Journal of cardiovascular computed tomography

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  • ISSN
    1876-861X

Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: At least two-thirds of cases of acute coronary syndrome are caused by disruption of an atherosclerotic plaque. The natural history of individual plaques is unknown and needs to be established. The Plaque Registration and Evaluation Detected In Computed Tomography (PREDICT) registry is a prospective, multicenter, longitudinal, observational registry. This registry was designed to examine the relationships among coronary CT angiography (CTA) findings and clinical findings, mortality, and morbidity. The relationships among progression of coronary atherosclerosis, including changes in plaque characteristics on coronary CTA, and serum lipid levels and modification of coronary risk factors will also be evaluated. From October 2009 to December 2012, 3015 patients who underwent coronary CTA in 29 centers in Japan were enrolled. These patients were followed for 2 years. The primary end points were considered as all-cause mortality and major cardiac events, including cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and unstable angina that required hospitalization. The secondary end points were heart failure that required administration of diuretics, target vessel revascularization, cerebral infarction, peripheral arterial disease, and invasive coronary angiography. Blood pressure, serum lipid, and C-reactive protein levels and all cardiovascular events were recorded at 1 and 2 years. If the initial coronary CTA showed any stenosis or plaques, follow-up coronary CTA was scheduled at 2 years to determine changes in coronary lesions, including changes in plaque characteristics. Analysis of the PREDICT registry data will clarify the relationships between coronary CTA findings and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in a collaborative multicenter fashion. This trial is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT 00991835.
    Journal of cardiovascular computed tomography 01/2014; 8(2):90-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Arrhythmias can compromise image quality and increase radiation exposure during coronary CT angiography (CTA). However, premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) can occur in a predictable recurrent and regular pattern (ie, bigeminy, trigeminy, quadrigeminy) with post-PVC compensatory pauses. Electrocardiographic (ECG) electrode repositioning can achieve relative amplification of the R waves of PVCs compared with R waves of sinus beats. This technical note describes how simple ECG electrode repositioning, combined with an absolute-delay strategy, facilitated selective R waves of PVC ECG triggering of image acquisition in 6 patients with PVC bigeminy or quadrigeminy at the time of 320-row coronary CTA. All 6 studies were single heartbeat acquisition scans with excellent image quality and a median effective radiation dose of 2.9 mSv (interquartile range, 2.1-3.8 mSv). Standard ECG electrode positions used for 2 patients with PVC bigeminy undergoing coronary CTA were associated with an acquisition over 2 heartbeats and effective radiation doses of 6.8 and 10.3 mSv, respectively. In conclusion, ECG electrode repositioning combined with an absolute-delay strategy for regularly recurring PVCs, such as ventricular bigeminy, facilitates high image quality and lower radiation dose during coronary CTA. This simple and straightforward technique can be considered for all patients with regular and recurrent PVCs undergoing coronary CTA.
    Journal of cardiovascular computed tomography 01/2014; 8(1):13-8.
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    ABSTRACT: We present a case that demonstrates myocardial fibrosis detected on a cardiac computed tomography study performed for the evaluation of chest pain in a patient with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We describe the correlation between echocardiographic strain imaging, quantitative positron emission tomography, and computed tomographic evidence of fibrosis and its implications in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
    Journal of cardiovascular computed tomography 01/2014; 8(2):166-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Treatment decisions for ascending aortic aneurysms are guided by measurements from CT angiograms. Objective To evaluate the reproducibility of these measurements using manual techniques and advanced imaging software. Methods Two radiologists measured maximal ascending aorta diameter on CT angiograms in 30 subjects at four separate reading sessions—two with manual techniques and two using semiautomated software analysis. Inter- and intraobserver variability was assessed using Bland-Altman plots and Spearman’s correlation coefficients. Results Interobserver variability was smaller for the software-assisted method. Limits of agreement for manual method were [-4.2 mm, 9.2 mm]; as compared to [-4.0 mm, 4.6 mm] for software-assisted; coefficients of repeatability were 6.8 mm and 4.3 mm. Intraobserver variability was inconsistent between readers. There was strong correlation between observers using both methods (R2 = 0.8078-0.9881, p<0.05 for all). Conclusion The use of an advanced imaging software for ascending aortic aneurysm measurement reduces interobserver variability.
    Journal of cardiovascular computed tomography 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the accuracy of commonly used thresholds for vessel area evaluation on coronary CT angiography (CTA) and assessed ability of CTA to image the adventitial border. We evaluated 137 paired (coronary CTA and intravascular ultrasound [IVUS]) coronary artery cross-sections in 30 patients. CTA analysis included measurements of external vessel border area defined at Hounsfield unit (HU) thresholds of 0 (presumed adventitia), 50, and 70 (presumed external elastic membrane [EEM]). IVUS analysis included measurements of lumen, EEM, and outer border of the highly echogenic area adjacent to EEM (presumed adventitia area). High correlation was found between CTA and IVUS measurements for EEM areas (R(2) = 0.65, P < .001 and R(2) = 0.60, P < .001 for CTA thresholds of 50 and 70 HU, respectively). CTA and IVUS measurements of adventitia areas were significantly correlated (R(2) = 0.74; P < .001), with no significant difference between the 2 methods (20.2 ± 6.4 mm(2) vs 19.8 ± 6.4 mm(2), respectively; P = .278). Cross-sectional coronary lumen radiodensity on CTA images and plaque burden measured on IVUS significantly affected the accuracy of CTA in assessment of the EEM area but not the presumed adventitial area. We have demonstrated that use of a 50-HU threshold for vessel area determination by CTA led to its significant overestimation, whereas 70-HU threshold was close to that of EEM on IVUS. CTA may accurately delineate the coronary adventitial border by using a 0-HU threshold.
    Journal of cardiovascular computed tomography 01/2014; 8(2):141-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Reliability of coronary angiography by multidetector row CT (MDCT-CA) for stent evaluation is still a matter for debate, and it is unknown whether contrast medium characteristics may affect diagnostic performance of MDCT-CA. We compared iomeprol-400 with iodixanol-320 to evaluate coronary stents with MDCT-CA. We randomly assigned 254 patients undergoing coronary stent follow-up with the use of MDCT-CA to iomeprol-400 at 5.0 mL/sec flow rate (group 1; n = 83), iodixanol-320 at 6.2 mL/sec flow rate (group 2; n = 87), and iodixanol-320 at 5.0 mL/sec flow rate (group 3; n = 84). Heart rate (HR) immediately before and at the end of scanning, HR variation, premature heart beats, and heat sensation by visual analog scale during scanning were recorded. Mean attenuation was measured in the aortic root and coronary arteries. Image quality score and type of artifacts were assessed. Mean attenuation was significantly lower in group 3 than in the other groups. In group 3, stent evaluability was significantly higher and artifact rate was significantly lower than in group 2 (99% vs 91% and 4% vs 15%) and group 1 (99% vs 92% and 4% vs 17%), respectively, mainly because of a significant lower rate of beam-hardening artifacts (3 cases in group 3 vs 22 and 27 in groups 2 and 3, respectively). In group 3, visual analog scale, HR at the end of imaging, and number of patients with premature heart beats during the scan were significantly lower than in the other groups. Iodixanol-320 provides better image quality of coronary stents, allowing higher MDCT-CA evaluability, than iomeprol-400.
    Journal of cardiovascular computed tomography 01/2014; 8(1):44-51.
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies showed discrepancies between echocardiographic and multidector row CT (MDCT) measurements of aortic valve area (AVA). Our aim was to evaluate the effect of the ellipsoid shape of the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT), as shown and measured by MDCT, on the assessment of AVA by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in patients with severe aortic stenosis. This retrospective single-center study involved 49 patients with severe aortic stenosis referred before transcatheter aortic valve implantation. The AVA was deduced from the continuity equation on TTE and from planimetry on cardiac MDCT. Area of the LVOT was calculated as follows: on TTE, from the measurement of LVOT diameter on parasternal long-axis view; on MDCT, from manual planimetry by using multiplanar reconstruction perpendicular to LVOT. At baseline, correlation of TTE vs MDCT AVA measurements was moderate (R = 0.622; P < .001). TTE underestimated AVA compared with MDCT (0.66 ± 0.15 cm(2) vs 0.87 ± 0.15 cm(2); P < .001). After correcting the continuity equation with the LVOT area as measured by MDCT, mean AVA drawn from TTE did not differ from MDCT (0.86 ± 0.2 cm(2)) and correlation between TTE and MDCT measurements increased (R = 0.704; P < .001). Assuming that LVOT area is circular with TTE results in constant underestimation of the AVA with the continuity equation compared with MDCT planimetry. The elliptical not circular shape of LVOT largely explains these discrepancies.
    Journal of cardiovascular computed tomography 01/2014; 8(1):52-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Aneurysms of the branches of the coronary arteries are rare. We report a case of a right coronary artery aneurysm with aneurysmal dilation and thrombosis of the sinoatrial nodal branch presenting as a right atrial mass. The patient underwent multiple imaging evaluations before coronary CT angiography diagnosed aneurysm and thrombosis of the sinoatrial nodal branch.
    Journal of cardiovascular computed tomography 01/2014; 8(1):85-7.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness and safety of different strategies of ivabradine therapy by comparing the effects on heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), and image quality of coronary CT angiography (CTA). A total of 192 consecutive patients were randomly assigned to 3 groups of oral premedication with ivabradine 15 mg (single dose), 10 mg (single dose), and 5 mg twice daily for 5 days, prospectively. Patients using HR-lowering drugs and patients with β-blockade contraindication were excluded. The target HR was 65 beats/min. In addition 5 to 10 mg of intravenous metoprolol was administered to the patients at the CT unit, if required. The systolic and diastolic blood BP values and the HRs were recorded. Image quality was assessed for 8 of 15 coronary segments with a 4-point grading scale. Results were compared with the Kruskal-Wallis test, one-way ANOVA, and χ(2) test. Reductions in mean HR after the treatment were 18 ± 6, 14 ± 4, and 17 ± 7 beats/min for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. With the total additional therapies, 81.3%, 67.2%, and 84.3% of the patients achieved HR < 65 beats/min in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The mean BP values before coronary CTA were not significantly changed except for patients in group 2. Unacceptable (score 0) image quality was obtained in only 4.5%, 10.2%, and 4.2% of all the coronary segments, in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Our study indicates that coronary CTA with premedication with oral ivabradine in all 3 strategies is safe and effective in reducing HR, in particular with a β-blockade combination. All 3 ivabradine regimes may be an alternative strategy for HR lowering in patients undergoing coronary CTA. Ivabradine 15 mg (single dose) and ivabradine 5 mg twice daily for 5 days are superior to the ivabradine 10-mg single-dose regime for HR lowering without adjunctive intravenous β-blocker usage.
    Journal of cardiovascular computed tomography 01/2014; 8(1):77-82.
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    ABSTRACT: A 24-year-old man presented to our hospital with symptoms of dyspnea and palpitation for 2 weeks. Cardiac CT showed not only a leaflet coaptation defect in the aortic valve but also a small ventricular septal defect (VSD) immediately beneath the prolapsed right coronary cusp. A shunt flow in the direction of the right ventricular outflow tract though the defect indicated the doubly committed juxta-arterial type of VSD. A doubly committed juxta-arterial VSD of 3 mm was confirmed and repaired via pulmonary arteriotomy.
    Journal of cardiovascular computed tomography 01/2014; 8(1):83-4.
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    ABSTRACT: In transcatheter aortic valve replacement, prosthesis oversizing is essential to prevent paravalvular regurgitation. However, the estimated extent of oversizing strongly depends on the measurement used for annular sizing. The aim was to investigate the influence of geometrical parameters for calculation of relative oversizing in transcatheter aortic valve replacement, reported as percentage in relation to the native annulus size, to standardize reporting. Electrocardiogram-gated cardiac dual-source CT data of 130 consecutive patients with severe aortic stenosis (mean age, 81 ± 8 years; 56 men; mean aortic valve area, 0.67 ± 0.18 cm(2)) were included. Aortic annulus dimensions were quantified by means of planimetry that yielded area and perimeter at the level of the basal attachment points of the aortic cusps during systole. Area- and perimeter-derived diameters were calculated as DA = 2 × √(A/π) and DP = P/π. Hypothetical prosthesis sizing was based on DA (23-mm prosthesis for 19-22 mm; 26-mm prosthesis for 22-25 mm; 29-mm prosthesis for 25-28 mm). Relative oversizing for hypothetical prosthesis selection was calculated as percentage in relation to the native annulus size. Mean annulus area was 492.12 ± 94.9 mm(2) and mean perimeter was 80.1 ± 7.6 mm. DP was significantly larger than DA (25.5 ± 2.4 mm vs 24.9 ± 2.4 mm; P < .001). Mean maximum diameter was 28.1 ± 3.0 mm and mean minimal diameter was 22.8 ± 2.4 mm. Calculated eccentricity index [EI = 1 - minimal diameter/maximum diameter)] was 0.19 ± 0.06. Difference between DP and DA correlated significantly with EI (r = 0.67; P < .001). Relative oversizing was 10.2% ± 3.8% and 21.6% ± 8.4% by DA and area, and 7.8% ± 3.9% by both DP and perimeter. For planimetric assessment of aortic annulus dimensions with CT, the percentage oversizing calculated strongly depends on the geometrical variable used for quantifying annular dimensions. Standardized nomenclature seems warranted for comparison of future studies.
    Journal of cardiovascular computed tomography 01/2014; 8(1):67-76.
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    ABSTRACT: A 71-year-old woman underwent diagnostic workup for progressive shortness of breath. Transthoracic echocardiography showed a dilated main pulmonary artery (MPA) and an anomalous configuration of the pulmonary valve. CT revealed a bicuspid pulmonary valve (BPV) and confirmed MPA dilation. Further congenital abnormalities were excluded. An isolated finding of BPV is rather rare. To our knowledge we present the first 4-dimensional CT images of a BPV. As in this case, 4-dimensional cine cardiac CT may be helpful to reveal the underlying cause of MPA dilation.
    Journal of cardiovascular computed tomography 01/2014; 8(2):170-1.
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    ABSTRACT: The C-arm used for fluoroscopy during transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) may also be used to acquire 3-dimensional data sets similar to multidetector row CT (MDCT). The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of C-arm CT (CACT) for aortic annulus and root (AoA/R) measurements in TAVR planning compared with MDCT. Twenty patients who were studied for TAVR underwent MDCT and CACT. Two independent observers measured predicted perpendicular projection to annular plane, diameters of the aortic annulus, sinus of Valsalva, sinotubular junction and ascending aorta, distance of coronary ostia to annular plane, sinus of Valsalva height, and leaflet length. Correlation between MDCT and CACT and interobserver variability were analyzed. MDCT and CACT showed strong correlation for all the measurements of the AoA/R (r ranging from 0.62 to 0.94; P between <.001 and .042) and also for the predicted perpendicular projection (left/right anterior oblique: r = 0.96, P = .002; cranial/caudal: r = 0.83, P = .043). Interobserver variability analysis showed disagreement for the measurements of the aortic annulus structures with CACT (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC], <0.25) but not for the rest of the variables (ICC between 0.47 and 0.97). MDCT showed no interobserver variability for all the measurements (ICC between 0.45 and 0.93). CACT showed strong correlation with MDCT for the measurement of all AoA/R structures. However, CACT showed also important interobserver variability for the assessment of the aortic annulus. Therefore, valve sizing may not be reliably performed on the basis of CACT measurements alone.
    Journal of cardiovascular computed tomography 01/2014; 8(1):33-43.
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the improvement of cardiac CT, right heart visualization remains challenging. We herein describe a new method, called the time-adjusted gradual replacement injection protocol. The aim of this study was to compare this protocol with the split-bolus injection protocol. Fifty-two patients who had undergone dual-source cardiac CT were retrospectively recruited. Twenty-six patients were injected by using the split-bolus injection protocol, and 26 patients were injected by using the time-adjusted gradual replacement injection protocol. For this method, we injected contrast medium for 10 seconds at a flow rate of 0.07 × body weight mL/s, then gradually replaced the contrast material with saline until 2 seconds before finishing the scans. The CT attenuation was measured in 4 chambers, the aorta, and the coronary arteries. The visualization of the anatomic structures and the occurrence and severity of streak artifacts were scored for the cardiac structures in the heart. For the analyses, either Welch t-test or Student t-test was performed. In the right heart, the CT values and visualization scores were significantly higher in the time-adjusted replacement injection group than in the split-bolus injection group, whereas the artifact scores were comparable between the 2 groups. The CT values, visualization scores, and artifact scores of the left heart were not significantly different between the 2 groups. In this study, the time-adjusted gradual replacement injection protocol provided excellent attenuation for visualization of the right heart. This method may help to accurately evaluate the right cardiac anatomy and thereby identify any potential diseases.
    Journal of cardiovascular computed tomography 01/2014; 8(2):158-65.
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    ABSTRACT: Pharmacologic stress myocardial CT perfusion (CTP) has been reported to be a viable imaging modality for detection of myocardial ischemia compared with single-photon emission CT (SPECT) in several single-center studies. However, regadenoson-stress CTP has not previously been compared with SPECT in a multicenter, multivendor study. The rationale and design of a phase 2, randomized, cross-over study of regadenoson-stress myocardial perfusion imaging by CTP compared with SPECT are described herein. The study will be conducted at approximately 25 sites by using 6 different CT scanner models, including 64-, 128-, 256-, and 320-slice systems. Subjects with known/suspected coronary artery disease will be randomly assigned to 1 of 2 imaging procedure sequences; rest and regadenoson-stress SPECT on day 1, then regadenoson-stress CTP and rest CTP/coronary CT angiography (same acquisition) on day 2; or regadenoson-stress CTP and rest CTP/CT angiography on day 1, then rest and regadenoson-stress SPECT on day 2. The prespecified primary analysis examines the agreement rate between CTP and SPECT for detecting or excluding ischemia (≥2 or 0-1 reversible defects, respectively), as assessed by 3 independent blinded readers for each modality. Non-inferiority will be indicated if the lower boundary of the 95% CI for the agreement rate is within 0.15 of 0.78 (the observed agreement rate in the regadenoson pivotal trials). The protocol described herein will support the first evaluation of regadenoson-stress CTP by using multiple scanner types compared with SPECT.
    Journal of cardiovascular computed tomography 10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with a pericardial effusion can have a pendulum-like movement of the heart. No reports associate the presence of pericardial fluid with coronary CT angiography (CTA) images that are degraded by motion artifact. We tested the hypothesis that patients with pericardial effusion have coronary CTA images compromised by motion artifacts, even when other known causes of motion artifact in coronary imaging are minimized. Among the prospectively electrocardiogram-gated single heart beat 320-detector row coronary CTA studies performed from September 2009 to May 2013, 13 consecutive studies acquired with a heart rate <60 beats/min that indicate a pericardial effusion formed an effusion cohort. A control cohort included 13 studies with no pericardial fluid performed by the same CT scanner; these were pair-matched to the effusion cohort for heart rate, sex, age, and body mass index. All studies were free of arrhythmia and respiratory motion. Motion artifact was separately assessed (3-point scale) at 8 coronary segments by 2 cardiovascular imaging teams. The mean pericardial effusion volume for the effusion cohort was 129 ± 57 mL (range, 39-222 mL). Intra-observer/interobserver reproducibility of the motion artifact scores were good (κ = 0.636-0.791). Motion artifacts were more frequently observed in the effusion cohort for the left circumflex (no, mild, severe artifact, 54%, 46%, 0% vs 81%, 19%, 0%, respectively, for effusion vs control; P = .039) and right coronary arteries (no, mild, severe artifact = 41%, 44% 15% vs 79%, 21%, 0%, respectively, for effusion vs control; P < .001), especially for the middle or distal segments. Larger effusion volumes were associated with more severe motion artifacts. Patients with pericardial effusion have coronary CTA images compromised by cardiac motion artifacts, particularly in the left circumflex and right coronary arteries.
    Journal of cardiovascular computed tomography 10/2013;
  • Journal of cardiovascular computed tomography 07/2013;

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