Developmental and comparative immunology

Publisher: Elsevier

Journal description

Current impact factor: 3.71

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 3.705
2012 Impact Factor 3.238
2011 Impact Factor 3.268
2010 Impact Factor 3.293
2009 Impact Factor 3.29
2008 Impact Factor 2.833
2007 Impact Factor 3.155
2006 Impact Factor 3.399
2005 Impact Factor 3.261
2004 Impact Factor 2.652
2003 Impact Factor 2.39
2002 Impact Factor 2.186
2001 Impact Factor 2.909
2000 Impact Factor 2.205
1999 Impact Factor 1.857
1998 Impact Factor 1.814
1997 Impact Factor 1.318
1996 Impact Factor 1.596
1995 Impact Factor 1.34
1994 Impact Factor 1.186
1993 Impact Factor 1.177
1992 Impact Factor 1.031

Impact factor over time

Impact factor
Year

Additional details

5-year impact 0.00
Cited half-life 5.70
Immediacy index 1.07
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.83
ISSN 1879-0089

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Elsevier

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Publications in this journal

  • Source
    Developmental and comparative immunology 06/2015; 50(2). DOI:10.1016/j.dci.2015.03.003
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    ABSTRACT: In mammals, USP18 (ubiquitin-specific protease 18) is an interferon (IFN) inducible protein and plays a role in regulation of IFN response upon viral infection. In this study, we first cloned an USP18 homologous gene from virally-infected crucian carp (Carassius auratus) blastula embryonic (CAB) cells, and later found in other fish species including zebrafish. All fish USP18 genes have 10 exons and 9 introns comparable to 11 exons and 10 introns in non-fish vertebrates. Expression analysis revealed that fish USP18 was significantly induced in vitro and in vivo by IFN and IFN stimuli. Using promoter-driven luciferase reporter assay system to explore the molecular mechanism underlying fish USP18 expression, fish USP18 was identified as a typical interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene (ISG). Intracellular poly(I:C)-triggered zebrafish USP18 expression was regulated through RLR-IFN pathway, which was consistent with the fact that fish USP18 gene promoter contained two typical IFN-stimulated response elements (ISREs). Further mutation assays revealed that the distant ISRE motif primarily contributed to the induction of zebrafish USP18 by fish IFN and IFN stimuli. Functionally, fish USP18 inhibited poly(I:C)- and IFN-triggered activation of a common ISRE-containing promoter, and attenuated transcriptional expression of some ISGs including Stat1 and PKZ by recombinant IFN. Finally, we found that fish USP18 protein was expressed in cytoplasm and exhibited an ability to interact with ISG15. These results indicate that fish USP18 likely exerts its function similar to mammalian homologs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Developmental and comparative immunology 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.dci.2015.05.003
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    ABSTRACT: Thrombocytes are nucleated blood cells in non-mammalian vertebrates, which were recently focused on not only as hemostatic cells but also as immune cells with potent phagocytic activities. We have analyzed the phagocytic activation mechanisms in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) thrombocytes. MACS-sorted mAb(+) thrombocytes showed no phagocytic activity even in the presence of several stimulants. However, remixing these thrombocytes with other anti-thrombocyte mAb(-) leukocyte populations restored their phagocytic activities, indicating that carp thrombocyte phagocytosis requires an appropriate exogenous stimulation. Culture supernatant from anti-thrombocyte mAb(-) leukocytes harvested after PMA or LPS stimulation, but not culture supernatant from unstimulated leukocytes, could activate thrombocyte phagocytosis. This proposed mechanism of thrombocyte phagocytosis activation involving soluble factors produced by activated leukocytes suggests that thrombocyte activation is restricted to areas proximal to injured tissues, ensuring suppression of excessive thrombocyte activation and a balance between inflammation and tissue repair. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Developmental and comparative immunology 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.dci.2015.05.002
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we induced and purified a novel antimicrobial peptide exhibiting activity against Gram-positive bacteria from the immunized hemolymph of Hermetia illucens larvae. The immunized hemolymph was extracted, and the novel defensin-like peptide 4 (DLP4) was purified using solid-phase extraction and reverse-phase chromatography. The purified DLP4 demonstrated a molecular weight of 4,267 Da, as determined using the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) method. From analysis of DLP4 by N-terminal amino acid sequencing using Edman degradation, combined with MALDI-TOF and rapid amplification of cDNA ends-polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR), the amino acid sequence of the mature peptide was determined to be ATCDLLSPFKVGHAACAAHCIARGKRGGWCDKRAVCNCRK. In NCBI BLAST, the amino acid sequence of DPL4 was found to be 75% identical to the Phlebotomus duboscqi defensin. Analysis of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) revealed that DLP4 have antibacterial effects against Gram-positive bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The expression of DLP4 transcripts in several tissues after bacterial challenge was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Expression of the DLP4 gene hardly occurred throughout the body before immunization, but was mostly evident in the fat body after immunization. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Developmental and comparative immunology 05/2015; 52(1). DOI:10.1016/j.dci.2015.04.018
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies on fish immunity highlighted the significance of gills as mucosal immune tissues. To understand potential of gills as vaccination sites for inducing adaptive systemic immunity, we investigated virus-specific cell-mediated and humoral immune responses following a "per-gill infection method", which directly exposes virus only to gills. The viral load in crucian carp hematopoietic necrosis virus (CHNV)-infected gills decreased after peaking at a particular time point. Furthermore, the viral titers in the gills following the secondary infection were lower than that after the primary infection, indicating that local adaptive immunity helped the elimination of virus. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that IFN-γ in gills and perforin in kidney were increased after the gill infection. CD8(+) cells in kidney leukocytes increased after the secondary infection, whereas IgM(+) cells decreased. These results suggest that IFN-γ and CTL contribute in controlling CHNV-replication in gills and kidney. Gill infection could induce specific cell-mediated cytotoxicity of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and secretion of CHNV-specific IgM in serum, indicating that local priming of the gill site can generate adaptive systemic immunity. Thus, the gills could be prospective antigen-sensitization sites for mucosal vaccination. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Developmental and comparative immunology 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.dci.2015.04.016
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    ABSTRACT: Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) is an important regulator of glucose metabolism that functions by inhibiting cellular glucose uptake. The full-length rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) TXNIP (RbTXNIP) cDNA (2,499 bp) contains an open reading frame of 1,188 bp encoding 396 amino acids. Furthermore, multiple alignments showed that the arrestin domain was well conserved among the other TXNIP sequences tested. RbTXNIP was predicted to contain a PxxP and PPxY motif. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that RbTXNIP is most closely related to Fugu rubripes TXNIP. RbTXNIP was expressed significantly in the RBC, intestine, and spleen. RbTXNIP mRNA expression was also examined in several tissues under conditions of bacterial and viral challenge. Generally, all tissues examined from fish infected with Streptococcus iniae, Edwardsiella tarda and red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV) showed significant downregulation in RbTXNIP expression compared to controls. However, RbTXNIP expression showed significant upregulation in the spleen and kidney after injection of recombinant rock bream TRx1 protein. These findings provide a molecular foundation for functional studies and applications in teleosts. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Developmental and comparative immunology 04/2015; 52(1). DOI:10.1016/j.dci.2015.04.012
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    ABSTRACT: Human mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (hMAVS, also known as IPS-1, VISA, or Cardif) is essential for antiviral innate immunity. The Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinenses), a close relative of primates, is emerging as a potential animal model for investigating viral infection. However, there is a lack of biological knowledge about the antiviral innate immunity of the tree shrew. In this study, we identified and characterized the function of the Chinese tree shrew MAVS gene (tMAVS). The cDNA of tMAVS was 2771 bp in length and encoded a polypeptide of 501 amino acids. Phylogenetic analyses based on the amino acid sequences revealed a closer affinity of tMAVS with those of primates. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that tMAVS mRNA was constitutively expressed in all seven tissues analyzed in this study. The tMAVS mRNA expression was rapidly and significantly increased after RNA virus infections. Ectopic-expression of tMAVS significantly potentiated the virus-triggered activation of IRF3, NF-κB and interferon-β (IFN-β), whereas knockdown of tMAVS displayed the opposite effect. Furthermore, tMAVS mutants lacking the caspase activation and recruitment (CARD) domains or the transmembrane (TM) domain were unable to induce IFN-β. Similar with hMAVS, mitochondrial localization of tMAVS was dependent on its domain. Collectively, this study revealed evolutionary conservation of the MAVS antiviral signaling pathway in the Chinese tree shrew. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Developmental and comparative immunology 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.dci.2015.04.014
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    ABSTRACT: In mammals the rejection of allografts is primarily accomplished by cell-mediated immunity including T cells. Recently, considerable studies reveal the existence of helper and cytotoxic T cell subsets in fish. Here we investigate the kinetics of CD4(+) and CD8α(+) T cells along with sIgM(+) cells and phagocytic cells in an allogeneic scale graft model using ginbuna crucian carp for understanding the mechanisms of cell-mediated immune response. The results showed that CD4(+) T cells first infiltrated into allogeneic scales followed by CD8α(+) and sIgM(+) cells, and finally phagocytic cells appeared in the graft. Furthermore, most of the CD8α(+) T cells appeared on the border of the allografted scales at the time of rejection. These results suggest that T cells play crucial roles and work together with other cell types for completion of allograft rejection. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Developmental and comparative immunology 04/2015; 52(1). DOI:10.1016/j.dci.2015.04.013
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    ABSTRACT: Apoptosis plays a key role in the physiology of multicellular organisms and is regulated by different promoting and inhibitory mechanisms. Cytokine-induced apoptotic inhibitor (CIAPI) was recently identified as a key factor involved in apoptosis inhibition in higher vertebrate linages. However, most of the CIAPIs of lower vertebrate species are yet to be characterized. Herein, we molecularly characterized a teleostan counterpart of CIAPI from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus), designating as RbCIAPI. The complete coding region of RbCIAPI was consisted of 942 nucleotides encoding a protein of 313 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of ~33 kDa. RbCIAPI gene exhibited a multi-exonic architecture, consisting 9 exons interrupted by 8 introns. Protein sequence analysis revealed that RbCIAPI shares significant homology with known CIAPI counterparts, and phylogenetic reconstruction confirmed its closer evolutionary relationship with its fish counterparts. Ubiquitous spatial distribution of RbCIAPI was detected in our quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis, where more prominent expression levels were observed in the blood and liver tissues. Moreover, the RbCIAPI basal transcription level was found to be modulated by different bacterial and viral stimuli, which could be plausibly supported by our previous observations on the transcriptional modulation of the caspase 3 counterpart of rock bream (Rbcasp3) in response to the same stimuli. In addition, our in vitro functional assay demonstrated that recombinant RbCIAPI could detectably inhibit the proteolysis activity of recombinant Rbcasp3. Collectively, our preliminary results suggest that RbCIAPI may play an anti-apoptotic role in rock bream physiology, likely by inhibiting the caspase-dependent apoptosis pathway. Therefore, RbCIAPI potentially plays an important role in host immunity by regulating the apoptosis process under pathogenic stress. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Developmental and comparative immunology 04/2015; 52(1). DOI:10.1016/j.dci.2015.03.016
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    ABSTRACT: Autophagy is a highly conserved intracellular homeostatic process involved in numerous responses in both vertebrate and invertebrate. In the present study, autophagy in hemocytes of Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis was observed by Western-blot and immunofluorescence assay, and its induction by CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) was investigated. The increase of LC3-conversion (LC3-II/LC3-I) and LC3-puncta formation were observed in hemocytes of crabs after rapamycin injection. And the ratio of LC3-conversion and the percentage of LC3-puncta formation were also significantly increased after CpG ODNs stimulation, and the highest values were 1.89-fold and 3.77-fold compared to that in pUC57 group at 24 h post-injection. Moreover, the mRNA expression levels of autophagy-related genes, EsGabarap and EsAtg7, both dramatically increased after CpG ODNs injection, and reached the peak at 6 h post-injection, which were 2.66 and 2.82-fold (P<0.01) for EsGabarap, and 6.16-fold and 6.10-fold (P<0.01) for EsAtg7 compared to saline and pUC57 groups, respectively. The generation of ROS in hemocytes was induced and reached peak at 6 h post-injection in CpG-pUC57 group, which was 1.30-fold (P<0.01) and 1.66-fold (P<0.01) of that in saline and pUC57 group, respectively. The increased ROS generation and autophagy triggered by CpG ODNs were abolished after the treatment of the ROS scavenger, N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). It was suggested that CpG ODNs could induce autophagy and up-regulate the expression levels of autophagy-related genes in crabs via the activation of ROS generation in the hemocytes. The results provided useful information to understand autophagy in crab, and they were also helpful for the application of CpG ODNs as the novel immune stimulants in aquaculture. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Developmental and comparative immunology 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.dci.2015.04.008
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    ABSTRACT: Akirins, which are highly conserved nuclear proteins, are present throughout the metazoan and regulate innate immunity, embryogenesis, myogenesis, and carcinogenesis. This study reports all akirin genes from miiuy croaker and analyzes comprehensively the akirin gene family combined with akirin genes from other species. A second nuclear localization signal (NLS) is observed in akirin2 homologues, which is not in akirin1 homologues in all teleosts and most other vertebrates. Thus, we deduced that the loss of second NLS in akirin1 homologues in teleosts likely occurred in an ancestor to all Osteichthyes after splitting with cartilaginous fish. Significantly, the akirin2(2) gene included six exons interrupted by five introns in the miiuy croaker, which may be caused by the intron insertion event as a novel evidence for the variation of akirin gene structure in some species. In addition, comparison of the genomic neighborhood genes of akirin1, akirin2(1), and akirin2(2) demonstrates a strong level of conserved synteny across the teleost classes, which further proved the deduction of Macqueen and Johnston 2009 that the produce of akirin paralogues can be attributed to whole-genome duplications and the loss of some akirin paralogues after genome duplications. Furthermore, akirin gene family members and relish gene are ubiquitously expressed across all tissues, and their expression levels are increased in three immune tissues after infection with Vibrio anguillarum. Combined with the expression patterns of LEAP-1 and LEAP-2 from miiuy croaker, an intricate network of co-regulation among family members is established. Thus, it is further proved that akirins acted in concert with the relish protein to induce the expression of a subset of downstream pathway elements in the NF-kB dependent signaling pathway. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Developmental and comparative immunology 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.dci.2015.04.010
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    ABSTRACT: A new type of CXCL8, named CXCL8_L1b, was identified in this research. Comparison of amino acid sequences of Japanese flounder CXCL8_L1b and CXCL8_L1a (BAB86884.1) showed only 41.2 % identity. Transcripts of CXCL8_L1a were highly detected in spleen, kidney, gill and liver, while transcripts of CXCL8_L1b only were detected highly in spleen and kidney of apparently healthy fish. In fish challenged with E. tarda, transcripts of CXCL8_L1a were significantly increased at day 6, while no significant increase was detected in the mRNA level of CXCL8_L1b. On the other hand, fish infected by S. iniae, significantly increased both transcripts of CXCL8_L1a and CXCL8_L1b at days 1 and 3. In VHSV-infected fish, only the transcripts of CXCL8_L1b were significantly induced at day 6. LPS and poly I:C stimulation of PBLs induced a high level of CXCL8_L1a transcripts, while CXCL8_L1b transcripts were significantly increased only post poly I:C treatment. To evaluate the chemotactic activity of CXCL8_L1a and CXCL8_L1b, Japanese flounder were intramuscularly injected with recombinant plasmids pCI-CXCL8_L1a and pCI-CXCL8_L1b. H & E staining showed that injections of both pCI-CXCL8_L1a and pCI-CXCL8_L1b caused strong immune responses in the form of intermuscular cell infiltration and capillary congestion. Injection of pCI-CXCL8_L1a and pCI-CXCL8_L1b significantly induced the expressions of genes related to inflammatory response such as IL-6 and CD8α on day 1 post-injection. The transcripts of IgM only significantly increased on day 7 post-injection of pCI-CXCL8_L1b. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Developmental and comparative immunology 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.dci.2015.04.011
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor superfamily (TNFSF) members represent a group of cytokines participating in diverse immunological, pathological and developmental pathways. However, compared with deuterostomia and cnidaia, the composition and evolution of TNF homologous in protostomia are still not well understood. In the present study, a total of 81 TNF superfamily (TNFSF) genes from 15 mollusk species, including 23 TNFSF genes from Crassostrea gigas, were surveyed by genome-wide bioinformatics analysis. The phylogenetic analysis showed that 14 out of 23 C. gigas TNFSF genes in five clades exhibited orthologous relationships with Pinctada fucata TNFSF genes. Moreover, there were 15 C. gigas TNFSF genes located in oyster-specific clusters, which were contributed by small-scaled tandem and/or segmental duplication events in oyster. By comparing the sequences of duplicated TNFSF pairs, exon loss and variant in exon/intron length were revealed as the major modes of divergence in gene structure. Most of the duplicated C. gigas TNFSF pairs were evolved under purifying selection with consistent tissue expression patterns, implying functional constraint shaped diversification. This study demonstrated the expansion and early divergence of TNF superfamily in C. gigas, which provides potential insight into revealing the evolution and function of this superfamily in mollusk. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Developmental and comparative immunology 04/2015; 51(2). DOI:10.1016/j.dci.2015.04.006
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    ABSTRACT: Steller's eiders and spectacled eiders are sea duck species whose populations have declined significantly and infectious diseases could influence offspring survival. Therefore, the maternal transfer of immunoglobulin Y (IgY) into yolk was investigated in captive Steller's and spectacled eiders during the 2007-2013 breeding seasons. This project had two objectives: establish baseline IgY levels in Steller's and spectacled eider yolk under controlled captive conditions and evaluate the effect of year, laying date, egg fertility, egg incubation duration, individual hen, hen age and mass, and laying order to determine which variables influenced IgY levels. Average IgY concentrations were 0.03 - 0.48 mg ml(-1) in Steller's eider yolk and 0.10 - 0.51 mg ml(-1) in spectacled eider yolk. The year and individual hen influenced IgY concentration in Steller's and spectacled eider yolk. The laying date was negatively correlated with egg IgY levels for most Steller's eider hens, but laying order was positively correlated with egg IgY concentration for spectacled eiders. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Developmental and comparative immunology 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.dci.2015.04.005
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    ABSTRACT: β-Thymosins participate in numerous biological activities, including cell proliferation and differentiation, wound healing, and anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities. Many studies have investigated vertebrate β-thymosins, whereas few reports have focused on invertebrate β-thymosins. In this study, nine isoforms of β-thymosins (PcThy-1 to PcThy-8) were identified from the red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii. The isoforms contained different numbers of the thymosin β actin-binding motif. PcThy-1 contained one thymosin β actin-binding motif, whereas PcThy-8 contained eight motifs. Western blot analysis with anti-PcThy-4 antibody showed that three to six isoforms were present in one tissue, and PcThy-4, PcThy-5, PcThy-6, and PcThy-7 were the main isoforms in several tissues. Time course expression analysis of PcThys at the protein level showed that PcThy-4 was upregulated in hemocytes and gills after white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge. PcThy-4, which contained four thymosin β actin-binding motifs, was selected for further research. Tissue distribution analysis by quantitative real-time PCR showed that PcThy-4 was present in tissues of the hemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas, gills, stomach, and intestine at the transcriptional level. Transcriptional expression profiles showed that PcThy-4 was upregulated after WSSV challenge. In vivo RNAi and protein injection assay results showed that PcThy-4 inhibited the replication of WSSV in crayfish and enhanced the survival rate after WSSV infection. Furthermore, PcThy-4 promoted hemocyte phagocytosis of WSSV. Overall, results suggested that PcThys protected crayfish from WSSV infection and played an important role in antiviral immune response. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Developmental and comparative immunology 04/2015; 51(2). DOI:10.1016/j.dci.2015.04.003
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    ABSTRACT: The small GTPase Rac1 acts as a molecular switch for signal transduction that regulates various cellular functions. However, its functions in crustaceans remain unclear. In this study, a cDNA encoding a RAS GTPase (LvRac1) in the Pacific white shrimp (L. vannamei) was identified and characterized. A recombinant variant of this GTPase, rLvRac1, was expressed in the model organism P. pastoris and its expression was confirmed by mass spectrometry. Biochemical assays indicated that the recombinant protein retained GTPase activity and was expressed in all of the organism's tested tissues. Injection of the bacterium V. alginolyticus into L. vannamei induced hepatopancreatic upregulation of LvRac1 expression. Moreover, knocking down LvRac1 in vivo significantly reduced the expression of the L. vannamei p53 and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase genes (Lvp53 and LvCu/Zn SOD, respectively) while increasing that of the galectin gene (Lvgal). Hemolymph samples from control and LvRac1-silenced L. vannamei individuals were analyzed by flow cytometry, revealing that the latter exhibited significantly reduced respiratory burst activity and total hemocyte counts. Cumulative mortality in shrimp lacking LvRac1 was significantly greater than in control groups following V. alginolyticus challenge. The silencing of LvRac1 by double-stranded RNA injection thus increased the V. alginolyticus challenge sensitivity of L. vannamei and weakened its bacterial clearance ability in vivo. Suppressing LvRac1 also promoted the upregulation of Lvp53, LvCu/ZnSOD, and Lvgal following V. alginolyticus injection. Taken together, these results suggest that LvRac1 is important in the innate immune response of shrimp to V. alginolyticus infection. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Developmental and comparative immunology 04/2015; 51(2). DOI:10.1016/j.dci.2015.04.004
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    ABSTRACT: A cDNA clone encoding a 380 a-a type 1 transmembrane protein with homology to human Siglec-3/CD33 was obtained from a swine small intestine library. Analysis of protein sequence identified two immunoglobulin-like domains, a transmembrane region, and a carboxi-terminal tail with two tyrosine-based signalling motifs. Binding assays of Siglec-3 transfected CHO cells to polyacrylamide glycoconjugates showed a preference for α2-6-linked sialic acids. Using mAbs raised against a fragment containing the two Ig-like domains, porcine Siglec-3 was found to be expressed on monocytes and granulocytes, and their bone marrow precursors. It was also detected in lymph node, splenic and alveolar macrophages. MAbs immunoprecipitated, from granulocyte lysates, a protein of 51-60 kDa under both non-reducing and reducing conditions. MAbs were also used to analyse functional activity of Siglec-3 on bone marrow and blood cells. Engagement of Siglec-3 by mAb had no apparent effect on cell proliferation or cytokine production. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Developmental and comparative immunology 04/2015; 51(2). DOI:10.1016/j.dci.2015.04.002
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    ABSTRACT: Peroxiredoxin 1 (Prx 1) is an important antioxidant protein that can protect organisms against the toxicity of reactive oxygen species. In this study, a full-length Prx 1 cDNA sequence (ToPrx 1) was identified from golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus). The ToPrx 1 cDNA was 1049 base pairs (bp) long and contained a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 127 nucleotides, a 3'-UTR of 328 nucleotides, and a 594 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 197 amino acid polypeptide. The ToPrx 1 protein showed strong homology (79-91%) with Prx 1 proteins from other species and contained the conserved Prx domain and the signature of the peroxidase catalytic center. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that ToPrx 1 was in the fish Prx 1 subgroup, which suggests that ToPrx 1 could belong to the 2-Cys Prx subgroup. ToPrx 1 mRNA was ubiquitously detected in all tested tissues, and its expression was comparatively high in the fin, spleen, kidney, intestine, eye, gill, and blood. The expression levels of ToPrx 1 mRNA were significantly up-regulated in liver, spleen, kidney, and intestine of golden pompano injected with Photobacterium damselae. The recombinant ToPrx 1 protein (rToPrx 1) was expressed and purified through affinity chromatography and refolded successfully using ion-exchange chromatography. The antioxidant activity assay of rToPrx 1 showed that it could reduce insulin in the presence of dithiothreitol, which suggests that the antioxidant function of rToPrx 1 is thiol dependent. This study provides useful information to help further understand the functional mechanism of Prx 1 in marine fish immunity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Developmental and comparative immunology 04/2015; 51(2). DOI:10.1016/j.dci.2015.03.011