Publisher: Elsevier

Journal description

Current impact factor: 2.08

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 2.082
2012 Impact Factor 2.196
2011 Impact Factor 2.341
2010 Impact Factor 2.266
2009 Impact Factor 2.416
2008 Impact Factor 2.578
2007 Impact Factor 2.871
2006 Impact Factor 2.721
2005 Impact Factor 2.694
2004 Impact Factor 2.705
2003 Impact Factor 2.754
2002 Impact Factor 2.778
2001 Impact Factor 3.041
2000 Impact Factor 2.461
1999 Impact Factor 2.258
1998 Impact Factor 2.007
1997 Impact Factor 1.838
1996 Impact Factor 1.931
1995 Impact Factor 2.16
1994 Impact Factor 2.305
1993 Impact Factor 2.407
1992 Impact Factor 2.569

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.37
Cited half-life 0.00
Immediacy index 0.40
Eigenfactor 0.02
Article influence 0.73
ISSN 1879-0038

Publisher details


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    • Voluntary deposit by author of authors post-print allowed on authors' personal website, or institutions open scholarly website including Institutional Repository, without embargo, where there is not a policy or mandate
    • Deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate only allowed where separate agreement between repository and the publisher exists.
    • Permitted deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate, may be required to comply with embargo periods of 12 months to 48 months .
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    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • NIH Authors articles will be submitted to PubMed Central after 12 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 18/10/2013
  • Classification
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Oomycetes are eukaryotic microorganisms, which are phylogenetically distinct from the true-fungi, which they resemble morphologically. While many oomycetes are pathogenic to plants, Pythium insidiosum is capable of infecting humans and animals. Mitochondrial (mt) genomes are valuable genetic resources for exploring the evolution of eukaryotes. During the course of 454-based nuclear genome sequencing, we identified a complete 54.9 kb mt genome sequence, containing 2 large inverted repeats, from P. insidiosum. It contains 65 different genes (including 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 25 transfer RNA genes and 38 genes encoding NADH dehydrogenases, cytochrome b, cytochrome c oxidases, ATP synthases, and ribosomal proteins). Thirty-nine of the 65 genes have two copies, giving a total of 104 genes. A set of 30 conserved protein-coding genes from the mt genomes of P. insidiosum, 11 other oomycetes, and 2 diatoms (outgroup) were used for phylogenetic analyses. The oomycetes can be classified into 2 phylogenetic groups, in relation to their taxonomic lineages: Saprolegnialean and Peronosporalean. P. insidiosum is more closely related to Pythium ultimum than other oomycetes. In conclusion, the complete mt genome of P. insidiosum was successfully sequenced, assembled, and annotated, providing a useful genetic resource for exploring the biology and evolution of P. insidiosum and other oomycetes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Gene 12/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.gene.2015.08.036
  • Shengnan Wu · Min Wu · Qing Dong · Haiyang Jiang · Ronghao Cai · Yan Xiang
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    ABSTRACT: The plant homeobox domain (PHD) proteins are widespread in eukaryotes, and play important roles in regulating chromatin and transcription. Comprehensive analyses of PHD-finger proteins have been performed in animals, but few plant PHD-finger proteins involved in growth and development have been characterized functionally. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide survey of PHD-finger proteins in Populus trichocarpa by describing the phylogenetic relationship, gene structure, chromosomal location and microarray analyses of each predicted PHD-finger family member. We identified 73 PHD-finger genes (PtPHD1-73) and classified them into eleven subfamilies (A-K) by phylogenetic analysis. Seventy-two of the 73 genes were unevenly distributed on all 19 chromosomes, with seven segmental duplication events. Analysis of the Ka (non-synonymous substitution rate)/Ks (synonymous substitution rate) ratios suggested that the duplicated genes of the PHD-finger family mainly underwent purifying selection with restrictive functional divergence after the duplication events. Expression profiles analysis indicated that 67 PHD-finger genes were differentially expressed in various tissues. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses of nine selected PtPHD genes under high salinity, drought and cold stresses were also performed to explore their stress-related expression patterns. The results of this study provide a thorough overview of poplar PHD-finger proteins and will be valuable for further functional research of poplar PHD-finger genes to unravel their biological roles. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Gene 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.gene.2015.08.042
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    ABSTRACT: Overgrowth syndromes are a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by focal or generalized overgrowth. Many of the syndromes have overlapping clinical features and it is difficult to diagnose the condition based on clinical features alone. In the present study we report on a patient with overgrowth syndrome where extensive investigation did not reveal the cause of disease. Finally exome sequencing revealed a novel hemizygous single base pair deletion in exon 8 of GPC3 gene (chrX:132670203delA) resulting in a frameshift and creating a new stop codon at 62 amino acids downstream to codon 564 (c.1692delT; p.Leu565SerfsTer63) of the protein. The mutation was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Mother was found to be heterozygous for the mutation. This variation is not reported in the 1000 genomes, Exome Variant Server (EVS), Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) and dbSNP databases and the region is conserved across primates. Exome sequencing was helpful in establishing diagnosis of Simpson-Golabi-Behmel Syndrome type 1 (SGBS1) in a patient with unknown overgrowth syndrome.
    Gene 08/2015; Accepted.
  • Khalda Said Amr · Wafaa M Ezzat · Yasser A Elhosary · Abdelfattah E Hegazy · Hoda H Fahim · Refaat R Kamel
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is regarded as one of the most common malignancies and among the leading causes of cancer death among the whole world. The most urgent needs are to find sensitive markers for early diagnosis for HCC. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are reported as a group of small non-coding RNAs that can function as endogenous RNA interference to regulate expression of the targeted genes. This study was conducted to detect the serum and tissue expression of miR 21 and miR 199-a to be applied as early detectors for HCC. A total of 40 serum and tissue samples (17 samples from chronic hepatitis and 23 samples from HCC patients) were collected. The levels of the two mature miRNAs (miR-21 and miR-199-a) were detected by real time quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) in sera and tissues of chronic hepatitis and HCC patients. Besides, miR-21 and miR-199-a levels in relation to clinical and pathological factors were explored. We found that the expression of serum miR-21 was distinctly increased in HCC compared with chronic hepatitis (P < 0.001). miR 199-a was distinctly decreased in HCC compared with chronic hepatitis ( P < 0.001). In addition, median of miR 21 was increased in malignant when compared to adjacent non-malignant tissues without significant differences (P = 0.191) while miR 199-a was significantly decreased in malignant when compared to adjacent nonmalignant tissues (P < 0.001). ROC analysis showed that miR-21 and miR-199-a might be potential biomarkers for HCC. In conclusion, the expression of miR-21 was significantly up-regulated and miR-199-a was significantly down regulated in serum of patients with HCC. Due to their reasonable sensitivity and specificity for disease progression, miR-21 and miR-199-a could be used as potential circulating biomarkers for HCC. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Gene 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.gene.2015.08.038
  • Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard · Majid Fardaei · Mohammad Miryounesi
    Gene 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.gene.2015.08.039
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    ABSTRACT: Viral encoded microRNAs play key roles in regulating gene expression and the life cycle of human herpes viruses. Latency is one of the hallmarks of the Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV or HHV5) life cycle, and its control may have immense practical applications. The present study aims to identify HCMV encoded microRNAs during the latency phase of the virus. We used a highly sensitive real time PCR (RTPCR) assay that involves a pre-amplification step before RTPCR. It can detect HCMV encoded microRNAs (miRNAs) during latency in purified monocytes and PBMCs from HCMV IgG positive donors and in latently infected monocytic THP-1 cell lines. During the latency phase, only eight HCMV encoded microRNAs were detected in PBMCs, monocytes and in the THP-1 cells. Five originated from the UL region of the virus genome and three from the US region. Reactivation of the virus from latency, in monocytes obtained from the same donor, using dexamethasone restored the expression of all known HCMV encoded miRNAs including those that were absent during latency. We observed a shift in the abundance of the two arms of mir-US29 between the productive and latency stages of the viral life cycle, suggesting that the star "passenger" form of this microRNA is preferentially expressed during latency. As a whole, our study demonstrates that HCMV expresses during the latency phase, both in vivo and in vitro, only a subset of its microRNAs, which may indicate that they play an important role in maintenance and reactivation of latency. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Gene 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.gene.2015.08.040
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    ABSTRACT: ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type I motif, 1 (ADAMTS1) that has both antiangiogenic and aggrecanase activity was dysregulated in many pathophysiologic circumstances. However, there is limited information available on the transcriptional regulation of ADAMTS1 gene. Therefore, this study mainly aimed to identify regulatory regions important for the regulation of ADAMTS1 gene under normoxic and hypoxic conditions in human hepatoma cells (HEP3B). Cultured HEP3B cells were exposed to normal oxygen condition, and Cobalt chloride (CoCl2) induced the hypoxic condition, which is an HIF-1 inducer. The cocl2-induced hypoxic condition led to the induced ADAMTS1 mRNA and protein expression in Hepatoma cells. Differential regulation of SP1 and USF transcription factors on ADAMTS1 gene expression was determined by transcriptional activity, mRNA and protein level of ADAMTS1 gene. Ectopic expression of SP1 and USF transcription factors resulted in the decrease in ADAMTS1 transcriptional activity of all promoter constructs consistent with mRNA and protein level in normoxic condition. However, overexpression of SP1 and USF led to the increase of ADAMTS1 gene expressions at mRNA and protein level in hypoxic condition. On the other hand, C/EBPα transcription factor didn't show any statistically significant effect on ADAMTS1 gene expression at mRNA, protein and transcriptional level under normoxic and hypoxic condition. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Gene 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.gene.2015.08.035
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence has been obtained showing that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is closely associated with the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and that the human X box binding protein 1 (XBP1) is an important transcription factor involved in the development of ER stress. The study aimed to analyze the potential association between polymorphism -116C/G of XBP1 and the risk of T2D. The association between XBP1 polymorphism -116C/G and T2D risk was assessed among 1058 consecutive unrelated subjects, including 523 T2D patients and 535 healthy controls, in a case control study. The -116GG genotype and -116G allele were more frequent in T2D subjects compared with control subjects by statistical analysis, showing that the -116GG homozygote polymorphism of XBP1 might lead to increased susceptibility to T2D in a Chinese Han population. T2D subjects with the -116GG genotype had higher fasting plasma glucose levels, fasting insulin levels, and HbA1c and worse HOMA-IR than the T2D subjects with -116CG and -116CC genotypes (P<0.0001). The study supports a role for -116C/G polymorphism of the XBP1 promoter in the pathogenesis of T2D in a Chinese Han population, and more studies are needed to further evaluate our results. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Gene 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.gene.2015.08.037
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    ABSTRACT: Stem cell pluripotency factors can induce somatic cells to form induced pluripotent stem cells, which are involved in cell reprogramming and dedifferentiation. The tissue regeneration in the earthworm Eisenia foetida may involve cell dedifferentiation. There is limited information about associations between pluripotency factors and the regeneration. In this report, cDNA sequences of pluripotency factors, oct4, nanog, sox2, c-myc and lin28 genes from the earthworm Eisenia foetida were cloned, and quantitative PCR analysis was performed for their mRNA expressions in the head, clitellum and tail. The maximum up-regulation of oct4, nanog, sox2, c-myc and lin28 occurred at 12 hour, 4 day, 12 hour, 2 day, and 24 hours after amputation for 110, 178, 21, 251 and 325 fold, respectively, in comparison with the controls. The results suggest that the tissues are regenerated via cellular dedifferentiation and reprogramming. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Gene 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.gene.2015.08.034
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    ABSTRACT: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common birth abnormality, and more than 40 percent CHD subtypes are sporadic atrial septal defect (ASD) and ventricular septal defect (VSD). The etiology of ASD and VSD remains largely unknown. NKX2-5 gene is a highly conserved homeobox protein gene and expressed in the developing heart. Its mutations can cause sporadic ASD and VSD. This study aimed to investigate the genetic variations of NKX2-5 in ASD and VSD in Chinese Yunnan population. The whole 2 coding exon and partial flanking intron sequences of NKX2-5 gene were screened using DNA sequencing in 107 ASD patients and 391 VSD patients as well as 487 healthy individuals (control) who had parental origin (three generations) from the Yunnan province in China. Results found that, 4 reported single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs2277923, rs3729753, rs703752 and rs202071628) were detected. A novel heterozygous DNA sequence variant (DSV) (1500G>C) in the 3'UTR region of NKX2-5 gene were identified in 2 VSD patients, but none in ASD and controls. One single nucleotide polymorphism (rs2277923), the frequency of which was significantly higher in ASD group, and the allele and genotype were associated with the occurrence of ASD. Besides, a weak statistical association existed between rs703752 and VSD (uncorrected P = 0.028). The novel DSV (1500G>C) of NKX2-5 gene may contribute to a small number of VSD, and rs2277923 SNP may contribute to the risk of sporadic ASD in Chinese Yunnan population. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Gene 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.gene.2015.08.033
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    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that have emerged as critical regulators of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) pluripotency and differentiation. Despite the wealth of information about the role individual miRNAs play in these two processes, there has yet to be a large-scale temporal analysis of the dynamics of miRNA expression as hESCs move from pluripotency into defined lineages. In this report, we used Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) to map temporal expression of miRNAs over ten 24-hour intervals as pluripotent cells were differentiated into pancreatic endoderm. Of the 2,042 known human miRNAs, 694 had non-zero expression on all 11 days. Of these 694 miRNAs, 494 showed statistically significant changes in expression during differentiation. Clusters of miRNAs were identified, each displaying unique expression profiles distributed over multiple days. Selected miRNAs associated with pluripotency/differentiation (miR-302/367 and miR-371/372/373) and development/growth (miR-21, miR-25, miR-103, miR-9, and miR-92a) were found to have distinct expression profiles correlated with changes in media used to drive the differentiation process. Taken together, the clustering of miRNAs to identify expression dynamics that occur over longer periods of time (days vs. hours) provides unique insight into specific stages of differentiation. Major shifts in defined stages of hESC differentiation appear to be heavily dependent upon changes in external environmental factors, rather than intrinsic conditions in the cells. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Gene 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.gene.2015.08.027
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    ABSTRACT: Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS) is X-linked semi-dominant disorder characterized by diverse phenotypes including intellectual disability, facial and digital anomalies. Loss-of-function mutation in the Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase Polypeptide 3 (RPS6KA3) gene has been shown to be responsible for CLS. Among the large number of mutations, however, no exonic mutation causing exon skipping has been described. Here, we report a male patient with CLS having a novel mutation at the 3' end of an exon at a splice donor junction. Interestingly, this nucleotide change causes both a novel missense mutation and partial exon skipping leading to a truncated transcript. These two transcripts were identified by c-DNA sequencing of RT-PCR products. In the carrier mother, we found only wildtype transcripts suggesting skewed X-inactivation. Methylation studies confirmed X-inactivation was skewed moderately, but not completely, which is consistent with her mild phenotype. Western blot showed that the mutant RSK2 protein in the patient is expressed at similar levels relative to his mother. Protein modeling demonstrated that the missense mutation is damaging and may alter binding to ATP molecules. This is the first report of exon skipping from an exonic mutation of RPS6KA3, demonstrating that a missense mutation and concomitant disruption of normal splicing contribute to the manifestation of CLS. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Gene 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.gene.2015.08.032
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    ABSTRACT: Pax3 and Pax7 are the regulators and markers of muscle progenitors and satellite cells that contribute to the embryonic development and postembryonic growth of skeletal muscle in vertebrates, as well as to its repair and regeneration. However, information regarding them in vertebrate genome model, torafugu Takifugu rubripes, has remained unknown. Therefore, as an initial step, here we characterized Pax3 and Pax7 from torafugu and investigated their expression patterns during different developmental stages by RT-PCR. In silico analysis with the Fugu genome database (ver. 4.0) yielded two distinct genes each for Pax3 (Pax3a and Pax3b) and Pax7 (Pax7b and Pax7a). The 75th amino acid, glutamine (Gln75), from the N-terminus was replaced by proline in the paired box domain (PD) of Pax3a. One single cDNA clone encoding Pax3a had deletion of Gln75 in PD, suggesting the presence of alternatively spliced variants (Q +/Q-). This was further supported by identification of two adjacent alternative 3’ splice acceptor sites which produce Pax3b Q + (aagCAGGGA) and Q- (aagcagGGA) variants. Interestingly, torafugu Pax7a, but not Pax7b, had an insert encoding five amino acid residues (SGEAS) in a C-terminal region of PD in two out of three cDNA clones. Genomic analysis showed two alternate splice donor sites at exon 4 of Pax7a. In synteny analysis, torafugu Pax3a showed syntenic relationship with the corresponding regions in other teleosts only, whereas Pax3b and Pax7b showed high syntenic relationship with the corresponding regions of both mammals and other teleosts. RT-PCR revealed that expression of Pax3a and Pax3b transcripts was restricted to embryonic stages only, whereas those of Pax7a and Pax7b was continued to be expressed in larvae and importantly those of Pax7a were found in adult skeletal muscles. Therefore, Pax3 appears to be most important for primary myogenesis and Pax7 for secondary myogenesis and growth by hyperplasia in fish. In this regard, the transcripts of torafugu Pax3 and Pax7 genes might be used for further investigation as a marker for identification of muscle precursor cells during different phases of growth, and this ambiguity is the next target of our research.
    Gene 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.gene.2015.08.031
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    ABSTRACT: Fabry Disease (FD) is an X-linked inborn error of glycosphingolipid catabolism, caused by a deficiency of the lisosomal α-galactosidase A (AGAL). The disorder leads to a vascular disease secondary to the involvement of kidney, heart and the central nervous system. The mutation analysis is a valuable tool for diagnosis and genetic counseling. Although more than 600 mutations have been identified, most mutations are private. Our objective was to describe the analysis of nine Colombian patients with Fabry disease by automated sequencing of the seven exons of the GLA gene. Two novel mutations were identified in two patients affected with the classical subtype of FD, in addition to other 6 mutations previously reported. The present study confirms the heterogeneity of mutations in Fabry disease and the importance of molecular analysis for genetic counseling, female heterozygotes detection as well as therapeutic decisions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Gene 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.gene.2015.08.018
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    ABSTRACT: Among oligochaetes, the Pheretima complex within the Megascolecidae is a major earthworm group. Recently, however, the systematics of the Pheretima complex based on morphology are challenged by molecular studies. Since little comparative analysis of earthworm complete mitochondrial genomes has been reported yet, we sequenced mitogenomes of four pheretimoid earthworm species to explore their phylogenetic relationships. The general earthworm genomic features are also found in the four earthworms: all genes transcribed from the same strand, the same initiation codon ATG for each PCGs, and conserved structures of RNA genes. Interestingly we find an extra potential tRNA-leucine (CUN) in Amynthas longisiphonus. The earthworm mitochondrial ATP8 exhibits the highest evolutionary rate, while the gene CO1 evolves slowest. Phylogenetic analysis based on protein-coding genes (PCGs) strongly supports the monophyly of the Clitellata, Hirudinea, Oligochaeta, Megascolecidae and Pheretima complex. Our analysis, however, reveals non-monophyly within the genara Amynthas and Metaphire. Thus the generic divisions based on morphology in the Pheretima complex should be reconsidered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Gene 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.gene.2015.08.020
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    ABSTRACT: Numerous studies have been focused on the replacement of fish meal by other alternative protein sources. However, little is currently known about the molecular mechanism of utilization of diets with different protein sources in fish. Grass carp is a typical herbivorous fish. To elucidate the relationship between gene expression and utilization of animal and plant diets, transcriptome sequencing was performed in grass carp fed with chironomid larvae and duckweed. Grass carp fed with duckweed had significantly higher relative length of gut than those fed with chironomid larvae. 4,435 differentially expressed genes were identified between grass carp fed with chironomid larvae and duckweed in brain, liver and gut, involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, appetite control, circadian rhythm, digestion and metabolism pathways. These pathways might play important roles in utilization of diets with different protein sources in grass carp. And the findings could provide a new insight into the replacement of fish meal in artificial diets. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Gene 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.gene.2015.08.030
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have convincingly documented that hypogonadism is a component of various hereditary disorders and is often recognized as an important clinical feature in combination with various neurological symptoms, yet, the causative genes in a few related families are still unknown. High-throughput sequencing has become an efficient method to identify causative genes in related complex hereditary disorders. In this study, we performed exome sequencing in a family presenting hypergonadotropic hypogonadism with neurological presentations of mental retardation, epilepsy, ataxia, and leukodystrophy. After bioinformatic analysis and Sanger sequencing validation, we identified compound heterozygous mutations: c.482G>A (p.R161Q) and c.609G>A (p.W203X) in MMACHC gene in this pedigree. MMACHC was previously confirmed to be responsible for methylmalonic aciduria (MMA) combined with homocystinuria, cblC type (cblC disease), a hereditary vitamin B12 metabolic disorder. Biochemical and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) examinations in this pedigree further supported the cblC disease diagnosis. These results indicated that hypergonadotropic hypogonadism may be a novel clinical manifestation of cblC disease, but more reports on additional patients are needed to support this hypothesis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Gene 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.gene.2015.08.029
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    ABSTRACT: The unique properties of magnesium (Mg) and its alloys that combine favourable mechanical properties, biocompatibility, and biodegradability, which until now have been restricted primarily to polymers, justify its study in the field of implantology. Previous in vivo studies have underlined the possible osteoconductive effects of Mg-based metals, and several in vitro studies have highlighted positive effects of Mg-enriched biomaterials. However, although the observed biological activity of magnesium is intriguing, it remains largely unexplored. Furthermore, due to increased regulations, the introduction of new implants on the market must be accompanied by thorough mechanistic understanding. Therefore, to mimic the in vivo effects of the degradation of Mg-based implants on mesenchymal stem cell differentiation during bone remodelling, non-hematopoietic multipotent foetal progenitor cells, i.e., human umbilical cord perivascular cells (HUCPV), were cultured for up to three weeks with or without osteoblastic differentiating media and with or without magnesium extract (approximately 5 mM). To partially unveil the mechanism or to select paths for further investigation, a very broad selection of genes was chosen (e.g., those involved in osmolality sensing). Several classical bone markers were also studied at the gene and protein levels. The data suggest that Mg extract alone potentiates cell proliferation or delays the natural fate of maturation/differentiation. However, when the cells are driven toward osteoblastic differentiation, the effect of the Mg extract becomes much more complex, positively or negatively influencing differentiation via various pathways. These preliminary results confirm the choice of the various parameters utilised here and highlight the importance of further studies. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Gene 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.gene.2015.08.028
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    ABSTRACT: Snake venom neurotoxins and lymphocyte antigen-6 (Ly6) family members identified in many metazoans possess conserved LU domain containing eight or ten conserved cysteine residues which form 4 to 5 conserved disulfide bonds. They are found to execute a wide variety of biological effects, but information regarding Ly6 superfamily in zebrafish remains rather limited. Here we identified a novel Ly6 gene located on the chromosome 15 in zebrafish, and named it Lypc highlighting its predominant expression in the pigment cells. Both homology modeling and sequence comparison revealed that Lypc has features typical of Ly6 family members. Whole mount in situ hybridization showed that Lypc was expressed in the trunk pigment cells and retinal pigment cells. Moreover, real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated that the expression of Lypc was subjected to diurnal variation regulation, i.e. the expression of Lypc displays a clear rhythmic pattern, and dark exposure apparently stimulated its expression. Collectively, these data indicate that Lypc is a novel dark-inducible Ly6 member with a predominant expression in the pigment cells of zebrafish, laying a foundation for further elucidation of its functions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Gene 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.gene.2015.07.088