described. The purpose of this study was to quantify the impact of patient age on long-term survival after pneumonectomy for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer. Overall survival (OS) of patients who had a pneumonectomy for stage I to II non-small cell lung cancer in the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results program registry from 1988 through 2010 was evaluated using multivariable and propensity score adjusted Cox proportional hazard models. Age was stratified as younger than 50 years, 50 to 69 years, 70 to 79 years, and 80 years and older. Pneumonectomy patients' OS was compared with matched patients who refused surgery and underwent radiation therapy (RT). Pneumonectomies comprised 10.8% of non-small cell lung cancer resections in 1988, but only 2.9% in 2010. Overall, 5-year OS of 5,701 pneumonectomy patients was 49.8% (95% CI, 45.3-54.8%) for patients younger than 50 years, 40.5% (95% CI, 38.8-42.2%) for patients 50 to 69 years, 28.9% (95% CI, 26.6-31.5%) for patients 70 to 79 years, and 18.8% (95% CI, 14.2-24.8%) for patients 80 and older (p < 0.001). Increasing patient age was the most important predictor of worse OS (hazard ratio = 1.34 per decade; p < 0.001). For patients younger than 70 years, 5-year OS was 46.3% (95% CI, 36.2-59.2%) after pneumonectomy vs 18.4% (95% CI, 11.9-28.3%) for matched RT patients (p < 0.001). In matched groups of patients 70 years and older, 5-year OS for pneumonectomy was 25.8% (95% CI, 20.8-32.0%) vs 12.2% for RT (95% CI, 8.6-17.4%; p = 0.02). Survival after pneumonectomy for stage I to II non-small cell lung cancer decreases steadily with patient age. The incremental benefit of pneumonectomy vs RT in matched patients is less in patients older than 70 years than in younger patients, although outcomes with pneumonectomy are superior to RT in all age groups. Patients should not be denied pneumonectomy based on age alone, but careful patient selection in elderly patients is essential to optimize survival.
    Journal of the American College of Surgeons 03/2014; 218(3):439-49.
  • Article: Reply.
    Journal of the American College of Surgeons 03/2014; 218(3):500-1.
  • Journal of the American College of Surgeons 03/2014; 218(3):317-27.
  • Article: Reply.
    Journal of the American College of Surgeons 03/2014; 218(3):502-3.
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    ABSTRACT: The concomitant use of nonabsorbable mesh during stapled bariatric surgery has been discouraged due to potential contamination. The aim of our study was to compare and quantify the extent of bacterial load and gross contamination of the peritoneal cavity in patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) vs those undergoing laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB). We prospectively enrolled all patients undergoing LSG and LRYGB. Peritoneal fluid aspirate samples were collected from each subject. Sample A was obtained at the beginning of the procedure, and sample B was obtained at the end of the procedure either from the staple line wash of the LSG or the gastrojejunostomy in the LRYGB. A total of 77 patients (51 LSG and 26 LRYGB) and 154 samples (102 from LSG and 52 from LRYGB) were included in this study. All samples obtained at the beginning of each procedure (sample A) were culture negative. Samples of peritoneal fluid obtained at the end of the procedure (sample B) in sleeve gastrectomy procedures were all negative (0%) after a minimum of 72 hours for aerobic and anaerobic cultures. Those obtained for LRYGB (sample B) were culture positive in 4 of 26 (15%). The latter results are statistically significant (p < 0.05). Intraperitoneal bacterial cultures in patients undergoing LSG are negative, contrary to those in patients undergoing LRYGB. The concomitant use of prosthetic material to repair ventral hernias in patients undergoing an LSG procedure should be safe and feasible.
    Journal of the American College of Surgeons 03/2014; 218(3):358-62.
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiologic studies have shown that individuals who consume low to moderate alcohol have a lower risk of cardiovascular disease developing compared with abstainers. Although experimental studies confirmed this observation, the effect of alcohol on ischemic myocardium is still unclear. We developed a clinically relevant animal model of chronic myocardial ischemia to investigate the effects of moderate alcohol consumption on the myocardium. Fourteen Yorkshire swine underwent placement of an ameroid constrictor to induce chronic myocardial ischemia. Postoperatively, one group was supplemented with 90 mL 50% EtOH daily (n = 7) and one group was supplemented with 80 g sucrose daily to normalize caloric intake between groups (n = 7). After 7 weeks, all animals underwent sternotomy, and harvest of the chronically ischemic myocardium and nonischemic myocardium. Tissues were analyzed for protein expression and stained for apoptosis quantification. In the ischemic myocardium, alcohol down-regulated the following proapoptotic proteins: tumor necrosis factor-α, forkhead box protein 03, BCL2-associated death promoter, and cysteine aspartic acid-specific protease 9; up-regulated the following prosurvival proteins: 5'adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, phosphorylated 5'adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, and phosphorylated forkhead box protein 03; and down-regulated mammalian target of rapamycin (MTOR) signaling by down-regulating MTOR, phosphorylated MTOR, and up-regulating Deptor. In the nonischemic myocardium, alcohol up-regulated prosurvival proteins: protein kinase B, phosphorylated protein kinase B, phosphorylated B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2, 5'adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, phosphorylated BCL2-associated death promoter, phosphorylated forkhead box protein 03, and down-regulated MTOR signaling by down-regulating phosphorylated MTOR and up-regulating Deptor. Alcohol also decreased cell death as measured by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick-end labeling staining in the ischemic and nonischemic myocardium. Alcohol consumption down-regulates apoptosis and promotes cell survival in the ischemic and nonischemic myocardium. Alcohol also modulates MTOR signaling, which regulates senescence and apoptosis. Perhaps MTOR and apoptosis regulation is another mechanism by which moderate EtOH consumption is cardioprotective.
    Journal of the American College of Surgeons 02/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: There is currently no systematic approach to evaluating the severity of intraoperative adverse events (iAEs). A 3-phase project was designed to develop and validate a novel severity classification scheme for iAEs. Phase 1 created the severity classification using a modified Delphi process. Phase 2 measured the classification's internal consistency by calculating inter-rater reliability among 91 surgeons using standardized iAEs scenarios. Phase 3 measured the classification's construct validity by testing whether major iAEs (severity class ≥3) correlated with worse 30-day postoperative outcomes compared with minor iAEs (severity class <3). This was achieved by creating a matched database using American College of Surgeons NSQIP and administrative data, querying for iAEs using the Patient Safety Indicator #15 (Accidental Puncture/Laceration), and iAE confirmation by chart review. Phase 1 resulted in a 6-point severity classification scheme. Phase 2 revealed an inter-rater reliability of 0.882. Of 9,292 patients, phase 3 included 181 confirmed with iAEs. All preoperative/intraoperative variables, including demographics, comorbidities, type of surgery performed, and operative length, were similar between patients with minor (n = 110) vs major iAEs (n = 71). In multivariable logistic analysis, severe iAEs correlated with higher risks of any postoperative complication (odds ratio [OR] = 3.8; 95% CI, 1.9-7.4; p < 0.001), surgical site infections (OR = 3.7; 95% CI, 1.7-8.2; p = 0.001), systemic sepsis (OR = 6.0; 95% CI, 2.1-17.2; p = 0.001), failure to wean off the ventilator (OR = 3.2; 95% CI, 1.2-8.9; p = 0.022), and postoperative length of stay ≥7 days (OR = 3.0; 95% CI, 1.5-5.9; p = 0.002). Thirty-day mortalities were similar (4.5% vs 7.1%; p = 0.46). We propose a novel iAE severity classification system with high internal consistency and solid construct validity. Our classification scheme might prove essential for benchmarking quality of intraoperative care across hospitals and/or individual surgeons.
    Journal of the American College of Surgeons 02/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Prosthetic repair has become the standard method for hernia repair. Mesh placement for the prevention of trocar site incisional hernia (TSIH) is still a controversial issue. We tested the hypothesis that closure with an intraperitoneal prophylactic mesh of the umbilical trocar after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy can reduce the incidence of a TSIH in high-risk patients. A randomized clinical trial was conducted among patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy who presented the following high-risk factors for incisional hernia, according to the literature: age 65 years and older, diabetes mellitus, chronic pulmonary disease, and obesity (ie, body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2)). Patients were assigned to have closure of the umbilical trocar site with either nonabsorbable sutures (group A) or intraperitoneal polypropylene omega-3 mesh (group B). Trocar site incisional hernia, pain, and surgical complications were evaluated at the early postoperative course and at 1, 6, and 12 months after surgery. A total of 106 patients were randomized into the study and 92 patients were finally analyzed, including 47 in group A and 45 in group B. The TSIH rate was higher in group A (31.9%) than in group B (4.4%) (odds ratio = 10.1; 95% CI, 2.15-47.6; p < 0.001)). The wound infection rate was 4.3%; 8.5% in group A and 0% in group B (odds ratio = 2.04; 95% CI, 1.7-2.5; p = 0.045). Median postoperative pain evaluated by a visual analogue scale was 3 in group A and 2 in group B (p = 0.05). No differences were observed in complication rate, operative time, or hospital stay between the groups. Prosthetic closure of the umbilical trocar site after laparoscopic surgery could become the standard method for preventing TSIH in high-risk patients.
    Journal of the American College of Surgeons 02/2014;
  • Journal of the American College of Surgeons 02/2014; 218(2):302-3.
  • Article: Reply.
    Journal of the American College of Surgeons 02/2014; 218(2):309-11.
  • Journal of the American College of Surgeons 02/2014; 218(2):283-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Surgical patients and their physicians currently have tools to provide individualized prognostication for morbidity and mortality. For improved shared decision making, formal prediction of patient-centered outcomes is necessary. We derived and validated a simple, interview-based method to predict discharge home after surgery. We used the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) Patient User File for 2011. Derivation in general and vascular surgery patients undergoing inpatient surgery was completed using serial multiple logistic regression. Validation was performed within multiple surgical specialties. The derivation cohort included 88,068 patients, of whom 11,771 (13.4%) were not discharged home. The derived Home Calculator had excellent discrimination (c-statistic = 0.864) using 4 variables: age, American Society of Anesthesiologists' performance status, elective surgery, and preadmission residence. Validation cohorts had varying rates of home discharge as follows: general (63,826 of 71,591, 89.2%), vascular (12,319 of 16,102, 76.5%), gynecologic (16,603 of 17,005, 97.6%), urologic (13,662 of 14,435, 94.6%), orthopaedic (12,000 of 19,514, 61.5%), thoracic (4,467 of 5,092, 87.7%). The Home Calculator provided good to excellent discrimination in validation cohorts: general (c = 0.866), vascular (c = 0.800), gynecologic (c = 0.793), urologic (c = 0.814), orthopaedic (c = 0.876), and thoracic (c = 0.800). Comparable discrimination was demonstrated in sensitivity analyses in surgical patients admitted exclusively from home. We derived and validated a simple Home Calculator that reliably predicts discharge to home after surgery and may be useful when counseling patients about postoperative course. Patient-centered tools such as this may allow physicians to better prepare patients and families for surgery and the recovery process.
    Journal of the American College of Surgeons 02/2014; 218(2):226-36.

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