Nutrition research

Publisher: Elsevier

Journal description

Current impact factor: 2.59

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 2.585
2012 Impact Factor 2.142
2011 Impact Factor 1.974
2010 Impact Factor 2.092
2009 Impact Factor 1.197
2008 Impact Factor 0.866
2007 Impact Factor 0.683
2006 Impact Factor 0.728
2005 Impact Factor 0.772
2004 Impact Factor 0.57
2003 Impact Factor 0.717
2002 Impact Factor 0.791
2001 Impact Factor 0.6
2000 Impact Factor 0.716
1999 Impact Factor 0.746
1998 Impact Factor 0.67
1997 Impact Factor 0.627
1996 Impact Factor 0.638
1995 Impact Factor 0.559
1994 Impact Factor 0.469
1993 Impact Factor 0.474
1992 Impact Factor 0.631

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 0.00
Cited half-life 8.60
Immediacy index 0.23
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.26
ISSN 1879-0739

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Pre-print allowed on any website or open access repository
    • Voluntary deposit by author of authors post-print allowed on authors' personal website, or institutions open scholarly website including Institutional Repository, without embargo, where there is not a policy or mandate
    • Deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate only allowed where separate agreement between repository and the publisher exists.
    • Permitted deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate, may be required to comply with embargo periods of 12 months to 48 months .
    • Set statement to accompany deposit
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to journal home page or articles' DOI
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • NIH Authors articles will be submitted to PubMed Central after 12 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 18/10/2013
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that the beneficial effects of early enteral compared with parenteral feeding are related to the increased variety of aerobic microorganisms that colonize the gut. Our aim was to describe the relationship, first, between the type of feeding and mucosal colonization and, second, between the type of feeding and the development of late-onset sepsis (LOS) and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm neonates. In total, 159 neonates aged 72 hours or less with risk factors for early-onset sepsis were recruited to a prospective 2-center study. Rectal swabs were collected on admission and twice per week thereafter. The feeding regimen was recorded for the first 7 days and categorized into total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and 2 regimens of enteral nutrition, that is, breast milk containing regimen (BMCR), for which breast milk constituted at least 11% of the enteral diet, or formula. Herein, 70 neonates received formula, 48 received BMCR, and 41 received TPN; 69 cases of LOS and 15 cases of NEC were observed in 50 neonates. A multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that formula and BMCR were associated with 4- to 5-fold increases in colonization by Gram-negative bacteria (odds ratio [OR], 4.52; 1.87-10.95, and OR, 4.95; 1.90-12.87, respectively) and 5 to 9 times higher odds of colonization by Gram-positive microorganisms (OR, 5.75; 1.89-16.72, and OR, 8.61; 2.52-29.36, respectively) compared with TPN. The only difference between BMCR and the other feeding groups was the higher colonization with Staphylococcus haemolyticus in the latter (formula-OR, 6.24; 1.73-22.50; TPN-OR, 2.75; 1.08-6.97). Compared with BMCR, TPN was associated with an increased odds of LOS (OR, 3.04; 1.02-9.07) and an increased odds of death (19.75; 3.64-107.12) compared with formula. Although early enteral feeding is associated with a higher odds of colonization with opportunistic microorganisms, it should be preferred over TPN whenever feasible, due to the favorable effect on the prevention of LOS. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Nutrition research 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.nutres.2015.04.006
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The worldwide growth in the incidence of gastrointestinal disorders has created an immediate need to identify safe and effective interventions. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we examined the effects of Actazin and Gold, kiwifruit-derived nutritional ingredients, on stool frequency, stool form, and gastrointestinal comfort in healthy and functionally constipated (Rome III criteria for C3 functional constipation) individuals. Using a crossover design, all participants consumed all 4 dietary interventions (Placebo, Actazin low dose [Actazin-L] [600 mg/day], Actazin high dose [Actazin-H] [2400 mg/day], and Gold [2400 mg/day]). Each intervention was taken for 28 days followed by a 14-day washout period between interventions. Participants recorded their daily bowel movements and well-being parameters in daily questionnaires. In the healthy cohort (n = 19), the Actazin-H (P = .014) and Gold (P = .009) interventions significantly increased the mean daily bowel movements compared with the washout. No significant differences were observed in stool form as determined by use of the Bristol stool scale. In a subgroup analysis of responders in the healthy cohort, Actazin-L (P = .005), Actazin-H (P < .001), and Gold (P = .001) consumption significantly increased the number of daily bowel movements by greater than 1 bowel movement per week. In the functionally constipated cohort (n = 9), there were no significant differences between interventions for bowel movements and the Bristol stool scale values or in the subsequent subgroup analysis of responders. This study demonstrated that Actazin and Gold produced clinically meaningful increases in bowel movements in healthy individuals. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Nutrition research 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.nutres.2015.04.005
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It is hypothesized that a high dietary n-6:n-3 (eg, 10-20:1) is partly responsible for the rise in obesity and related health ailments. However, no tightly controlled studies using high-fat diets differing in the n-6:n-3 have tested this hypothesis. The aim of the study was to determine the role that the dietary n-6:n-3 plays in non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease (NAFLD) and colitis development. We hypothesized that reducing the dietary n-6:n-3 would hinder the development of NAFLD and colitis. Male C57BL/6 J mice were fed high-fat diets, differing in the n-6:n-3 (1:1, 5:1, 10:1, 20:1), for 20 weeks. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to analyze the hepatic phospholipid arachidonic acid (AA):eicosapentaenoic acid and AA:docosahexaenoic acid. Hepatic metabolism, inflammatory signaling, macrophage polarization, gene expression of inflammatory mediators, oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress, and oxidative capacity were assessed as well as colonic inflammatory signaling, and gene expression of inflammatory mediators and tight-junction proteins. Although reducing the dietary n-6:n-3 lowered the hepatic phospholipid AA:eicosapentaenoic acid and AA:docosahexaenoic acid in a dose-dependent manner and mildly influenced inflammatory signaling, it did not significantly attenuate NAFLD development. Furthermore, the onset of NAFLD was not paired to colitis development or changes in tight-junction protein gene expression. In conclusion, reducing the dietary n-6:n-3 did not attenuate NAFLD progression; nor is it likely that colitis, or gut permeability, plays a role in NAFLD initiation in this model. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Nutrition research 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.nutres.2015.04.003
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Preeclampsia (PE) affects approximately 5% of all pregnancies, but is increased several-fold in women with pre-gestational type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Increased oxidative stress and altered maternal plasma trace elements that modulate the antioxidant system have been implicated in PE. In non-diabetic women, increased plasma copper and iron and decreased manganese, selenium, and zinc have been associated with PE in cross-sectional studies. In a longitudinal study, we hypothesized that plasma levels of trace elements differ between T1DM women with vs. without subsequent PE. Samples were collected during the first (gestation 12.2 ± 1.9 weeks, [mean ± SD]), second (21.6 ± 1.5 weeks), and third (31.5 ± 1.7 weeks) trimesters of pregnancy, all before the onset of PE. We compared 23 T1DM women who subsequently developed PE with 24 T1DM women who remained normotensive; and we included 19 non-diabetic (non-DM) normotensive pregnant women as reference controls. Trace elements were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. In T1DM women with subsequent PE vs normotensive, only plasma zinc was significantly higher at the first trimester, while copper:zinc and copper:high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratios were higher throughout gestation (all P < .05). These findings persisted after adjustment for covariates. Higher copper:zinc ratios may contribute to oxidative stress in T1DM women who develop PE. Ratios of pro- to anti-oxidant factors may predict risk for PE in diabetic pregnancies more effectively than individual trace element levels. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Nutrition research 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.nutres.2015.04.004
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The lemon detox program is a very low-calorie diet which consists of a mixture of organic maple and palm syrups, and lemon juice for abstinence period of 7 days. We hypothesized that the lemon detox program would reduce body weight, body fat mass, thus lowering insulin resistance and known risk factors of cardiovascular disease. We investigated anthropometric indices, insulin sensitivity, levels of serum adipokines, and inflammatory markers in overweight Korean women before and after clinical intervention trial. Eighty-four premenopausal women were randomly divided into 3 groups: a control group without diet restriction (Normal-C), a pair-fed placebo diet group (Positive-C), and a lemon detox diet group (Lemon-D). The intervention period was 11 days total: 7 days with the lemon detox juice or the placebo juice, and then 4 days with transitioning food. Changes in body weight, body mass index, % body fat, and waist-hip ratio were significantly greater in the Lemon-D and Positive-C groups compared to the Normal-C group. Serum insulin level, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance scores, leptin, and adiponectin levels decreased in the Lemon-D and Positive-C groups. Serum high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were also reduced only in the Lemon-D group. Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels remained stable in the Lemon-D group while they decreased in the Positive-C and Normal-C groups. Therefore, we suppose that the lemon detox program reduces body fat and insulin resistance through caloric restriction and might have a potential beneficial effect on risk factors for cardiovascular disease related to circulating hs-CRP reduction without hematological changes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Nutrition research 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.nutres.2015.04.001
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sarcopenic obesity (SO) is known to contribute to morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases. However, there exists limited information regarding its effect on psychological health. The aim of this study was to evaluate association of SO with several indices of psychological health and quality of life (QoL) in Korean adults. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 11521 participants older than 20 years from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011. Sarcopenic obesity was defined by a low appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by body weight less than 1 standard deviation below the sex-specific mean for the young reference group, and by a high waist circumference of at least 90 cm for men and at least 85 cm for women. Psychological health status, including depressive symptoms, perceived stress, and suicidal ideation, as well as QoL, was assessed by a self-reporting questionnaire. Association between SO and psychological health status was assessed under a logistic regression model. After multivariate adjustment for demographics and lifestyle factors, SO was significantly associated with perceived stress (odds ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.44; P value = .004) and suicidal ideation (odds ratio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.50; P value = .010). In addition, SO was found to have a negative association with a range of QoL indicators. Interestingly, these association patterns were more significant in participants younger than 60 years. In conclusion, our results suggest that SO was associated with adverse psychological health and lower QoL more than body mass index-based general obesity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Nutrition research 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.nutres.2015.04.002
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We review herein the basis for using dietary components to treat and/or prevent Helicobacter pylori infection, with emphasis on (a) work reported in the last decade, (b) dietary components for which there is mechanism-based plausibility, and (c) components for which clinical results on H pylori amelioration are available. There is evidence that a diet-based treatment may reduce the levels and/or the virulence of H pylori colonization without completely eradicating the organism in treated individuals. This concept was endorsed a decade ago by the participants in a small international consensus conference held in Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, and interest in such a diet-based approach has increased dramatically since then. This approach is attractive in terms of cost, treatment, tolerability, and cultural acceptability. This review, therefore, highlights specific foods, food components, and food products, grouped as follows: bee products (eg, honey and propolis); probiotics; dairy products; vegetables; fruits; oils; essential oils; and herbs, spices, and other plants. A discussion of the small number of clinical studies that are available is supplemented by supportive in vitro and animal studies. This very large body of in vitro and preclinical evidence must now be followed up with rationally designed, unambiguous human trials. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Nutrition research 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.nutres.2015.03.001
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have considered a novel gene targeting approach for treating pathologies and conditions whose genetic bases are defined using diet and nutrition. One such condition is Down syndrome, which is linked to overexpression of RCAN1 on human chromosome 21 for some phenotypes. We hypothesize that a decrease in RCAN1 expression with dietary supplements in individuals with Down syndrome represents a potential treatment. Toward this, we used in vivo studies and bioinformatic analysis to identify potential healthy dietary RCAN1 expression modulators. We observed Rcan1 isoform 1 (Rcan1-1) protein reduction in mice pup hippocampus after a 4-week curcumin and fish oil supplementation, with only fish oil reduction being statistically significant. Focusing on fish oil, we observed a 17% Rcan1-1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and 19% Rcan1-1 protein reduction in BALB/c mice after 5 weeks of fish oil supplementation. Fish oil supplementation starting at conception and in a different mouse strain (C57BL) led to a 27% reduction in hippocampal Rcan1-1 mRNA and a 34% reduction in spleen Rcan1-1 mRNA at 6 weeks of age. Hippocampal protein results revealed a modest 11% reduction in RCAN1-1, suggesting translational compensation. Bioinformatic mining of human fish oil studies also revealed reduced RCAN1 mRNA expression, consistent with the above studies. These results suggest the potential use of fish oil in treating Down syndrome and support our strategy of using select healthy dietary agents to treat genetically defined pathologies, an approach that we believe is simple, healthy, and cost-effective. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Nutrition research 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.nutres.2015.02.007
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Folic acid supplementation is the mainstay treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy). However, no recommendations are currently available in regard to the optimal replacement therapy. Therefore, this prospective study hypothesized that a cyclic schedule (1 month of therapy followed by 2 months of withdrawal) of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) would reduce plasma levels of fasting total homocysteine (tHcy) in patients with mild/moderate HHcy. Patients with a new diagnosis of mild/moderate HHcy were evaluated for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotype and the presence of major features of metabolic syndrome. All enrolled subjects received a cyclic 5-MTHF oral supplementation and were reevaluated after each treatment cycle for a total of 2 years. In the 246 enrolled subjects, a significant reduction of tHcy levels occurred after the first cycle of treatment (from 31.6 ± 13.6 to 14.4 ± 5.77 μmol/L, P < .001) and during the whole 2-year follow-up (from 31.6 ± 13.6 to 12.18 ± 3.03 μmol/L, P < .001). The values of tHcy returned to reference range in 117 subjects (51.3%) after the first cycle and in 198 (86.8%) during the follow-up. The risk of failure in tHcy level normalization was increased in patients with metabolic syndrome (hazard ratio [HR], 3.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46-8.36), higher baseline tHcy levels (HR, 1.045; 95% CI, 1.018-1.073), or methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase homozygous mutation (HR, 6.59; 95% CI, 2.64-16.4). This study clearly shows that a cyclic schedule (1 month of therapy followed by 2 months of withdrawal) of 5-MTHF supplementation is able to significantly reduce tHcy levels in patients with mild/moderate HHcy. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Nutrition research 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.nutres.2015.02.006
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Because research focusing on dairy food consumption and the risk for obesity is inconsistent and only a few studies have even examined specific dairy products, in regard to type of food and fat content, in relation to obesity risk, this cross-sectional study investigated whether dairy food consumption is associated with the prevalence of global and abdominal obesity. Data were analyzed from 1352 participants in the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg survey. We hypothesized that higher total dairy food consumption would be independently associated with reduced prevalence of obesity. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to measure intakes of dairy foods. Odds for global obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2)) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference >102 cm for men and >88cm for women) were determined based on total dairy food intake as well as intakes of individual low- and whole-fat dairy products (milk, yogurt, and cheese). Total dairy food intake was inversely associated with the likelihood of global obesity (odds ratio [OR], 0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.30-0.89; P < .05) and abdominal obesity (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.32-0.83; P < .01). Participants in the highest tertile of whole-fat dairy intakes (milk, cheese, yogurt) had significantly lower odds for being obese (global obesity: OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.29-0.72; P < .01; abdominal obesity: OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.23-0.54; P < .001), compared with those in the lowest intake tertile, after full adjustment for demographic, lifestyle, dietary, and cardiovascular risk factor variables. Increasing consumption of dairy foods may have the potential to lower the prevalence of global and abdominal obesity.
    Nutrition research 07/2014; 34(11). DOI:10.1016/j.nutres.2014.07.014
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Adequate dietary protein intake throughout pregnancy is essential to ensure healthy fetal development. Insufficient and excessive maternal dietary protein intakes are both associated with intrauterine growth restriction, resulting in low birth weight infants. The aim of this study was to analyze the dietary protein intake patterns of healthy pregnant women in Vancouver, British Columbia, during early and late gestation. We hypothesized that women would be consuming higher protein during late stages of pregnancy compared with early stages of pregnancy. Interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaires were collected prospectively from 270 women at 16- and 36-week gestation; food frequency questionnaires from 212 women met study criteria. Maternal anthropometrics at both stages and infant weight at birth were collected. Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to determine significant gestational differences in protein intakes. Spearman correlation was used to determine the influence of protein intakes and maternal anthropometrics on pregnancy outcomes. Median (25th and 75th percentiles) protein intakes adjusted for body weight were 1.5 (1.18 and 1.79) and 1.3 (1.04 and 1.60) g/kg per day at 16- than 36-week gestation, respectively. Primary protein sources were identified as dairy products. Protein intakes were negatively correlated with birth weight (P < .05), whereas maternal height, weight, body mass index, and weight gain to 36-week gestation were positively correlated with birth weight (P < .05). This study provides current dietary protein intake patterns among healthy Canadian women during pregnancy and indicates higher intakes than current Dietary Reference Intakes recommended dietary allowance of 1.1 g/kg per day, especially during early gestation.
    Nutrition research 07/2014; 34(7):569-76. DOI:10.1016/j.nutres.2014.07.001
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The only known treatment for celiac disease is a gluten-free diet (GFD), which initially meant abstention from wheat, rye, barley, and oats. Recently, oats free from contamination with wheat have been accepted in the GFD. Yet, reports indicate that all celiac disease patients may not tolerate oats. We hypothesized that celiac children comply well with a GFD and that most have included oats in their diet. A food questionnaire was used to check our patients; 316 questionnaires were returned. Mean time on the GFD was 6.9 years, and 96.8% of the children reported that they were trying to keep a strict GFD. However, accidental transgressions occurred in 263 children (83.2%). In 2 of 3 cases, mistakes took place when the patients were not at home. Symptoms after incidental gluten intake were experienced by 162 (61.6%) patients, mostly (87.5%) from the gastrointestinal tract. Small amounts of gluten (<4 g) caused symptoms in 38% of the cases, and 68% reported symptoms during the first 3 hours after gluten consumption. Oats were included in the diet of 89.4% of the children for a mean of 3.4 years. Most (81.9%) ate purified oats, and 45.3% consumed oats less than once a week. Among those who did not consume oats, only 5.9% refrained because of symptoms. General compliance with the GFD was good. Only the duration of the GFD appeared to influence adherence to the diet. Most patients did not report adverse effects after long-term consumption of oats.
    Nutrition research 05/2014; 34(5):436-41. DOI:10.1016/j.nutres.2014.04.006
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes, characterized by hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, is a metabolic disease resulting from defects in both insulin secretion and insulin resistance. Recently, olive leaf has been reported as an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antidiabetic agent. This study sought to investigate whether olive leaf extract can improve the insulin resistance and inflammation response in rats with type 2 diabetes induced by high-fat diet and streptozotocin. After administering olive leaf extract for 8 weeks (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight), rats given the higher dose showed significantly lower blood glucose, serum total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels compared with those of diabetic control rats (P < .05). Results of oral glucose tolerance tests, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin (IL) 6 in the liver show significantly decreased glucose level in rats given either dose of olive leaf extract (P < .05). Both olive leaf extract-treated groups showed significantly increased insulin receptor substrate 1 expression (P < .05). Tumor necrosis factor α, IL-6 and IL-1β mRNA expressions in epididymis adipose tissue were significantly lower in rats that received higher dose of olive leaf extract (P < .05). Lymphocyte infiltration was not observed in these rats. The results suggest that olive leaf extract may attenuate insulin resistance by suppressing mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines and elevating of insulin receptor substrate 1 expression.
    Nutrition research 05/2014; 34(5):450-7. DOI:10.1016/j.nutres.2014.04.007
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) provide an inexpensive tool for dietary assessment. Given the scarcity of data on their validity for nutritional analysis in persons with overt diabetes mellitus or with increased risk of diabetes (relatives of patients with diabetes), this study tests the hypothesis that an FFQ, adapted to local dietary habits, yields a reliable estimate of nutrient intake when compared with 7-day food record (7DR) in healthy, prediabetes, and diabetes cohorts. One hundred three volunteers (50 persons with overt diabetes mellitus, 24 relatives of patients with diabetes, and 29 nondiabetic individuals without a family history of diabetes) completed both FFQ and 7DR. A second FFQ was completed by 100 of these volunteers after 3 months to evaluate its reproducibility. Data were compared by correlation and Bland-Altman analyses. Across the entire group, estimates for gram intakes of nutrients and total energy were associated with wide limits of agreement between FFQ and 7DR (correlation coefficients, 0.23-0.72; P < .02). Compared with 7DR, the FFQ overestimated intakes of saturated fat in the entire group (+6.6 ± 14 g; P < .001) and in persons with overt diabetes mellitus (+7.6 ± 15 g; P < .001) but underestimated protein intake in relatives of patients with diabetes (-16.36 ± 31 g; P = .01). The repeated FFQ revealed variable agreement (correlation coefficients, 0.34-0.72; P < .001) and underestimated (P < .01) macronutrient and total energy intakes, with slightly better performance in persons with overt diabetes mellitus and relatives of patients with diabetes than in nondiabetic individuals without a family history of diabetes. Hence, the FFQ allows measuring intakes of total energy and macronutrients in prediabetes and diabetes cohorts but reveals limitations when assessing dietary composition.
    Nutrition research 05/2014; 34(5):410-9. DOI:10.1016/j.nutres.2014.04.004
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) prevents deleterious muscle responses under pathological conditions, including tumor- and chronic steroid therapy-related muscle losses. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that HMB may modulate the balance between protein synthesis and degradation in the PI3K/Akt-mediated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and FoxO1/FoxO3a-dependent mechanisms in differentiated C2C12 muscle cells. We also tested the effect of HMB on the expression of MuRF-1 and atrogin-1 in response to the inflammatory stress. β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate up-regulated phosphorylation of Akt and mTOR, and these effects were completely abolished in the presence of PI3K inhibitor LY294002. β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate also up-regulated FoxO1 and FoxO3a phosphorylation, and these changes were inhibited by LY294002. Although, unexpectedly, HMB failed to reduce the expressions of atrophy-related atrogin-1 messenger RNA and the protein response to the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α plus interferon γ, HMB did attenuate the MuRF-1 expression. Thus, HMB appears to restore the balance between intracellular protein synthesis and proteolysis, likely via activation of the PI3K/Akt-dependent mTOR and FoxO1/FoxO3a signaling pathway and the reduction of tumor necrosis factor α/interferon γ-induced MuRF-1 expression, thereby ameliorating aging-related muscle atrophy.
    Nutrition research 04/2014; 34(4):368-74. DOI:10.1016/j.nutres.2014.02.003