Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica

Publisher: Taiwan ma zui yi xue hui, Elsevier

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  • ISSN
    1875-4597
  • OCLC
    403625075
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    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Computer File

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Elsevier

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cancer remains one of the major causes of death worldwide, and the global burden of the disease is rising continuously. Clinical retrospective data suggested that inhalational anesthetics might affect the prognosis of cancer patients, but the underlying molecular mechanism remained unknown. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a dimeric transcription factor and mediates various cellular responses to hypoxia, including metabolism, cell death and survival, angiogenesis, oxygen delivery, immune evasion, and genomic adaptation. HIF-1 system has been shown to be the driving force of solid tumor progression and substantially contributes to the malignancy of cancer. Inhalational anesthetics such as isoflurane have been demonstrated to confer cytoprotection in a HIF-1-dependent manner in various vital organs. In addition, a recent study has demonstrated the pivotal involvement of HIF-1 in the impact of inhalational anesthetics on cancer cells. This review provides critical insights into the new understanding of cancer sensing of inhalational anesthetics and examines the recent understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms. However, this area of research is just beginning and warrants further studies preclinically and clinically prior to making any conclusions that inhalational anesthetics may affect cancer outcomes. In addition, it is important to note that there is not enough evidence to support any change in the current clinical practice.
    Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Valvular aortic stenosis (AS) is a major cardiac valvular disease in geriatric people. Conventional treatment for severe AS is aortic valve replacement through surgery. However, many geriatric patients are considered inoperable due to higher risks for surgery and anesthesia. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), a less invasive procedure, has rapidly developed in recent years as an alternative management option for high-risk AS patients. Herein, we describe our anesthetic experience in the TAVI procedure. Methods We included 11 patients who consecutively received transfemoral TAVI in the period from September 2010 to January 2011. All patients received general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation; arterial line placement and central venous catheter insertion were carried out for monitoring hemodynamics. Transesophageal echocardiography was applied for valve evaluation, hemodynamic monitoring, and intraoperative guidance. Patients were transferred to the intensive care unit for further care after surgery. The periprocedural events were recorded. Results The mean age of these patients was 82 years. Morphology of the aortic valve in all patients was tricuspid, and the etiology of AS is degenerative calcification. During TAVI, all patients received bolus injections of 5–10 μg norepinephrine just prior to the rapid pacing stage in order to increase the mean arterial pressure. Only one patient needed continuous infusion of dopamine because of severe preoperative congestive heart failure, and another patient needed continuous infusion of norepinephrine due to relatively old age and suspected low systemic vascular resistance. After TAVI, all patients had the endotracheal tube extubated within 7 hours, except one because of preoperative ventilator dependence. Another male patient stayed in the intensive care unit for 8 days due to postoperative complete atrio-ventricular (AV) block, and he received permanent pacemaker implantation. There was no early mortality. Conclusion TAVI is another choice for AS patients who have a higher perioperative risk. General anesthesia with endotracheal intubation and application of transesophageal echocardiography can facilitate the use of this new technique by cardiologists. Complete preprocedural evaluation and well intraprocedural cooperation are still the gold standards to achieve successful TAVI and unmolested patient safety.
    Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Here, we report that, under the assistance of both the GlideScope and a fiberoptic bronchoscope, tracheal intubation was accomplished successfully in a 50-year-old woman with severe rheumatoid arthritis who underwent tongue lump resection under general anesthesia. Either the GlideScope or the fiberoptic bronchoscope alone failed to secure the airway; the use of both in combination facilitated airway intubation. This case report indicate that, even with careful preoperative assessment, patients who suffer from rheumatoid arthritis may have severe airway difficulty with intubation, and the combined use of the GlideScope and a fiberoptic bronchoscope can be a novel alternative for tracheal intubation in patients with severe airway difficulty.
    Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Aim Articaine and bupivacaine are both amide-type local anesthetic (LA) agents, of almost equal potency. However, lidocaine is considered the gold standard and is the most widely used anesthetic agent because of its potency, safety, and efficiency. Articaine is fast acting and bupivacaine is a long-lasting LA. The aim of this randomized controlled crossover clinical study was to evaluate and compare the clinical anesthetic efficacy of 4% articaine and 0.5% bupivacaine in orthodontic extractions models. Methods Forty systemically healthy patients (age range: 10–18 years), requiring premolar extraction for orthodontic reasons (all 4 premolars) were included. Patients were categorized into two groups (4% articaine and 0.5% bupivacaine) in a crossover manner (160 premolars). Parameters recorded included: time of anesthetic onset, duration of postoperative analgesia, time to first rescue analgesic medication, and visual analog scale (VAS). At the first appointment, both upper and lower premolars were extracted on one side of the jaws (right or left). A fixed volume of 1.4 mL of 4% articaine or 0.5% bupivacaine (based on a computer-generated list) was infiltrated in the buccal vestibule (local infiltration) for extraction. At the second appointment, after a washout period of 15 days, the anesthetic agent that was not administered at the first appointment was administered in a crossover manner. Each patient was evaluated using a 100-mm VAS during and after extraction. Results The results showed that 4% articaine had significantly faster onset of action and lower VAS scores when compared with bupivacaine. However, the duration of analgesia and time to first rescue analgesic medication was longer in the bupivacaine group. Conclusion Articaine seemed to have better potency and efficacy in terms of onset of action and lower pain scores compared to the bupivacaine group. Further studies are required to confirm these results.
    Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Current literature lacks systematic data on acute perioperative pain management in neonates and mainly focuses only on procedural pain management. In the current review, the neurophysiological basis of neonatal pain perception and the role of different analgesic drugs and techniques in perioperative pain management in neonates are systematically reviewed. Intravenous opioids such as morphine or fentanyl as either intermittent bolus or continuous infusion remain the most common modality for the treatment of perioperative pain. Paracetamol has a promising role in decreasing opioid requirement. However, routine use of ketorolac or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is not usually recommended. Epidural analgesia is safe in experienced hands and provides several benefits over systemic opioids such as early extubation and early return of bowel function.
    Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a serious and debilitating condition that leads to the development of many complications, which are followed by mortality and morbidity. As anesthesiologists, we may require to manage aSAH at various settings such as in the perioperative period or in a nonoperative setting such as the neuroradiology suite for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Therefore, it is important to understand the pathophysiology of aSAH and anesthetic management for operations and interventions. For decades, early brain injury and cerebral vasospasm have played major roles in the outcome following aSAH. The purpose of this article is to review recent advances and future perspectives in the treatment of aSAH, early brain injury, and cerebral vasospasm.
    Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background Combined introducer tool and stylet technique of ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) insertion was compared with the conventional digital manipulation and introducer tool technique in children with a rigid neck collar. Methods This was a randomized, single blinded, prospective study. Ninety ASA Grade I–II children weighing 10–20 kg were randomly allocated for PLMA insertion using the digital, introducer tool (IT) or combined IT and stylet techniques. Each group contained 30 patients. Difficult laryngoscopy was simulated using a rigid neck collar. The laryngoscopic view was graded prior to PLMA insertion. The digital and IT techniques were performed according to the manufacturer's instructions. The combined technique involved attaching the IT to the PLMA and inserting a flexible stylet through the drain tube. Results The median Cormack and Lehane grade was 2 in all three groups. Insertion was more frequently successful with the combined technique at the first attempt (combined 100%, digital 65.38%, IT 66.67%; p < 0.05), but success after three attempts was similar (combined 100%, digital 86.67%, IT 90%; p > 0.05). The time taken for successful placement was similar among groups at the first attempt, but was shorter for the combined technique for overall attempts (combined 18.33 ± 1.27 seconds, digital 27.85 ± 9.05 seconds, IT 26.89 ± 7.17 seconds; p < 0.05). There was no difference in postoperative airway morbidity. Conclusion PLMA insertion with combined IT and stylet technique was more frequently successful than the digital or IT technique in pediatric patients without cervical spine motion.
    Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Low-dose ketamine infusion (blood concentration around 100 ng/mL) during surgery reduces the incidence of postoperative shivering after remifentanil-based anesthesia. We hypothesized that perioperative infusion of very low-dose ketamine (blood concentration around 40 ng/mL) during remifentanil-based anesthesia may also prevent the development of remifentanil-induced shivering during the 2-hour period after the end of anesthesia. Materials and methods Fifty female patients scheduled to undergo laparoscopic cystectomy or oophorectomy were assigned to one of two groups: (1) ketamine group, in which the patients received ketamine infusion (0.1 mg/kg/hour) from induction of anesthesia to emergence from anesthesia; and (2) control group, in which the patients received saline infusion from induction up till emergence from anesthesia. Anesthesia was induced and maintained by target-controlled infusion of propofol (estimated blood concentration: 2–4 μg/mL) and infusion of remifentanil, at 0.2–0.3 μg/kg/minute. Patients were observed for shivering from the end of anesthesia to 120 minutes after anesthesia. The time point at which the patient began to shiver was recorded and assigned to one of four time periods: at emergence, from emergence to 30 minutes after anesthesia, from 30 minutes to 60 minutes after anesthesia, and >60 minutes after anesthesia. Results During the 120-minute observation period, the number of patients who shivered was higher in the ketamine group than the in control group (18 vs. 8, ketamine group vs. control group, p = 0.01). The time period during which patients began to shiver was different between the two groups (1 patient, 4 patients, and 13 patients vs. 3 patients, 2 patients, and 3 patients at emergence, from emergence to 30 minutes, and from 30 minutes to 60 minutes after anesthesia, respectively; ketamine group vs. control group, p = 0.007). Conclusion Intraoperative infusion of very low-dose ketamine during remifentanil-based anesthesia may increase the incidence of postoperative shivering.
    Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica 01/2014;
  • Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Difficult airway is always of special concern to anesthesiologists, but in a trauma setting where having a secured airway is most important, the incidence of difficult airway increases manifold. We report a “cannot ventilate cannot intubate” situation in a trauma patient who was later diagnosed to have arthrogryposis multiplex congenita, a syndrome known to affect the airway, and in whom all measures of securing a nonsurgical airway failed.
    Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective The basis for the transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block involves infiltration of a local anesthetic into the neurofascial plane between the internal oblique and the transversus abdominis muscles, causing a regional block that spreads between the L1 and T10 dermatomes. Thus, the TAP block is said to be suitable for lower abdominal surgery. This study was designed to compare the analgesic efficacy of two different concentrations of ropivacaine for TAP block in patients undergoing appendectomy. Methods Fifty-six patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II, aged 18 years and above, undergoing appendectomy were recruited in this prospective, randomized, double-blind study. They were divided into two groups: Group A patients who received 0.5 mL/kg of ropivacaine 0.5% and Group B patients who received 0.5 mL/kg of ropivacaine 0.2% via TAP block under ultrasound guidance. Postoperative pain was assessed using the visual analog scale upon arrival at the recovery room in the operating theatre, just prior to being discharged to the ward, and at 6 hours, 12 hours, 18 hours, and 24 hours postoperatively to compare the effectiveness of analgesia. Results Intraoperatively, patients in Group B required a significantly greater amount of additional intravenous fentanyl than those in Group A. There were no significant statistical differences in pain scores at rest and on movement at all assessment times as well as in the dose of 24-hour intravenous morphine consumption given via patient-controlled analgesia postoperatively between the two groups. Conclusion The effectiveness of two different concentrations of ropivacaine (0.5% versus 0.2%) given via TAP block was comparable in providing postoperative analgesia for patients undergoing appendectomy.
    Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Sugammadex rapidly reverses neuromuscular blockade (NMB) induced by rocuronium. NMB induced by rocuronium is prolonged in patients with liver dysfunction, because the drug is mainly excreted into the bile. However, the efficacy and safety of sugammadex in terms of reversing rocuronium-induced NMB in patients with liver dysfunction undergoing hepatic surgery have not been evaluated. This observational study investigated the efficacy and safety of sugammadex after continuous infusion of rocuronium in patients with liver dysfunction undergoing hepatic surgery. Methods Remifentanil/propofol anesthesia was administered to 31 patients: 15 patients in the control group, and 16 patients from a group with liver dysfunction. Rocuronium (0.6 mg/kg) was administered, followed by continuous infusion. The enrolled patients were then subdivided into two groups according to the dose of sugammadex. In the first group a single dose of sugammadex (2.0 mg/kg) was given at the reappearance of the second twitch (T2). In the second group a single dose of sugammadex (4.0 mg/kg) was given at the first twitch response if T2 did not reappear in 15 minutes after stopping rocuronium. The primary outcome was time from administration of sugammadex to recovery of a train-of-four ratio to 0.9. Results The dose of rocuronium required in the liver dysfunction group was lower than that in the control group (6.2 vs. 8.2 μg/kg/min, p = 0.002). The mean time from the administration of sugammadex to recovery of the train-of-four ratio to 0.9 was not significantly different between the liver dysfunction group and the control group (2.2 minutes vs. 2.0 minutes in the 2 mg/kg administration group, p = 0.44 and 1.9 minutes vs. 1.7 minutes in the 4 mg/kg administration group, p = 0.70, respectively). No evidence of recurarization was observed in any of the patients. Most of the adverse events were found to be mild and such events were not related to the use of sugammadex. None of the patients was eliminated from the study because of an adverse event. One patient died due to cholestatic liver cirrhosis because of repeated hepatic surgery. Conclusion Sugammadex can rapidly reverse NMB after continuous infusion of rocuronium in patients with liver dysfunction undergoing hepatic surgery. Sugammadex was found to be safe and well tolerated. However, further studies of sugammadex under similar conditions should be conducted involving a large number of patients with liver dysfunction undergoing hepatic surgery.
    Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Hemodynamic status during induction of anesthesia may modify the amount of propofol needed to induce loss of consciousness (LOC). This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of antispasmodic-induced tachycardia on the concentration of propofol at the effect-site for inducing LOC when deep sedation was executed for colonoscopy. Methods One hundred and sixteen adult patients were randomly assigned to receive either 20 mg of the antispasmodic Buscopan intravenously (Buscopan group; n = 58) or normal saline (control group; n = 58) for colonoscopy. After administration of Buscopan, the antispasmodic or normal saline, propofol was given by means of target-controlled infusion to induce LOC. We recorded patient characteristics, hemodynamic profiles, effect-site propofol concentration upon LOC, total propofol dosage for colonoscopy, and colonoscopy outcomes. Results There were no significant differences in the characteristics between the two groups. Although the patients receiving Buscopan had a higher heart rate than those of the control group (101 ± 15 beats/minute vs. 77 ± 13 beats/minute; p < 0.001), we found no significant difference between two groups in the effect-site propofol concentration for inducing LOC (3.9 ± 0.6 μg/mL vs. 3.8 ± 0.6 μg/mL; p = 0.261) nor total propofol dosage required for colonoscopy (3.2 ± 1.4 mg/kg vs. 3.1 ± 1.1 mg/kg; p = 0.698). Both groups had comparable colonoscopy outcomes, including percentage of patients completing the procedure and total procedure time. Conclusion The hemodynamic responses to intravenous Buscopan neither affected the effect-site propofol concentration needed to induce LOC, nor the total propofol dosage required for colonoscopy in this study. There is no need to modify the dosage of propofol in patients subject to Buscopan premedication in colonoscopy.
    Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Deep neck infection with airway obstruction may complicate endotracheal intubation with limited neck motion, pharyngeal swelling, and prominent secretion. Unrecognized esophageal intubation (EI) may unduly overinflate the stomach to inhibit effective ventilation, increase the incidence of hypoxia, and produce a ruptured visceral organ. We report an 81-year-old female patient with deep neck infection and impending respiratory failure who suffered gastric perforation after accidental EI in the intensive care unit. After failed attempts of intubation, EI was recognized rapidly as the culprit, although roughly audible bilateral breathing sounds were present but not gastric bubble sounds. A catastrophic complication of gastric rupture occurred due to ambu-bagging and mechanical ventilation. Surgical intervention was performed immediately. Possible mechanisms are discussed.
    Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A 54-year-old patient with Becker muscular dystrophy and dilated cardiomyopathy underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy under total intravenous anesthesia. Muscle relaxation was induced by rocuronium (0.4 mg/kg body weight) under train-of-four (TOF) ratio monitoring. The TOF ratio was 0 at intubation, and 0.2 at the end of surgery. Residual muscle relaxant activity was successfully reversed by sugammadex (2 mg/kg body weight) without any hemodynamic adverse effects (TOF ratio 1.0 at extubation). The clinical and hemodynamic findings suggest that sugammadex can be safely used in patients with Becker muscular dystrophy and dilated cardiomyopathy.
    Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background Postdural puncture headache (PDPH) is one of the common complications of spinal anesthesia; it is observed in 1–40% of cases involving spinal anesthesia. It can cause considerable morbidity and 40% of cases may require invasive treatments such as epidural blood patch. With the exception of invasive treatments such as an epidural blood patch, current standard treatment modalities have not proved efficacious. There had been some research done that indicated successful prophylaxis and/or treatment of PDPH by administration of intravenous steroids. Based on those findings, we hypothesize that a direct injection of corticosteroids to the anesthesia puncture site could increase the amount of corticosteroid that accumulates in the puncture site, and will be more effective in decreasing dural inflammation and incidence of PDPH than that of parenteral steroids. We formulated our study to evaluate the effect of dexamethasone directly injected into spinal anesthesia puncture sites. Methods A total of 268 patients undergoing spinal anesthesia were randomly allocated into two groups; one group received a prophylactic epidural injection of dexamethasone (2 mL, 8 mg) and the other group received 2 mL of normal saline. The incidence and intensity of PDPH and puncture site backache were each measured at 24 hours, 72 hours, and 7 days after spinal anesthesia. The intensity of the headache was graded according to the meningeal headache index. Results The overall incidence of headache during the 7-day period was 5 patients (3.7%) in the control group and 11 patients (8.2%) in the study group, which is not statistically significant (X2 = 2.393 and p = 0.122. The severity of headache also shows no statistical significance (2.2% in cases versus 6% in controls; z = 1.53, p = 0.126). The intensity of headache reported at the 24 hours (z = 0.698; p = 0.485), 72 hours (z = 0.849; p = 0.396), and 7 days (z = 0.008; p = 0.994) was not different. There also was no difference in the incidence of backache in the two groups. Conclusion In contrast to other studies that showed the efficacy of intravenous dexamethasone in the prevention and treatment of PDPH, our study did not show any significant effect of prophylactic epidural injection of dexamethasone in prevention of PDPH. However regarding the low number of PDPH in routine cases, evaluation of this intervention in groups with a high incidence of PDPH by using of particulate steroids is recommended to confirm these preliminary findings.
    Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background We aimed to compare the efficacy of a new bedside screening test named acromioaxillosuprasternal notch index (AASI) with modified Mallampati (MMP). Methods A total of 603 adult patients, who were candidates for tracheal intubation in elective surgery, were enrolled in this prospective study. Preoperative airway assessment was carried out with AASI and MMP. The new AASI score is calculated based on the following measurements: (1) using a ruler, a vertical line is drawn from the top of the acromion process to the superior border of the axilla at the pectoralis major muscle (line A); (2) a second line is drawn perpendicular to line A from the suprasternal notch (line B); and (3) the portion of line A that lies above the point where line B intersects it is line C. AASI is calculated by dividing the length of line C by that of line A (AASI = C/A). After induction of anesthesia, the laryngeal view was recorded according to the Cormack–Lehane grading system. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was employed to compare between AASI and MMP. Results Difficult visualization of larynx (DVL, Cormack–Lehane III and IV) was observed in 38 (6.3%) patients. The best cutoff point for DVL was defined at AASI > 0.49. AASI had a lower false negative rate and higher predictive values (sensitivity, positive predictive value, and accuracy) in comparison with MMP. Conclusion AASI was associated with higher predictive values than MMP and could be used for estimation of DVL.
    Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica 01/2014;

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