Dental materials: official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials

Publisher: Elsevier

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Publications in this journal

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To assess depth of cure (DOC), degree of conversion (DC), and flexural strength (FS) of several resin composites with low-stress behavior. SonicFill (Kerr), SureFil(®) SDR™ (Dentsply), everX Posterior (GC), Kalore (GC), and Filtek Silorane (3M ESPE) were tested. DOC was measured with the Acetone Shake test. DC was assessed with Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy on top and at the bottom of 4mm-thick disk-shaped specimens. Bottom to top ratios of DC percentages were calculated. FS was evaluated with the Three-Point Bending test. DOC, DC, and FS data were statistically analyzed. SureFil(®) SDR™ and everX Posterior achieved significantly greater DOC than Kalore and Filtek Silorane. Also, SonicFill had significantly greater DOC than Filtek Silorane. Mean top DCs ranged between 71.46% and 52.44%. Kalore and everX Posterior had significantly lower top DCs than the other materials. Mean DC values at 4mm ranged largely from 57.95% to 6.82%. Kalore and Filtek Silorane had the lowest values of bottom DC and the difference was statistically significant. EverX Posterior and SonicFill recorded significantly higher FSs than the other materials. SureFil(®) SDR™ and everX Posterior exhibited DOC over 4mm, the maximum thickness recommended for bulk placement, while SonicFill recorded DOC values very close to the 4mm threshold. SonicFill achieved the highest DC at the irradiated surface, as well as at 4mm depth. SureFil(®) SDR™ demonstrated similarly uniform curing through the bulk increment. All the tested composites complied with the requirements of FS established by ISO 4049/2009.
    Dental materials: official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives In this work long term stability of a zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA) composite was investigated. Methods Accelerated aging tests under hydrothermal environment, in autoclave and hot water, at different temperature, was conducted on material sample. Tetragonal to monoclinic transformation was evaluated by XRD analysis and the monoclinic content was plot as a function of the exposure time. The kinetic of transformation was studied by means Mehl-Avrami-Johnson (MAJ) nucleation and growth model. Results An activation energy for tetragonal to monoclinic transformation of 99 kJ/mol was found by the Arrhenius plot of reaction rate, value in agreement with other bibliography works regarding Y-TZP and alumina-zirconia composites. The in vivo hydrothermal stability simulation, estimated by the obtained activation energy, predicts in 65 years the time necessary to reach 25 vol% of monoclinic phase. Significance These results support the material suitability in biomedical field, especially in dentistry applications as implantology.
    Dental materials: official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials 02/2014; 30(2):138-142.
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    ABSTRACT: During the curing process of light curing dental composites the mobility of molecules and molecule segments is reduced leading to a significant increase of the viscosity as well as the ion viscosity. Thus, the kinetics of the curing behavior of 6 different composites was derived from dielectric analysis (DEA) using especially redesigned flat sensors with interdigit comb electrodes allowing for irradiation at the top side and measuring the ion viscosity at the bottom side. As the ion viscosities of dental composites change 1-3 orders of magnitude during the curing process, DEA provides a sensitive approach to evaluate their curing behavior, especially in the phase of undisturbed chain growth. In order to determine quantitative kinetic parameters a kinetic model is presented and examined for the evaluation of the ion viscosity curves. From the obtained results it is seen that DEA might be employed in the investigation of the primary curing process, the quality assurance of ingredients as well as the control of processing stability of the light curing dental composites.
    Dental materials: official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the bond strength and durability of adhesive bonding systems to amorphous and crystalline PEKK and fiber-reinforced PEEK using five types of surface conditioning methods. One hundred and fifty specimens of each material were conditioned mechanically and chemically, bonded with Multilink Automix to Plexiglas tubes, filled with Multicore Flow, and stored in water at 37°C for 3, 30 and 150 days. The long-term storage series were thermal cycled between 5 and 55°C for 10,000 times (30 days) or for 37,500 times (150 days) prior to tensile bond strength test (TBS). Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests with a Bonferroni-Holm correction for multiple testing (α=0.05). Fiber-reinforced PEEK exhibited higher bond strengths in all five conditioning groups and at all three storage times than crystalline and amorphous PEKK, which showed lowest TBS. Highest TBS was achieved after conditioning with silica coating and priming (Rocatec Soft, Monobond Plus, Luxatemp Glaze & Bond; TBS up to 23.6MPa). The conditioning method has a significant influence to the bond strength of the bonding to the amorphous and crystalline PEKKs and fiber-reinforced PEEKs.
    Dental materials: official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to determine selected mechanical/physical properties of and monomer release from high-temperature high-pressure (HT/HP) polymerized urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA). Flexural strength (σf), hardness, fracture toughness (KIC), and density (ρ) were determined for five UDMA resin blocks produced via different polymerization protocols. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine monomer release from the five polymers. One way ANOVA, Scheffé multiple means comparisons (α=0.05), and Weibull statistics (for σf) were used to analyze the results. The results showed that HT/HP polymerization resulted in a significant (p<0.05) increase in σf and ρ, along with an increase in Weibull modulus. No significant differences were found in hardness and KIC between the two HT/HP polymerized materials. A significantly lower (p<0.05) monomer release was detected for the HT/HP polymerized groups. The results of this study suggest that HT/HP polymerization affects the network structure and leads to UDMA polymers with improved mechanical/physical properties and with dramatically reduced monomer release. The low elution of monomers from HT/HP and HP polymerized materials suggests the achievement of a higher degree of conversion and a lesser degree of inhomogeneity with regards to microgel domains. The results, however, cannot fully explain the dramatic increase in mechanical/physical properties reported previously for RCB, improvements that may be due to a better filler-matrix interaction afforded by HT/HP polymerization.
    Dental materials: official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Two types of ceramic coatings on commercially pure titanium for dental implant applications with different Ca/P ratios in the range from 1.5 to 4.0, and two different thicknesses (∼5 and ∼15μm) were examined with the aim of underpinning the effect of coating composition, thickness and microstructure on the corrosion behavior and hydroxyapatite forming ability in SBF. Bioactive coatings were formed on Ti by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO). The composition, structure, and morphology of the materials were characterized before and after the immersion in simulated body fluid solution (SBF) at 37°C for up to 4 weeks. All the materials were screened with respect to metal ion release into SBF. Only thick PEO coating with overstoichiometric Ca/P ratio of 4.0 exhibited capacity to induce the precipitation of hydroxyapatite over the short period of 1 week. Long term Ti(4+) ion release from all PEO-coated materials was 2-3 times lower than from the uncoated Ti. Metal ion release is attributed mostly to chemical dissolution of the coating at initial stages of immersion. The long term stability was greater for thin PEO coating with overstoichiometric Ca/P ratio of 2.0, which exhibited ∼95ngcm(-2) of Ti(4+) ions release over 4 weeks. Thin PEO coatings present economically more viable option.
    Dental materials: official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the restorative material and cavity design on the facture resistance of inlay restorations under a compressive load using acoustic emission (AE) measurement. Two restorative materials, a composite resin (MZ100, 3M ESPE) and a ceramic (IPS Empress CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent), and two cavity designs, non-proximal box and proximal box, were studied. Thirty-two extracted human third molars were selected and divided into 4 groups. The restorative materials and cavity designs used for the four groups were: (1) composite and non-proximal box; (2) ceramic and non-proximal box; (3) composite and proximal box; (4) ceramic and proximal box. The restored molars were loaded in a MTS machine via a loading head of diameter 10mm. The rate of loading was 0.1mm/min. During loading, an AE system was used to monitor the debonding and fracture of the specimens. The load corresponding to the first AE event, the final maximum load sustained, as well as the total number of AE events recorded were used to evaluate the fracture resistance of the restored teeth. For the initial fracture load, Group 2 (236.15N)<Group 1 (428.14N)<Group 4 (441.24N)<Group 3 (540.06N). The same trend was found for the final load, i.e., Group 2 (1594.68N)<Group 1 (2003.82N)<Group 4 (2004.89N)<Group 3 (2057.53N). For the total number of AE events, Group 4 (2135)>Group 2 (1685)>Group 3 (239)>Group 1 (221). The differences from pairwise comparisons in the initial fracture load and final load were mostly insignificant statistically (p>0.05), the only exception being that between Groups 2 and 3 in the initial fracture load (p=0.039). For the total number of AE events, statistically significant differences (p<0.05) were found between all group pairs that involved different materials, with the composite groups giving much fewer AE events than the ceramic groups. Conversely, no statistically significant difference in the AE results was found between groups with the same material, irrespective of the cavity design. For teeth restored with MOD inlays, the use of composite resin as the restorative material may provide higher fracture resistance than using ceramic. Using a proximal box design for the cavity may further improve the fracture resistance of the inlay restoration, although the improvement was not statistically significant under axial compression.
    Dental materials: official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the effect of curing mode and restoration-surface pre-treatment on the micro-tensile bond strength (μTBS) to dentin. Sandblasted CAD/CAM composite blocks (LAVA Ultimate, 3M ESPE) were cemented to bur-cut dentin using either the etch & rinse composite cement Nexus 3 ('NX3', Kerr) with Optibond XTR ('XTR', Kerr), or the self-etch composite cement RelyX Ultimate ('RXU', 3M ESPE) with Scotchbond Universal ('SBU', 3M ESPE). All experimental groups included different 'curing modes' (light-curing of adhesive and cement ('LL'), light-curing of adhesive and auto-cure of cement ('LA'), co-cure of adhesive through light-curing of cement ('AL'), or complete auto-cure ('AA')) and different 'restoration-surface pre-treatments' of the composite block (NX3: either a silane primer (Kerr), or the XTR adhesive; RXU: either silane primer (RelyX Ceramic Primer, 3M ESPE) and SBU, or solely SBU). After water-storage (7 days, 37°C), the μTBS was measured. Additionally, the degree of conversion (DC) of both cements was measured after 10min and after 1 week, either auto-cured (21°C/37°C) or light-cured (directly/through 3-mm CAD/CAM composite). The linear mixed-effects model (α=0.05) revealed a significant influence of the factors 'curing mode' and 'composite cement', and a less significant effect of the factor 'restoration-surface pre-treatment'. Light-curing 'LL' revealed the highest μTBS, which decreased significantly for all other curing modes. For curing modes 'AA' and 'AL', the lowest μTBS and a high percentage of pre-testing failures were reported. Overall, DC increased with light-curing and incubation time. The curing mode is decisive for the bonding effectiveness of adhesively luted composite CAD/CAM restorations to dentin.
    Dental materials: official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials 01/2014;
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To compare in-vitro micro-shear bond strengths (μSBS) of resin composite to calcium silicate cement (Biodentine™) vs. glass ionomer cement vs. resin modified glass ionomer cement (RM-GIC) using an adhesive in self-etch (SE)/total etch (TE) mode after aging three substrates and bond and characterizing their failure modes. Resin composite was SE/TE bonded to 920 standardized disks of Biodentine™, GIC & RM-GIC. Dividing samples into two groups, the first underwent early (t=0min, 5min, 20min, 24h) or delayed (t=2wk, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months) substrate aging before bonding and μSBS (t=24h) testing. In the second, adhesive was applied after either early (t=5min) or delayed (t=2wk) substrate aging and then tested after bond aging (t=2wk, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months). The failure modes were identified using stereomicroscope. SEM images of selected samples were analyzed. No significant differences were observed between (SE)/(TE) bonding modes (P=0.42). With substrate aging, a significant reduction in μSBS occurred between early and delayed time intervals for Biodentine™ (P=0.001), but none for the GIC/RM-GIC (P=0.465, P=0.512 respectively). With bond aging, there was no significant difference between time intervals for all groups, except at 6 months for the GIC (P<0.05). Modes of failure were primarily cohesive within all the substrates (68.82%) followed by adhesive failure at the resin-substrate interface (21.71%). Biodentine™ is a weak restorative material in its early setting phase. Placing the overlying resin composite as part of the laminate/layered definitive restoration is best delayed for >2wk to allow sufficient intrinsic maturation to withstand contraction forces from the resin composite. A total-etch or self-etch adhesive may be used.
    Dental materials: official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To test the tensile bond strength of luted composite computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) crowns after use of different adhesive systems combined with different resin composite cements on dentin abutments. Human molars (n=200) were embedded in acrylic resin, prepared in a standardized manner and divided into 20 groups (n=10). The crowns were treated as follows: (i) Monobond Plus/Heliobond (MH), (ii) Ambarino P60 (AM), (iii) Visio.link (VL), (iv) VP connect (VP), and (v) non-treated as control groups (CG) and luted with Variolink II (VAR) or Clearfil SA Cement (CSA). Tensile bond strength (TBS) was measured initially (24h water, 37°C) and after aging (5000 thermal cycles, 5/55°C). The failure types were evaluated after debonding. TBS values were analyzed using three-way and one-way ANOVA, followed by post hoc Scheffé-test, and two-sample Student's t-tests. Among VAR and after aging, CG presented significantly higher TBS (p=0.007) than groups treated with MH, AM and VP. Other groups showed no impact of pre-treatment. A decrease of TBS values after thermal aging was observed within CSA: CG (p=0.002), MH (p<0.001), VL (p<0.001), AM (p=0.002), VP (p<0.001) and within VAR: MH (p=0.002) and AM (p=0.014). Groups cemented with VAR showed significantly higher TBS then groups cemented with CSA: non-aged groups: CG (p<0.001), and after thermal aging: CG (p=0.003), MH (p<0.001), VL (p=0.005), VP (p=0.010). According to the study results nano-composite CAD/CAM crowns should be cemented with VAR. Pre-treatment is not necessary if the tested resin composite cements are used.
    Dental materials: official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: SrO and SrF2 are widely used to replace CaO and CaF2 in ionomer glasses to produce radiopaque glass ionomer cements (GIC). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of this substitution on release of ions from GIC as well as its effect on esthetics (translucency) and radiopacity. Cements were produced from ionomer glasses with varying content of Sr, Ca and F. The cements were stored in dilute acetic acid (pH 4.0) for up to 7 days at 37°C. Thereafter, the cements were removed and the solution was tested for F(-), Sr(2+), Ca(2+), and Al(3+) release. Radiopacity and translucency were measured according to BS EN ISO 9917-1:2003. Ion release was linear to t(1/2) suggesting that this is a diffusion controlled mechanism rather than dissolution. The fluoride release from the cements is enhanced where some or all calcium is replaced by strontium. Radiopacity shows a strong linear correlation with Sr content. All cements were more opaque than the C0.70 0.55 standard but less opaque than the C0.70 0.90 standard which is the limit for the ISO requirement for acceptance. This study shows that the replacement of calcium by strontium in a glass ionomer glass produces the expected increase in radiopacity of the cement without adverse effects on visual properties of the cement. The fluoride release from the cements is enhanced where some or all calcium is replaced by strontium.
    Dental materials: official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the effect of curing of composite cements and a new ceramic silanization pre-treatment on the micro-tensile bond strength (μTBS). Feldspathic ceramic blocks were luted onto dentin using either Optibond XTR/Nexus 3 (XTR/NX3; Kerr), the silane-incorporated 'universal' adhesive Scotchbond Universal/RelyX Ultimate (SBU/RXU; 3M ESPE), or ED Primer II/Panavia F2.0 (ED/PAF; Kuraray Noritake). Besides 'composite cement', experimental variables were 'curing mode' ('AA': complete auto-cure at 21°C; 'AA*': complete auto-cure at 37°C; 'LA': light-curing of adhesive and auto-cure of cement; 'LL': complete light-curing) and 'ceramic surface pre-treatment' ('HF/S/HB': hydrofluoric acid ('HF': IPS Ceramic Etching Gel, Ivoclar-Vivadent), silanization ('S': Monobond Plus, Ivoclar-Vivadent) and application of an adhesive resin ('HB': Heliobond, Ivoclar-Vivadent); 'HF/SBU': 'HF' and application of the 'universal' adhesive Scotchbond Universal ('SBU'; 3M ESPE, only for SBU/RXU)). After water storage (7 days at 37°C), ceramic-dentin sticks were subjected to μTBS testing. Regarding the 'composite cement', the significantly lowest μTBSs were measured for ED/PAF. Regarding 'curing mode', the significantly highest μTBS was recorded when at least the adhesive was light-cured ('LA' and 'LL'). Complete auto-cure ('AA') revealed the significantly lowest μTBS. The higher auto-curing temperature ('AA*') increased the μTBS only for ED/PAF. Regarding 'ceramic surface pre-treatment', only for 'LA' the μTBS was significantly higher for 'HF/S/HB' than for 'HF/SBU'. Complete auto-cure led to inferior μTBS than when either the adhesive (on dentin) or both adhesive and composite cement were light-cured. The use of a silane-incorporated adhesive did not decrease luting effectiveness when also the composite cement was light-cured.
    Dental materials: official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Constituents of dental composites can be released from dental fillings after polymerization. The aim of this study was to examine the time-related elution and breakdown of separable constituents of polymerized composites using deuterated solvents. Method Elution and breakdown of constituents were investigated with deuterated solvents methanol and water by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of following composites for 180 days: Filtek™ Supreme XT, Filtek™ Supreme XT Flow, Tetric Ceram®, Tetric Flow®, Grandio®, Grandio® Flow. Results Within 180 days no compounds were formed as the products of breakdown. 19 compounds were identified as elution products: Bis-EMA, TEGDMA, DDDMA, EGDMA, MAA, BPA, CQ, HQME, DMABEE, CSA, BL, TEG, BHT, TINP, TPP, TPSB, DEDHTP, DCHP, ß-PHEA. The highest concentration of Bis-EMA was measured for Tetric Flow® in deuterated methanol on day 90 at 36.993 mmol/l and in deuterated water also on day 90 at 0.031 mmol/l. The highest TEGDMA concentrations were measured for Grandio® Flow in deuterated methanol on day 60 at 1.322 mmol/l and for Filtek™ Supreme XT Flow in deuterated water on day 3 at 0.689 mmol/l. The highest BPA concentration was measured for Tetric Flow® in deuterated methanol on day 90 at 1.469 mmol/l. The highest BPA concentration was measured for Grandio® in deuterated water on day 180 at 0.007 mmol/l. Significance Examination of time-related elution indicates that various elution products (e.g. Bis-EMA, BPA) were only released in small quantities during the first 90 days, but in high quantities between day 90 and day 180.
    Dental materials: official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To examine effects of shrinkage and modulus on the dynamic development of shrinkage stress as a function of methacrylate conversion and filler loading in a model photocurable dimethacrylate-based resin with a silanized barium glass filler. Methods BisGMA/TEGDMA samples with filler loading levels of 0–70 wt% were evaluated. Irradiation times and intensities were varied to achieve a wide range of conversion. Shrinkage stress measurements were accompanied with real-time conversion monitoring, while shrinkage and modulus measurements were made at different static conversion points. Results Shrinkage increased nearly linearly with respect to conversion, while for a given value of conversion, it decreased proportionally with increasing filler content. Modulus advanced in an exponential fashion with conversion and also increased incrementally with filler content; however, modulus values rose disproportionately rapidly for the highest filler loading. At either high or low filler loading levels, stress at limiting conversion, which was inversely proportional to the filler load, was high while at an intermediate filler content, a minimum in stress was observed due to the combined effects of filler based shrinkage reduction, restricted limiting conversion and only moderately enhanced modulus. The level of polymerization stress predicted from the conversion-indexed shrinkage and modulus measurements over-estimated the experimental stress states as modulus evolved due to system compliance that to some degree mimics the clinical situation presented by photocuring bonded composite restorations. Significance Measurement of monomer conversion provides a common basis by which different material properties can be rationally compared.
    Dental materials: official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To characterize the microstructure and determine some mechanical properties of a polymer-infiltrated ceramic-network (PICN) material (Vita Enamic, Vita Zahnfabrik) available for CAD–CAM systems. Methods Specimens were fabricated to perform quantitative and qualitative analyses of the material's microstructure and to determine the fracture toughness (KIc), density (ρ), Poisson's ratio (ν) and Young's modulus (E). KIc was determined using V-notched specimens and the short beam toughness method, where bar-shaped specimens were notched and 3-point loaded to fracture. ρ was calculated using Archimedes principle, and ν and E were measured using an ultrasonic thickness gauge with a combination of a pulse generator and an oscilloscope. Results Microstructural analyses showed a ceramic- and a polymer-based interpenetrating network. Mean and standard deviation values for the properties evaluated were: KIc = 1.09 ± 0.05 MPa m1/2, ρ = 2.09 ± 0.01 g/cm3, ν = 0.23 ± 0.002 and E = 37.95 ± 0.34 GPa. Significance The PICN material showed mechanical properties between porcelains and resin-based composites, reflecting its microstructural components.
    Dental materials: official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Bulk and interfacial characterization of porcelain fused to metal (PFM) Co–Cr dental alloys fabricated via conventional casting, milling and selective laser melting. Methods Three groups of metallic specimens made of PFM Co–Cr dental alloys were prepared using casting (CST), milling (MIL) and selective laser sintering (SLM). The porosity of the groups was evaluated using X-ray scans. The microstructures of the specimens were evaluated via SEM examination, EDX and XRD analysis. Vickers hardness testing was utilized to measure the hardness of the specimens. Interfacial characterization was conducted on the porcelain-covered specimens from each group to test the elemental distribution with and without the application of INmetalbond. The elemental distribution of the probed elements was assessed using EDX line profile analysis. Hardness results were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Holm–Sidak's method (α = 0.05). Results X-ray radiography revealed the presence of porosity only in the CST group. Different microstructures were identified among the groups. Together with the γ phase matrix, a second phase, believed to be the Co3Mo phase, was also observed by SEM and subsequent XRD analysis. Cr7C3 and Cr23C6 carbides were also identified via XRD analysis in the CST and MIL groups. The hardness values were 320 ± 12 HV, 297 ± 5 HV and 371 ± 10 HV, and statistically significant differences were evident among the groups. Significance The microstructure and hardness of PFM Co–Cr dental alloys are dependent on the manufacturing technique employed. Given the differences in microstructural and hardness properties among the tested groups, further differences in their clinical behavior are anticipated.
    Dental materials: official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective The aim of this study was to measure the linear elastic material properties of direct dental resin composites and correlate them with their fatigue strength under cyclic loading. Methods Bar specimens of twelve resin composites were produced according to ISO 4049 and tested for elastic modulus (Emod) in 3-point bending (n = 10), flexural strength (FS) (n = 15) and single-edge-notch-beam fracture toughness (FT) (n = 15), both in 4-point bending. Using the same specimen geometry, the flexural fatigue strength (FFS) was determined using the staircase approach after 104 cycles at 0.5 Hz in 4-point bending (n = 25). The observation of the fracture surface and fracture profiles was conducted using a scanning electron microscope in order to evaluate the respective fracture mechanisms according to the two different loading conditions. Results Materials were ranked differently according to the tested parameters. Only weak correlations were found between any of the initial properties and FFS or strength loss. The best correlation to FFS was found to be the Emod (r2 = 0.679), although only slightly. Crack path in both loading conditions was mainly interparticle, with the crack propagating mainly within the matrix phase for fatigued specimens and eventually through the filler/matrix interface for statically loaded specimens. Fracture of large particles or prepolymerized fillers was only observed in specimens of FS and FT. Initial properties were better associated with microstructural features, whereas the fatigue resistance showed to be more dependent on aspects relating to the matrix phase. Significance Our results show that linear elastic properties such as elastic modulus, flexural strength and fracture toughness are not good descriptors of the fatigue resistance of dental resin composite under cyclic bending, and may therefore have limited clinical relevance.
    Dental materials: official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the use of different variables to measure the clinical wear of two denture tooth materials in two analysis centers. Methods Twelve edentulous patients were provided with full dentures. Two different denture tooth materials (experimental material and control) were placed randomly in accordance with the split-mouth design. For wear measurements, impressions were made after an adjustment phase of 1–2 weeks and after 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. The occlusal wear of the posterior denture teeth of 11 subjects was assessed in two study centers by use of plaster replicas and 3D laser-scanning methods. In both centers sequential scans of the occlusal surfaces were digitized and superimposed. Wear was described by use of four different variables. Statistical analysis was performed after log-transformation of the wear data by use of the Pearson and Lin correlation and by use of a mixed linear model. Results Mean occlusal vertical wear of the denture teeth after 24 months was between 120 μm and 212 μm, depending on wear variable and material. For three of the four variables, wear of the experimental material was statistically significantly less than that of the control. Comparison of the two study centers, however, revealed correlation of the wear variables was only moderate whereas strong correlation was observed among the different wear variables evaluated by each center. Significance Moderate correlation was observed for clinical wear measurements by optical 3D laser scanning in two different study centers. For the two denture tooth materials, wear measurements limited to the attrition zones led to the same qualitative assessment.
    Dental materials: official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials 01/2014;

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