Nutrition research

Publisher: Elsevier

Description

  • Impact factor
    2.59
  • 5-year impact
    0.00
  • Cited half-life
    8.60
  • Immediacy index
    0.23
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.26
  • ISSN
    1879-0739

Publisher details

Elsevier

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  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Because research focusing on dairy food consumption and the risk for obesity is inconsistent and only a few studies have even examined specific dairy products, in regard to type of food and fat content, in relation to obesity risk, this cross-sectional study investigated whether dairy food consumption is associated with the prevalence of global and abdominal obesity. Data were analyzed from 1352 participants in the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg survey. We hypothesized that higher total dairy food consumption would be independently associated with reduced prevalence of obesity. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to measure intakes of dairy foods. Odds for global obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2)) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference >102 cm for men and >88cm for women) were determined based on total dairy food intake as well as intakes of individual low- and whole-fat dairy products (milk, yogurt, and cheese). Total dairy food intake was inversely associated with the likelihood of global obesity (odds ratio [OR], 0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.30-0.89; P < .05) and abdominal obesity (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.32-0.83; P < .01). Participants in the highest tertile of whole-fat dairy intakes (milk, cheese, yogurt) had significantly lower odds for being obese (global obesity: OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.29-0.72; P < .01; abdominal obesity: OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.23-0.54; P < .001), compared with those in the lowest intake tertile, after full adjustment for demographic, lifestyle, dietary, and cardiovascular risk factor variables. Increasing consumption of dairy foods may have the potential to lower the prevalence of global and abdominal obesity.
    Nutrition research 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Adequate dietary protein intake throughout pregnancy is essential to ensure healthy fetal development. Insufficient and excessive maternal dietary protein intakes are both associated with intrauterine growth restriction, resulting in low birth weight infants. The aim of this study was to analyze the dietary protein intake patterns of healthy pregnant women in Vancouver, British Columbia, during early and late gestation. We hypothesized that women would be consuming higher protein during late stages of pregnancy compared with early stages of pregnancy. Interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaires were collected prospectively from 270 women at 16- and 36-week gestation; food frequency questionnaires from 212 women met study criteria. Maternal anthropometrics at both stages and infant weight at birth were collected. Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to determine significant gestational differences in protein intakes. Spearman correlation was used to determine the influence of protein intakes and maternal anthropometrics on pregnancy outcomes. Median (25th and 75th percentiles) protein intakes adjusted for body weight were 1.5 (1.18 and 1.79) and 1.3 (1.04 and 1.60) g/kg per day at 16- than 36-week gestation, respectively. Primary protein sources were identified as dairy products. Protein intakes were negatively correlated with birth weight (P < .05), whereas maternal height, weight, body mass index, and weight gain to 36-week gestation were positively correlated with birth weight (P < .05). This study provides current dietary protein intake patterns among healthy Canadian women during pregnancy and indicates higher intakes than current Dietary Reference Intakes recommended dietary allowance of 1.1 g/kg per day, especially during early gestation.
    Nutrition research 07/2014; 34(7):569-76.
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    ABSTRACT: The only known treatment for celiac disease is a gluten-free diet (GFD), which initially meant abstention from wheat, rye, barley, and oats. Recently, oats free from contamination with wheat have been accepted in the GFD. Yet, reports indicate that all celiac disease patients may not tolerate oats. We hypothesized that celiac children comply well with a GFD and that most have included oats in their diet. A food questionnaire was used to check our patients; 316 questionnaires were returned. Mean time on the GFD was 6.9 years, and 96.8% of the children reported that they were trying to keep a strict GFD. However, accidental transgressions occurred in 263 children (83.2%). In 2 of 3 cases, mistakes took place when the patients were not at home. Symptoms after incidental gluten intake were experienced by 162 (61.6%) patients, mostly (87.5%) from the gastrointestinal tract. Small amounts of gluten (<4 g) caused symptoms in 38% of the cases, and 68% reported symptoms during the first 3 hours after gluten consumption. Oats were included in the diet of 89.4% of the children for a mean of 3.4 years. Most (81.9%) ate purified oats, and 45.3% consumed oats less than once a week. Among those who did not consume oats, only 5.9% refrained because of symptoms. General compliance with the GFD was good. Only the duration of the GFD appeared to influence adherence to the diet. Most patients did not report adverse effects after long-term consumption of oats.
    Nutrition research 05/2014; 34(5):436-41.
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    ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes, characterized by hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, is a metabolic disease resulting from defects in both insulin secretion and insulin resistance. Recently, olive leaf has been reported as an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antidiabetic agent. This study sought to investigate whether olive leaf extract can improve the insulin resistance and inflammation response in rats with type 2 diabetes induced by high-fat diet and streptozotocin. After administering olive leaf extract for 8 weeks (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight), rats given the higher dose showed significantly lower blood glucose, serum total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels compared with those of diabetic control rats (P < .05). Results of oral glucose tolerance tests, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin (IL) 6 in the liver show significantly decreased glucose level in rats given either dose of olive leaf extract (P < .05). Both olive leaf extract-treated groups showed significantly increased insulin receptor substrate 1 expression (P < .05). Tumor necrosis factor α, IL-6 and IL-1β mRNA expressions in epididymis adipose tissue were significantly lower in rats that received higher dose of olive leaf extract (P < .05). Lymphocyte infiltration was not observed in these rats. The results suggest that olive leaf extract may attenuate insulin resistance by suppressing mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines and elevating of insulin receptor substrate 1 expression.
    Nutrition research 05/2014; 34(5):450-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) provide an inexpensive tool for dietary assessment. Given the scarcity of data on their validity for nutritional analysis in persons with overt diabetes mellitus or with increased risk of diabetes (relatives of patients with diabetes), this study tests the hypothesis that an FFQ, adapted to local dietary habits, yields a reliable estimate of nutrient intake when compared with 7-day food record (7DR) in healthy, prediabetes, and diabetes cohorts. One hundred three volunteers (50 persons with overt diabetes mellitus, 24 relatives of patients with diabetes, and 29 nondiabetic individuals without a family history of diabetes) completed both FFQ and 7DR. A second FFQ was completed by 100 of these volunteers after 3 months to evaluate its reproducibility. Data were compared by correlation and Bland-Altman analyses. Across the entire group, estimates for gram intakes of nutrients and total energy were associated with wide limits of agreement between FFQ and 7DR (correlation coefficients, 0.23-0.72; P < .02). Compared with 7DR, the FFQ overestimated intakes of saturated fat in the entire group (+6.6 ± 14 g; P < .001) and in persons with overt diabetes mellitus (+7.6 ± 15 g; P < .001) but underestimated protein intake in relatives of patients with diabetes (-16.36 ± 31 g; P = .01). The repeated FFQ revealed variable agreement (correlation coefficients, 0.34-0.72; P < .001) and underestimated (P < .01) macronutrient and total energy intakes, with slightly better performance in persons with overt diabetes mellitus and relatives of patients with diabetes than in nondiabetic individuals without a family history of diabetes. Hence, the FFQ allows measuring intakes of total energy and macronutrients in prediabetes and diabetes cohorts but reveals limitations when assessing dietary composition.
    Nutrition research 05/2014; 34(5):410-9.
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    ABSTRACT: β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) prevents deleterious muscle responses under pathological conditions, including tumor- and chronic steroid therapy-related muscle losses. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that HMB may modulate the balance between protein synthesis and degradation in the PI3K/Akt-mediated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and FoxO1/FoxO3a-dependent mechanisms in differentiated C2C12 muscle cells. We also tested the effect of HMB on the expression of MuRF-1 and atrogin-1 in response to the inflammatory stress. β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate up-regulated phosphorylation of Akt and mTOR, and these effects were completely abolished in the presence of PI3K inhibitor LY294002. β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate also up-regulated FoxO1 and FoxO3a phosphorylation, and these changes were inhibited by LY294002. Although, unexpectedly, HMB failed to reduce the expressions of atrophy-related atrogin-1 messenger RNA and the protein response to the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α plus interferon γ, HMB did attenuate the MuRF-1 expression. Thus, HMB appears to restore the balance between intracellular protein synthesis and proteolysis, likely via activation of the PI3K/Akt-dependent mTOR and FoxO1/FoxO3a signaling pathway and the reduction of tumor necrosis factor α/interferon γ-induced MuRF-1 expression, thereby ameliorating aging-related muscle atrophy.
    Nutrition research 04/2014; 34(4):368-74.
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    ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that the administration of Cheonggukjang (CKJ) would exert positive effects on factors implicated with growth in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. To test this hypothesis, we measured specific aspects of bone and organ growth in male SD rats that were treated for 6 weeks with 3 concentrations of CKJ. Although the CKJ extract contained high concentrations of flavonoids and phenolic compounds, no significant differences in body length, organ weights, or femur weight were detected between the CKJ- and vehicle-treated groups. However, thicknesses of the epiphyseal growth plate in the proximal femoral epiphysis and the compact bone in the linea aspera were broadest in the femur of the 2 CKJ-treated groups when compared with the vehicle-treated groups. Furthermore, the levels of growth hormone (GH) and calcium ion were higher in the sera of the high-concentration CKJ-treated groups, whereas the expression level of GH receptor was higher in muscle tissue of all CKJ-treated groups and in the liver tissue of the high-concentration CKJ-treated group. In the GH receptor downstream signaling pathway, the phosphorylation levels of Akt and Erk were expressed differently between liver and muscle tissues upon CKJ treatment. However, the phosphorylation level of STAT5 was very similar to the expression level of the GH receptor in all CKJ-treated groups. These results indicate that CKJ extract may increase the thickness of the epiphyseal growth plate and the compact bone of the femur, elevate GH secretion, and stimulate regulation of the GH receptor downstream signaling pathway in the liver and muscle tissues of SD rats.
    Nutrition research 04/2014; 34(4):355-67.
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    ABSTRACT: The main external time giver is the day-night cycle; however, signals from feeding and the activity/rest cycles can entrain peripheral clocks, such as the hippocampus, in the absence of light. Knowing that vitamin A and its derivatives, the retinoids, may act as regulators of the endogenous clock activity, we hypothesized that the nutritional deficiency of vitamin A may influence the locomotor activity rhythm as well as the endogenous circadian patterns of clock genes in the rat hippocampus. Locomotor activity was recorded during the last week of the treatment period. Circadian rhythms of clock genes expression were analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in hippocampus samples that were isolated every 4 hours during a 24-hour period. Reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were also determined by a kinetic assay. Regulatory regions of clock PER2, CRY1, and CRY2 genes were scanned for RXRE, RARE, and RORE sites. As expected, the locomotor activity pattern of rats shifted rightward under constant dark conditions. Clock genes expression and GSH levels displayed robust circadian oscillations in the rat hippocampus. We found RXRE and RORE sites on regulatory regions of clock genes. Vitamin A deficiency dampened rhythms of locomotor activity as well as modified endogenous rhythms of clock genes expression and GSH levels. Thus, vitamin A may have a role in endogenous clock functioning and participate in the circadian regulation of the cellular redox state in the hippocampus, a peripheral clock with relevant function in memory and learning.
    Nutrition research 04/2014; 34(4):326-35.
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    ABSTRACT: Isoflavones, mainly found in soy, have been shown to inhibit ovarian cancer cell proliferation. We hypothesized that soy consumption and isoflavone intake are related to the risk of ovarian cancer. A case-control study was conducted in southern China to ascertain this hypothesis. Five hundred incident patients with histologically confirmed cancer of the ovary and 500 controls (mean age 59 years) were recruited from four public hospitals in Guangzhou. Information on habitual consumption of soy foods, including soybean, soy milk, fresh tofu, dried tofu, and soybean sprout, was obtained face-to-face from participants through a validated and reliable semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Isoflavone intakes were then estimated using the USDA nutrient database. The ovarian cancer patients reported lower consumption levels of individual and total soy foods (75.3 ± 53.6 g/day) compared to the controls (110.7 ± 88.8 g/day). Logistic regression analyses showed that regular intake of soy foods could reduce the ovarian cancer risk, the adjusted odds ratio being 0.29 (95% confidence interval 0.20 to 0.42) for women who consumed at least 120 g/day relative to those less than 61 g/day. Similarly, isoflavone intakes were inversely associated with the ovarian cancer risk, with significant dose-response relationships (P < 0.001). We concluded that consumption of soy foods is associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer in southern Chinese women.
    Nutrition research 04/2014; 34(4):302-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Pineapple peel, a byproduct of agricultural processing, contains high levels of water-insoluble fiber-rich fraction (WIFF) (~42%, wt/wt). Our previous work has demonstrated that cellulose, hemicellulose (xylan and xyloglucan), and pectic substances are the major polysaccharides of pineapple-peel WIFF. Based on its chemical composition and unique characteristics, we hypothesized that daily consumption of WIFF would improve intestinal function in hamsters. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were fed a diet supplemented with either 5% cellulose or various amounts of WIFF (2.5%, 5%, or 10%). Activities of fecal bacterial enzymes, short-chain fatty acid concentrations, and microbial number in the cecal content, and also biochemical indicators in the cecal and feces of hamsters, were evaluated in all groups. The supplementation of WIFF in a diet at a level of 2.5% significantly (P < .05) decreased the daily fecal ammonia output; shortened the gastrointestinal transit time; reduced the activities of β-d-glucosidase, β-d-glucuronidase, mucinase, and urease in feces; and also enhanced the total amounts of short-chain fatty acid in the cecal content and the growth of gut microflora such as Lactobacillus spp and Bifidobacterium spp. These results indicate that WIFF could improve cecal ecosystem function of hamsters by reducing the toxic compounds excreted by intestinal microflora. Therefore, pineapple-peel WIFF could be a promising candidate for a functional ingredient beneficial to human intestinal function and health.
    Nutrition research 04/2014; 34(4):346-54.
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    ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes has been shown to occur in response to environmental and genetic influences, among them nutrition; food intake patterns; sedentary lifestyle; body mass index; and exposure to persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Nutrition is essential in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes and has been shown to modulate the toxicity of PCBs. Serum carotenoid concentrations, considered a reliable biomarker of fruit and vegetable intake, are associated with the reduced probability of chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Our hypothesis is that fruit and vegetable intake, reflected by serum carotenoid concentrations, is associated with the reduced probability of developing type 2 diabetes in US adults with elevated serum concentrations of PCBs 118, 126, and 153. This cross-sectional study used the Center for Disease Control and Prevention database, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004, in logistic regression analyses. Overall prevalence of type 2 diabetes was approximately 11.6% depending on the specific PCB. All 3 PCBs were positively associated with the probability of type 2 diabetes. For participants at higher PCB percentiles (eg, 75th and 90th) for PCB 118 and 126, increasing serum carotenoid concentrations were associated with a smaller probability of type 2 diabetes. Fruit and vegetable intake, as reflected by serum carotenoid concentrations, predicted notably reduced probability of dioxin-like PCB-associated risk for type 2 diabetes.
    Nutrition research 04/2014; 34(4):285-93.
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    ABSTRACT: Previously, we have reported the pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of α-mangostin in mice. For this study, we evaluated the PK profile of α-mangostin using a standardized mangosteen extract in C57BL/6 mice. The primary objective was to determine the PK properties of α-mangostin when administered as an extract. This experiment was designed to test our primary hypothesis that α-mangostin in an extract should achieve a desirable PK profile. This is especially relevant as dietary supplements of mangosteen fruit are regularly standardized to α-mangostin. Mice received 100 mg/kg of mangosteen fruit extract orally, equivalent to 36 mg/kg of α-mangostin, and plasma samples were analyzed over a 24-hour period. Concentrations of α-mangostin were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In addition, we evaluated the stability in the presence of phase I and phase II enzymes in liver and gastrointestinal microsomes. Furthermore, we identified evidence of phase II metabolism of α-mangostin. Further research will be required to determine if less abundant xanthones present in the mangosteen may modulate the PK parameters of α-mangostin.
    Nutrition research 04/2014; 34(4):336-45.