Developmental and comparative immunology

Publisher: Elsevier

Journal description

Current impact factor: 3.71

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 3.705
2012 Impact Factor 3.238
2011 Impact Factor 3.268
2010 Impact Factor 3.293
2009 Impact Factor 3.29
2008 Impact Factor 2.833
2007 Impact Factor 3.155
2006 Impact Factor 3.399
2005 Impact Factor 3.261
2004 Impact Factor 2.652
2003 Impact Factor 2.39
2002 Impact Factor 2.186
2001 Impact Factor 2.909
2000 Impact Factor 2.205
1999 Impact Factor 1.857
1998 Impact Factor 1.814
1997 Impact Factor 1.318
1996 Impact Factor 1.596
1995 Impact Factor 1.34
1994 Impact Factor 1.186
1993 Impact Factor 1.177
1992 Impact Factor 1.031

Impact factor over time

Impact factor
Year

Additional details

5-year impact 0.00
Cited half-life 5.70
Immediacy index 1.07
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.83
ISSN 1879-0089

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Publications in this journal

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    Developmental and comparative immunology 06/2015; 50(2). DOI:10.1016/j.dci.2015.03.003
  • Nikolina Kovacevic, Mariel O Hagen, Jiasong Xie, Miodrag Belosevic
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    ABSTRACT: The expression of genes encoding the acute phase proteins (APP) during the course of Trypanasoma carassii infection in the goldfish was determined using quantitative PCR. Significant changes in the mRNA levels of ceruloplasmin (Cp), C-reactive protein (CRP), transferrin (Tf), hemopexin (Hx) and serum amyloid A (SAA) were observed in the kidney, liver and spleen at various days post infection (dpi). Of the five acute phase protein genes examined, CRP and SAA exhibited the highest expression in the tissues during the acute infection. Cp and Tf were up-regulated throughout the acute course of infection in the liver. During the chronic phase of the infection, APP expression in the liver was similar to that in the non-infected control fish. At 7 dpi, Cp, Tf and Hx were down-regulated in the spleen, and Cp and Tf kidney, but their mRNA levels gradually returned to those of control non-infected fish. In contrast, during the chronic phase of the infection, there was an up-regulation of Cp, Hx and Tf in the spleen, and Tf and SAA in the kidney. The goldfish CRP was cloned and functionally characterized. CRP was differentially expressed in normal goldfish immune cells, with highest expression in monocytes and lowest expression in mature macrophages. A recombinant goldfish CRP (rgfCRP) was generated using prokaryotic expression. rgfCRP enhanced complement-mediated killing of trypanosomes in vitro, and the lysis increased after addition of immune serum. rgfCRP did not affect the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates by monocytes and macrophages, respectively. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Developmental and comparative immunology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.dci.2015.06.009
  • Xiaoli Feng, Yixuan Zhang, Chunrong Yang, Lanjie Liao, Yaping Wang, Jianguo Su
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    ABSTRACT: IPS-1, as the sole adaptor of RIG-I and MDA5, plays a central role in innate antiviral immunity. In this study, we investigated potential roles of IPS-1 in innate immunity and the domain-requirement of IPS-1 for its signaling in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Overexpression experiment showed that CiIPS-1 mediated IFN-I signal possibly dependent on CiIRF7 but not CiIRF3. Post GCRV challenge, CiIPS-1 could enhance antiviral immune responses. CARD and TM domains were crucial for antiviral function of CiIPS-1, and TRAF motif played an assistant role. PRO domain seemed as a negative regulator but was pivotal for the initiation of CiIFN-I and CiMx1. Post viral/bacterial PAMPs stimulation, CiIPS-1-mediated signaling was tightly controlled. CARD domain of CiIPS-1 could significantly elicit poly I:C/LPS/PGN-mediated signaling. PRO domain negatively regulated CiIRF7 and CiIFN-I but was indispensable for inductions of CiMx1 and CiIL-1β. TRAF motif and TM domain regulated the signaling presumably in a cooperative fashion. Post poly I:C stimulation, TRAF motif negatively regulated CiIRF7, CiIFN-I and CiIL-1β at a relative early time while TM domain functioned at a relative late time. TRAF motif was indispensable for the production of CiMx1, while TM domain slightly negatively regulated the expression. Post LPS and PGN stimulation, TRAF motif excited an assistant and persistent negative role on CiIFN-I, CiIRF7 and CiIL-1β induction, but was crucial for induction of CiMx1. TM domain slightly negatively regulated LPS- and PGN-triggered signaling. Taken together, CiIPS-1 not only exerted important functions in antiviral immune response but also participated in viral/bacterial PAMPs-triggered immune response which was tightly controlled to prevent harmful effects resulting from excessive activation. This study provided novel insights into the pivotal role of IPS-1 in innate immunity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Developmental and comparative immunology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.dci.2015.06.005
  • I Salinas, E B Erhardt, S E LaPatra
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    ABSTRACT: Determining the earliest age at which farmed fish can be successfully vaccinated is a very important question for fish farmers. Nasal vaccines are novel mucosal vaccines that prevent aquatic infectious diseases of finfish. The present study investigates the ontogeny of the olfactory organ of rainbow trout by histology and aims to establish the earliest age for vaccination against infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) and enteric red mouth (ERM) disease using the nasal route. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were vaccinated intranasally (I.N) at three different ages: 1050 degree days (DD) (group A); 450 DD (group B); and 360 DD (group C), or 70, 30 and 24 days post-hatch (dph), respectively. The mean weights of groups A, B and C were 4.69 g, 2.9 g and 2.37 g, respectively. Fish received either a live attenuated IHN virus vaccine, ERM formalin killed bacterin or saline (mock vaccinated). Fish were challenged to the corresponding live pathogen 28 days post-vaccination. IHN vaccine delivery at 360 DD resulted in 40% mortality likely due to residual virulence of the vaccine. No mortality was observed in the ERM nasal delivery groups. Following challenge, very high protection rates against IHN virus were recorded in all three age groups with survivals of 95%, 100% and 97.5% in groups A, B and C, respectively. Survival against ERM was 82.5%, 87.5% and 77.5% in groups A, B and C, respectively. Survival rates did not differ among ages for either vaccine. Our results indicate the feasibility and effectiveness of nasal vaccination as early as 360 DD and vaccination-related mortalities when a live attenuated viral vaccine was used in the youngest fish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Developmental and comparative immunology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.dci.2015.05.015
  • Chen Jiang, Jiaren Zhang, Jun Yao, Shikai Liu, Yun Li, Lin Song, Chao Li, Xiaozhu Wang, Zhanjiang Liu
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    ABSTRACT: Complement system is one of the most important defense systems of innate immunity, which plays a crucial role in disease defense responses in channel catfish. However, inappropriate and excessive complement activation could lead to potential damage to the host cells. Therefore the complement system is controlled by a set of complement regulatory proteins to allow normal defensive functions, but prevent hazardous complement activation to host tissues. In this study, we identified nine complement regulatory protein genes from the channel catfish genome. Phylogenetic and syntenic analyses were conducted to determine their orthology relationships, supporting their correct annotation and potential functional inferences. The expression profiles of the complement regulatory protein genes were determined in channel catfish healthy tissues and after infection with the two main bacterial pathogens, Edwardsiella ictaluri and Flavobacterium columnare. The vast majority of complement regulatory protein genes were significantly regulated after bacterial infections, but interestingly were generally up-regulated after E. ictaluri infection while mostly down-regulated after F. columnare infection, suggesting a pathogen-specific pattern of regulation. Collectively, these findings suggested that complement regulatory protein genes may play complex roles in the host immune responses to bacterial pathogens in channel catfish. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Developmental and comparative immunology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.dci.2015.06.002
  • Fumihiko Katakura, Takeshi Yabu, Takuya Yamaguchi, Jiro Miyamae, Yuki Shirinashihama, Teruyuki Nakanishi, Tadaaki Moritomo
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    ABSTRACT: The use of in vitro colony assays in mammals has contributed to identification of erythroid progenitor cells such as burst-forming unit-erythroid (BFU-E) and colony-forming unit-erythroid (CFU-E) progenitors, and serves to examine functions of erythropoietic growth factors like Erythropoietin (Epo) and Kit ligand. Here, we established an in vitro colony-forming assay capable of investigating erythropoiesis in carp (Cyprinus carpio), cloned and functionally characterized recombinant homologous molecules Epo and Kit ligand A (Kitla), and identified three distinct erythroid progenitor cells in carp. Recombinant carp Epo induced the formation of CFU-E-like and BFU-E-like erythroid colonies, expressing erythroid marker genes, β-globin, epor and gata1. Recombinant carp Kitla alone induced limited colony formation, whereas a combination of Kitla and Epo dramatically enhanced erythroid colony formation and colony cell growth, as well as stimulated the formation of thrombocytic/erythroid colonies expressing not only erythroid markers but also thrombocytic markers, cd41 and c-mpl. Utilizing this colony assay to examine the distribution of distinct erythroid progenitor cells in carp, we demonstrated that carp head and trunk kidney play a primary role in erythropoiesis, while the spleen plays a secondary. Furthermore, we showed that presumably bi-potent thrombocytic/erythroid progenitor cells localize principally in the trunk kidney. Our results indicate that teleost fish possess mechanisms of Epo- and Kitla-dependent erythropoiesis similar to those in other vertebrates, and also help to demonstrate the diversity of erythropoietic sites among vertebrates. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Developmental and comparative immunology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.dci.2015.06.006
  • Kantamas Apitanyasai, Piti Amparyup, Walaiporn Charoensapsri, Saengchan Senapin, Anchalee Tassanakajon
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    ABSTRACT: The viral responsive protein, PmHHAP, plays an important role in the control of hemocyte homeostasis in shrimps during viral infection. In this study, we further investigate the role of PmHHAP in the regulation of hemocyte apoptosis. RNA interference (RNAi) mediated gene silencing was used to suppress the PmHHAP expression and the change in hemocyte apoptosis was determined in the knockdown shrimp. Within circulating hemocytes, PmHHAP knockdown increased the number of annexin V-positive apoptotic cells and the combined caspase-3/-7 activity and induced the characteristic apoptotic DNA ladder. Furthermore, PmHHAP down-regulation was accompanied by significantly altered expression of apoptosis-related proteins including the effector caspases, PmCaspase and PmCasp. Yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation assays showed that PmHHAP binds to the p20 domain of PmCasp. Moreover, the recombinant PmHHAP protein was able to reduce the caspase activity in the actinomycin D-treated hemocyte cells and rPmCasp-treated hemocyte cells. Taken together, our data indicate that PmHHAP regulates hemocyte homeostasis by inhibits apoptotic cell death through caspase activation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Developmental and comparative immunology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.dci.2015.06.004
  • Yun-Chieh Hsieh, Yi-Min Chen, Chun-Yuan Li, Yu-Han Chang, Suh-Yuen Liang, Shu-Yu Lin, Chang-Yi Lin, Sheng-Hsiung Chang, Yi-Jan Wang, Kay-Hooi Khoo, Takashi Aoki, Han-Ching Wang
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    ABSTRACT: White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), the causative agent of white spot disease (WSD), is a serious and aggressive shrimp viral pathogen with a worldwide distribution. At the genome replication stage (12 hpi), WSSV induces a metabolic rerouting known as the invertebrate Warburg effect, which boosts the availability of energy and biosynthetic building blocks in the host cell. Here we show that unlike the lipogenesis that is seen in cancer cells that are undergoing the Warburg effect, at 12 hpi, all of the long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) were significantly decreased in the stomach cells of WSSV-infected shrimp. By means of this non-selective WSSV-induced lipolysis, the LCFAs were apparently diverted into β-oxidation and used to replenish the TCA cycle. Conversely, at 24 hpi, when the Warburg effect had ceased, most of the LCFAs were significantly up-regulated and the composition was also significantly altered. In crayfish these changes were in a direction that appeared to favor the formation of WSSV virion particles. We also found that, at 24 hpi, but not at 12 hpi, the PI3K-Akt-mTOR-HIF1α pathway induced the expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS), an enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of acetyl-CoA into LCFAs. WSSV virion formation was impaired in the presence of the FAS inhibitor C75, although viral gene and viral DNA levels were unaffected. WSSV therefore appears to use the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway to induce lipid biosynthesis at 24 hpi in order to support viral morphogenesis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Developmental and comparative immunology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.dci.2015.06.001
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    ABSTRACT: The C1q domain containing (C1qDC) proteins are a family of proteins possessing globular C1q (gC1q) domains, and they rely on this domain to recognize various ligands such as PAMPs, immunoglobulins, ligands on apoptotic cell. In the present study, a novel multi-domain C1qDC protein (CfC1qDC-2) was identified from scallop Chlamys farreri, and its full length cDNA was composed of 1648 bp, encoding a signal peptide and three typical gC1q domains. BLAST analysis revealed significant sequence similarity between CfC1qDC-2 and C1qDC proteins from mollusks. Three gC1q domains were predicted in its tertiary structure to form a tightly packed bell-shaped trimer, and each one adopted a typical 10-stranded sandwich fold with a jelly-roll topology and contained six aromatic amino acids forming the hydrophobic core. The mRNA transcripts of CfC1qDC-2 were mainly detected in the tissues of hepatopancreas and gonad of adult scallops, and the expression level was up-regulated in hemocytes after stimulated by LPS, PGN and β-glucan. During the embryonic development of scallop, the mRNA transcripts of CfC1qDC-2 were presented in all the detected stages, and the expression level was up-regulated from D-hinged larvae and reached the highest at eye-spot larvae. The recombinant protein of MBP-CfC1qDC-2 (rCfC1qDC-2) could bind various PAMPs including LPS, PGN, LTA, β-glucan, mannan as well as polyI:C, and different microorganisms including three Gram-negative bacteria, three Gram-positive bacteria and two yeasts, as well as scallop apoptotic cells. Meanwhile, rCfC1qDC-2 could interact with human heat-aggregated IgG and IgM, and inhibit the C1q-dependent hemolysis of rabbit serum. All these results indicated that CfC1qDC-2 could recognize not only PAMPs as a PRR, but also the apoptotic cells. Moreover, the similar structures and functions shared by CfC1qDC-2 and complement C1q provided a new insight into the evolution of C1qDC proteins in complement system.
    Developmental and comparative immunology 06/2015; 22(2). DOI:10.1016/j.dci.2015.05.009
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    ABSTRACT: microRNAs (miRNAs) are an evolutionarily conserved class of non-coding RNA molecules that participate in various biological processes. Employment of high-throughput screening strategies greatly prompts the investigation and profiling of miRNAs in diverse species. In recent years, grouper (Epinephelus spp.) aquaculture was severely affected by iridoviral diseases. However, knowledge regarding the host immune responses to viral infection, especially the miRNA-mediated immune regulatory roles is rather limited. In this study, by employing Solexa deep sequencing approach, we identified 116 grouper miRNAs from grouper spleen-derived cells (GS). As expected, these miRNAs shared high sequence similarity with miRNAs identified in zebrafish (Danio rerio), pufferfish (Fugu rubripes), and other higher vertebrates. In the process of Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) infection, 45 and 43 miRNAs with altered expression (>1.5-fold) were identified by miRNA microarray assays in grouper spleen tissues and GS cells, respectively. Furthermore, target prediction revealed 189 putative targets of these grouper miRNAs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Developmental and comparative immunology 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.dci.2015.05.014
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    ABSTRACT: Prostaglandins (PGs) play a key role in the development on the immune response through the regulation of both pro- and anti-inflammatory processes. PGD2 can be either pro- or anti-inflammatory depending on the inflammatory milieu. Prostaglandin D synthase (PGDS) is the enzyme responsible for the conversion of PGH2 to PGD2. In mammals, two types of PGDS synthase have been described, the hematopoietic (H-PGDS) and the lipocalin (L-PGDS). In the present study we describe the existence of two orthologues of the mammalian L-PGDS (PGDS1 and PGDS2) in the gilthead seabream and characterize their gene expression profiles and biological activity. The results showed a dramatic induction of the gene coding for PGDS1 in acidophilic granulocytes (AGs), which are functionally equivalent to mammalian neutrophils, after a prolonged in vitro activation with different pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). In contrast PGDS2 was not expressed in these cells. The functional relevance of the induction of PGDS1 in AGs was confirmed by the ability of these cells to release PGD2 upon PAMP stimulation. To gain further insight into the role of PGD2 in the resolution of inflammation in fish, we examined the ability of PGD2 or its cyclopentenone derivates (cyPGs) to modulate the main functional activities of AGs. It was found that both PGD2 and cyPGs inhibited the production of reactive oxygen species and downregulated the transcript levels of the gene encoding interleukin-1β. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the use of PGD2 and its metabolites in the resolution of inflammation was established before the divergence of fish from tetrapods more than 450 million years ago and support a critical role for granulocytes in the resolution of inflammation in vertebrates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Developmental and comparative immunology 05/2015; 52(2). DOI:10.1016/j.dci.2015.04.017
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    ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are among the most studied pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) playing essential roles in innate immune defenses. In the present study, the basic features of CfTLR in mollusk Zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri, including sequence homology, tissue distribution, subcellular localization and ligands spectrum were investigated to elucidate its pattern recognition. The elements of extracellular domains (ECD) in CfTLR displayed high homology to the corresponding parts of the ECDs in TLRs from Homo sapiens. CfTLR protein was detected in haemocytes, mantle, gills, hepatopancreas, kidney and gonad of the scallops, and it was localized in both the plasma membranes and the lysosomes in HEK293T cells. CfTLR could activate NFκB in response to multiple HsTLR ligands including Pam3CSK4, glucan (GLU), peptidoglycan (PGN), polyriboinosinic:polyribocytidylic acid (poly I:C), Imiquimod and three types of CpG. Additionally, the scallop serum could enhance the induction of NFκB in the CfTLR expressing cells elicited by most PAMPs, including GLU, PGN, Imiquimod and four types of CpG. It could be concluded that this primitive mollusk TLR shared a hybrid function in pattern recognition and could recognize broader ligands than mammalian TLRs, and its mosaic capability of pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) recognition might be based on the basic features of its structure, ligand properties and the assistance of some components in scallop serum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Developmental and comparative immunology 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.dci.2015.05.011
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    ABSTRACT: Relish is an NF-kB transcription factor involved in immune-deficiency (IMD) signal pathway. In this study, a Relish gene (MrRelish) was identified from Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The full length of MrRelish comprises 5072 bp, including a 3510 bp open reading frame encoding a 1169 bp amino acid protein. MrRelish contains a Rel homology domain (RHD), a nucleus localization signal, an IκB-like domain (6 ankyrin repeats), and a death domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MrRelish and other Relish from crustaceans belong to one group. MrRelish was expressed in all detected tissues, with the highest expression level in hemocytes and intestines. MrRelish was also upregulated in hepatopancreas at 6 h after Vibrio anguillarum challenge. The over-expression of MrRelish could induce the expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), such as Drosophila Metchnikowin (Mtk), Attacin (Atta), Drosomycin (Drs), and Cecropin (CecA) and shrimp Penaeidin (Pen4). The RNAi of MrRelish in gills showed that the expression of crustin (cru) 2, Cru5, Cru8, lysozyme (Lyso) 1, and Lyso2 was inhibited. However, the expression of anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) 1 and ALF3 did not change when MrRelish was knocked down. These results indicate that MrRelish may play an important role in innate immune defense against V. anguillarum in M. rosenbergii. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Developmental and comparative immunology 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.dci.2015.05.008
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    ABSTRACT: Cryptosporidium parvum causes a zoonotic infection with worldwide distribution. Besides humans, cryptosporidiosis affects a wide range of animals leading to significant economic losses due to severe enteritis in neonatal livestock. Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation has been demonstrated as an important host effector mechanism of PMN acting against several invading pathogens. In the present study, C. parvum-mediated NET formation was investigated in human and bovine PMN in vitro. We here demonstrate that C. parvum sporozoites indeed trigger NET formation in a time-dependent manner. Thereby, the classical characteristics of NETs were demonstrated by co-localization of extracellular DNA with histones, neutrophil elastase (NE) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). A significant reduction of NET formation was measured following treatments of PMN with NADPH oxidase-, NE- and MPO-inhibitors, confirming the key role of these enzymes in C. parvum-induced NETs. Additionally, sporozoite-triggered NETosis revealed as dependent on intracellular Ca(++) concentration and the ERK 1/2 and p38 MAPK-mediated signaling pathway. Moreover, sporozoite-triggered NET formation led to significant parasite entrapment since 15 % of the parasites were immobilized in NET structures. Consequently, PMN-pre-exposed sporozoites showed significantly reduced infectivity for epithelial host cells confirming the capability of NETs to prevent active parasite invasion. Besides NETs, we here show that C. parvum significantly up-regulated CXCL8, IL6, TNF-α and of GM-CSF gene transcription upon sporozoite confrontation, indicating a pivotal role of PMN not only in the bovine and human system but most probably in other final hosts for C. parvum. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Developmental and comparative immunology 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.dci.2015.05.007
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    ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptors (TLR) are a family of pattern recognition receptors that sense microbial associated molecular patterns (MAMP) such as microbial membrane components and nucleic acids of bacterial origin. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) are the first cell of the innate immune system to arrive at the site of infection or injury and elicit oxidative and non-oxidative microbicidal mechanisms. Observations in human and mouse suggest that TLR ligands can induce direct responses in PMN. So far, there is no information of the effect of synthetic TLR ligands on the response of bovine PMN. The objective of this study was to evaluate the functional response of bovine PMN incubated with four synthetic TLR ligands: ultrapure LPS (TLR4), Pam3CSK4 (TLR2/1), HKLM (TLR2) and FSL-1 (TLR2/6). The results show that all the ligands increment cells size as identified by changes in the FSC-SSC as part of the flow cytometric analysis. Interestingly, only Pam3CSK4 consistently induced a calcium influx, increased ROS production and secretion of gelatinase granules, whereas no response was seen using other ligands. Furthermore, exposure of bovine PMN to ultrapure LPS, Pam3CSK4, HKLM or FSL-1 for 24 hours did not impact on apoptosis of these cells. Our data provide evidence for a selective response of bovine PMNs to TLR ligands. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Developmental and comparative immunology 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.dci.2015.05.012
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    ABSTRACT: Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is an adapter protein involved in the interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) and Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB). In this study, a full length cDNA of MyD88 was cloned from turbot, Scophthalmus maximus. It is 1619 bp in length and contains an 858-bp open reading frame that encodes a peptide of 285 amino acid residues. The putative turbot (Sm)MyD88 protein possesses a N-terminal death domain and a C-terminal Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain known to be important for the functions of MyD88 in mammals. Phylogenetic analysis grouped SmMyD88 with other fish MyD88s. SmMyD88 mRNA was ubiquitously expressed in all examined tissues of healthy turbots, with higher levels observed in immune-relevant organs. To explore the role of SmMyD88, its gene expression profile in response to stimulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-ODN) or turbot reddish body iridovirus (TRBIV) was studied in the head kidney, spleen, gills and muscle over a 7-day time course. The results showed an up-regulation of SmMyD88 transcript levels by the three immunostimulants in all four examined tissues, with the induction by CpG-ODN strongest and initiated earliest and inducibility in the muscle very weak. Additionally, TRBIV challenge resulted in a quite high level of SmMyD88 expression in the spleen, whereas the two synthetic immunostimulants induced the higher levels in the head kidney. These data provide insights into the roles of SmMyD88 in the TLR/IL-1R signaling pathway of the innate immune system in turbot. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Developmental and comparative immunology 05/2015; 52(2). DOI:10.1016/j.dci.2015.05.013
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    ABSTRACT: The innate immune responses in lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus L.) have been shown to be functional, but little is currently known about the B cells, immunoglobulins or adaptive immune responses in this species. We have used anti-IgM antiserum to isolate B cells and compared them morphologically and functionally with other cell types. The fraction of IgM(+) cells among isolated peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL), head kidney leukocytes (HKL) and spleen leukocytes (SL) was in the range of 40%, 12% and 34%, respectively. The IgM(+) B cells had high phagocytic ability and were the predominant phagocytes in blood with higher capacity than IgM(+) B cells in HKL. Interestingly, among PBL, the most potent phagocytes were, in addition to monocytes, some small agranular uncharacterized IgM(-) cells. The IgM(+) B cells were positive for acid phosphatases (AcP), but negative for myeloperoxidase (MPO). Neutrophils were positive for MPO, while monocytes/macrophages and dendritic-like cells stained negatively. Monocytes/macrophages and the small, agranular IgM(-) cells stained most strongly positive for AcP corresponding to their high phagocytic capacity. Further, the ability to produce specific antibodies upon immunization verified adaptive immunity in the species. The high proportion of phagocytic IgM(+) B cells and their phagocytic ability indicate a significant role of phagocytic B cells in lumpfish innate immunity. The present analyses also give strong indications that vaccination and immunostimulation of farmed lumpfish can be used to prevent disease and mortality caused by pathogenic organisms. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Developmental and comparative immunology 05/2015; 52(2). DOI:10.1016/j.dci.2015.05.010
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    ABSTRACT: Integrins belong to a superfamily of conserved α β heterodimeric cell surface receptors that have critical function in cell migration, differentiation, and survival. In this study, an integrin called EsIntegrin was identified from Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis. EsIntegrin cDNA is 4415 bp long with a 2457 bp open reading frame that encodes an 818 amino acid protein. EsIntegrin contains a signal peptide, an integrin beta subunit (N-terminal portion of extracellular region) INB domain, an epidermal growth factor (hEGF) domain, an integrin B tail domain, a transmembrane region, and an integrin b cyt domain. EsIntegrin was mainly expressed in hemocytes and the heart, with a relatively lower expression level in gills, nerves, intestine, hepatopancreas, muscles, and eyestalk. When healthy crabs were challenged with LPS, PGN, Staphyloccocus aureus, or Vibrio parahaemolyticus, EsIntegrin expression level was upregulated significantly. Recombinant EsIntegrin has agglutination activity to Gram-positive (e.g., S. aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative bacteria (e.g., V. parahaemolyticus and Aeromonas hydrophila) in the presence of calcium. Furthermore, rEsIntegrin could not only bind to various bacteria such as S. aureus, Micrococcus luteus, B. subtilis, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus thuringiensis, V. parahaemolyticus, Vibrio anguillarum, A. hydrophila, Vibrio natriegens, and Escherichia coli, but this compound also helped crabs in clearing virulent Gram-negative bacterium, V. parahaemolyticus, in vivo. These data suggested that EsIntegrin might function as cellular receptor that is involved in anti-bacterial immunity from E. sinensis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Developmental and comparative immunology 05/2015; 52(2). DOI:10.1016/j.dci.2015.05.005