Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases Journal Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: Elsevier Masson

Journal description

Current impact factor: 1.66

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 1.662
2012 Impact Factor 1.662
2011 Impact Factor 1.513
2010 Impact Factor 1.207
2009 Impact Factor 0.663
2008 Impact Factor 0

Impact factor over time

Impact factor
Year

Additional details

5-year impact 1.53
Cited half-life 3.10
Immediacy index 0.19
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.51
ISSN 1875-2136
OCLC 229941797
Material type Periodical
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Elsevier Masson

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    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
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    • 'Elsevier Masson' is an imprint of 'Elsevier'
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The benefits of vascular closure devices (VCDs) in the prevention of vascular complications after femoral intervention remain controversial. To evaluate the efficiency of collagen plug-based VCDs in the prevention of femoral access complications after balloon aortic valvuloplasty. We conducted a prospective analysis of consecutive patients who underwent balloon aortic valvuloplasty by femoral retrograde technique in our centre between 2009 and 2012. Group 1 included 75 patients in whom femoral puncture haemostasis was obtained with the use of an 8F collagen plug-based VCD (Angio-Seal™; Saint-Jude Medical, Inc.); group 2 included 105 patients who had manual or mechanical groin compression (FemoStop™; RADI Medical Systems, Inc.). We did not use heparin during the procedure. We collected data on major in-hospital adverse events, major bleeding (Bleeding Academic Research Consortium classification≥3) and vascular access complications. We included 180 patients with severe and symptomatic aortic stenosis. Indications for valvuloplasty were mainly bridge to transcatheter aortic valve implantation or palliative therapy (72%). The groups were similar in terms of median age, lower limb artery disease and body mass index. Vascular and bleeding complications occurred in 11.1% of patients and were not decreased with the use of VCDs (relative risk 2.60, 95% confidence interval 1.10-3.09; P=0.05). These findings were consistent across all prespecified subgroups. Duration of hospital stay was not reduced by VCDs. Based on the results of this study, performed with small-size sheaths and without heparin, collagen plug-based VCDs increase femoral access complications following aortic valvuloplasty. Systematic use of VCDs in elderly patients, with probable advanced limb atherosclerosis, is questionable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
    Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases 03/2015; 108(4). DOI:10.1016/j.acvd.2014.11.005
  • Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.acvd.2014.12.002
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    ABSTRACT: The ideal duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is under debate. Lesion length is a well-recognized predictor of PCI complexity and long-term outcome. To evaluate the determinants and impact on outcome of long-term DAPT in a retrospective cohort of patients treated for a long coronary lesion. Patients (n=460) who underwent PCI for a long lesion (>30mm) were divided into two groups according to antiplatelet regimen at 1year: patients who stopped DAPT before 1year (single antiplatelet therapy group; n=168) and patients who continued DAPT for longer than 1year (n=292). Mean lesion length was 35.7±7.1mm. The proportion of patients who continued DAPT after 1year was 63.5%. The main determinants of long-term DAPT were initial presentation as myocardial infarction and implantation of a drug-eluting stent. Median follow-up was 37.4 (23-51) months after the 1-year period following the index PCI. Long-term DAPT was highly associated with a lower risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality by multivariable analysis and after adjustment for other predictors: hazard ratios 0.11 (95% confidence interval 0.03-0.32) and 0.15 (95% confidence interval 0.04-0.62), respectively. No increase in major bleeding was noted. In a contemporary practice, nearly two-thirds of patients who undergo PCI for a long lesion are treated with DAPT for several years. Our results suggest that long-term DAPT is beneficial in this subset of patients identified as being at high risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
    Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases 02/2015; 108(4). DOI:10.1016/j.acvd.2014.11.004
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    ABSTRACT: Many studies have suggested that longer duration of cardiac monitoring is suitable for the detection of occult paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) after stroke; however, most studies involved patients aged≥65years - a population with a high stroke rate. To assess the incidence of paroxysmal AF in unselected young patients presenting with stroke. We included consecutive patients aged<60years with a stroke diagnosis on magnetic resonance imaging. Aetiological screening included clinical history and examination, and biological and cardiac tests. Patients were included if they had no history of AF and if a 24-hour electrocardiogram recording detected no AF or atrial flutter. Patients wore the SpiderFlash(®) monitor for 21days after discharge from hospital. The primary outcome was detection of paroxysmal AF episodes lasting>30seconds during monitoring. The secondary outcome was detection of paroxysmal AF episodes lasting<30seconds and any arrhythmia during monitoring. Among the 56 patients included (mean age 48±9years), 39 had cryptogenic stroke (CS) and 17 had stroke of known cause (SKC). Cardiac monitoring was achieved in 54 patients (37 CS, 17 SKC); one CS patient had a paroxysmal AF episode lasting>30seconds and one CS patient had a paroxysmal AF episode lasting<30seconds (versus no patients in the SKC group). Two CS patients and one SKC patient presented numerous premature atrial complexes. Non-sustained ventricular tachycardia was detected in one CS patient. This prospective observational study showed a low rate of paroxysmal AF among young patients presenting with stroke, on the basis of 21-day cardiac monitoring. This result highlights the need to identify patients who would benefit from such long monitoring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
    Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.acvd.2014.11.003
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiac troponin (cTn) assays have quickly gained in analytical sensitivity to become what are termed 'high-sensitivity cardiac troponin' (hs-cTn) assays, bringing a flurry of dense yet incomplete literature data. The net result is that cTn assays are not yet standardized and there are still no consensus-built data on how to use and interpret cTn assay results. To address these issues, the authors take cues and clues from multiple disciplines to bring responses to frequently asked questions. In brief, the effective use of hs-cTn hinges on knowing: specific assay characteristics, particularly precision at the 99th percentile of a reference population; factors of variation at the 99th percentile value; and the high-individuality of hs-cTn assays, for which the notion of individual kinetics is more informative than straight reference to 'normal' values. The significance of patterns of change between two assay measurements has not yet been documented for every hs-cTn assay. Clinicians need to work hand-in-hand with medical biologists to better understand how to use hs-cTn assays in routine practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
    Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.acvd.2014.11.001
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    ABSTRACT: Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) is common in sickle cell anaemia (SCA). Left atrial (LA) size is widely used as an index of LVDD; however, LA enlargement in SCA might also be due to chronic volume overload. To investigate whether LA size can be used to diagnose LVDD in SCA. One hundred and twenty-seven adults with stable SCA underwent echocardiographic assessment. LA volume was measured by the area-length method and indexed to body surface area (LAVi). Left ventricular (LV) filling pressures were assessed using the ratio of early peak diastolic velocities of mitral inflow and septal annular mitral plane (E/e'). Using mitral inflow profile and E/e', LV diastolic function was classified as normal or abnormal. LAVi>28mL/m(2) was used as the threshold to define LA enlargement. The mean age was 28.6±8.5years; there were 83 women. Mean LAVi was 48.3±11.1mL/m(2) and 124 (98%) patients had LA dilatation. In multivariable analysis, age, haemoglobin concentration and LV end-diastolic volume index were independent determinants of LAVi (R(2)=0.51; P<0.0001). E/e' was not linked to LAVi (P=0.43). Twenty patients had LVDD; when compared with patients without LVDD, they had a similar LAVi (52.2±14.7 and 47.5±10.2mL/m(2), respectively; P=0.29). Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis showed that LAVi could not be used to diagnose LVDD (area under curve=0.58; P=0.36). LA enlargement is common in SCA but appears not to be linked to LVDD. LAVi in this population is related to age, haemoglobin concentration and LV morphology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
    Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.acvd.2014.09.010
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    ABSTRACT: The early recognition of acute coronary syndromes is a priority in health care systems, to reduce revascularization delays. In France, patients are encouraged to call emergency numbers (15, 112), which are routed to a Medical Dispatch Centre where physicians conduct an interview and decide on the appropriate response. However, the effectiveness of this system has not yet been assessed. To describe and analyse the response of emergency physicians receiving calls for chest pain in the French Emergency Medical System. From 16 November to 13 December 2009, calls to the Medical Dispatch Centre for non-traumatic chest pain were included prospectively in a multicentre observational study. Clinical characteristics and triage decisions were collected. A total of 1647 patients were included in the study. An interview was conducted with the patient in only 30.5% of cases, and with relatives, bystanders or physicians in the other cases. A Mobile Intensive Care Unit was dispatched to 854 patients (51.9%) presenting with typical angina chest pains and a high risk of cardiovascular disease. Paramedics were sent to 516 patients (31.3%) and a general practitioner was sent to 169 patients (10.3%). Patients were given medical advice only by telephone in 108 cases (6.6%). Emergency physicians in the Medical Dispatch Centre sent an effecter to the majority of patients who called the Emergency Medical System for chest pain. The response level was based on the characteristics of the chest pain and the patient's risk profile. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
    Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.acvd.2014.11.002
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    ABSTRACT: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) has focused on pulmonary vein isolation (PVI). However, despite initial positive results, significant recurrences have occurred, partly because of pulmonary vein (PV) reconnection or non-PV ectopic foci, including the superior vena cava (SVC). This prospective, randomized study sought to investigate the efficacy of additional SVCI combined with PVI in symptomatic PAF patients referred for ablation. From November 2011 to May 2013, RFA was performed remotely using a CARTO(®) 3 System in patients randomized to undergo PVI for symptomatic drug-refractory PAF, with (PVI+SVCI group) or without (PVI alone group) SVCI. PVI and SVCI were confirmed by spiral catheter recording during ablation. Procedural data, complications and freedom from atrial tachycardia (AT) and atrial fibrillation (AF) were assessed. Over an 18-month period, 100 consecutive patients (56±9years; 17 women) with symptomatic PAF were included in the study (PVI+SVCI, n=51; PVI, n=49); the CHA2DS2-VASc score was 0.9±1. Median duration of procedure (±interquartile), 2.5±1hours; total X-ray exposure, 13.3±8minutes; transseptal puncture and catheter positioning, 8±5minutes; left atrium electroanatomical reconstruction, 3±2minutes; and catheter ablation, 3.7±3minutes. After a median follow-up of 15±8months, and having undergone a single procedure, 84% of patients were symptom free, while 86% remained asymptomatic after undergoing two procedures. The cumulative risks of atrial arrhythmias (AT or AF) were interpreted using Kaplan-Meier curves and compared using the log-rank test. Long-term follow-up revealed no significant difference between groups, with atrial arrhythmias occurring in six (12%) patients in the PVI+SVCI group and nine (18%) patients in the PVI alone group (P=0.6). One transient phrenic nerve palsy and one phrenic nerve injury with partial recovery occurred in the PVI+SVCI group. SVCI combined with PVI did not reduce the risk of subsequent AF recurrence, and was responsible for two phrenic nerve injuries. Accordingly, the benefit-to-risk ratio argues against systematic SVCI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
    Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.acvd.2014.10.005
  • Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases 01/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.acvd.2014.12.001
  • Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases 01/2015; 7.
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    ABSTRACT: We report a case of spontaneous coronary artery rupture (SCAR) 3 months after descending aortic replacement. Cardiac tamponade was confirmed at first by using echocardiography following emergency pericardial centesis. The patient was denied aortic dissection by computed tomography, thereafter diagnosed as SCAR with selective angiography, which revealed a leakage from the left circumflex branch. The patient underwent successful rupture site isolation by bilateral ligation and distal revascularization with aortocoronary bypass with saphenous vein graft.
    Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases 12/2014; 107(12). DOI:10.1016/j.acvd.2012.09.007
  • Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases 12/2014; 108(1). DOI:10.1016/j.acvd.2014.10.004
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    ABSTRACT: Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is the most commonly used method for measuring left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), but its reproducibility remains a matter of controversy. Speckle tracking echocardiography assesses myocardial deformation and left ventricular systolic function by measuring global longitudinal strain (GLS), which is more reproducible, but is not used routinely in hospital practice. To investigate the feasibility of on-line two-dimensional GLS in predicting LVEF during routine echocardiographic practice. The analysis involved 507 unselected consecutive patients undergoing TTE between August 2012 and November 2013. Echocardiograms were performed by a single sonographer. Echogenicity was noted as good, moderate or poor. Simple linear regression was used to assess the relationship between LVEF and GLS, overall and according to quality of echogenicity. Receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis was used to identify the threshold GLS that predicts LVEF≤40%. Mean LVEF was 64±11% and GLS was -18.0±4.0%. A reasonable correlation was found between LVEF and GLS (r=-0.53; P<0.001), which was improved when echogenicity was good (r=-0.60; P<0.001). GLS explained 28.1% of the variation in LVEF, and for one unit decrease in GLS, a 1.45 unit increase in LVEF was expected. Correlations between LVEF and GLS were -0.51 for patients in sinus rhythm (n=490) and -0.86 in atrial fibrillation (n=17). Based on ROC analysis, the area under the curve was 0.97 for GLS≥-14%, allowing detection of LVEF≤40% with a sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 86%. Two-dimensional GLS is easy to obtain and accurately detects LVEF≤40% in unselected patients. GLS may be especially helpful when a suboptimal acoustic window makes LVEF measurement by Simpson's biplane method difficult and in atrial fibrillation patients with low heart rate variability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
    Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases 12/2014; 108(1). DOI:10.1016/j.acvd.2014.08.003
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    ABSTRACT: Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is an important public health issue, particularly in the Pacific region, but its true burden is unknown. To evaluate the prevalence of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in young adults from New Caledonia, based on echocardiography, and to evaluate the accuracy of dynamic criteria, focusing on mitral valve (MV) leaflet motion. Blind analysis of echocardiography by three cardiologists; diagnosis of RHD required at least one dynamic criterion (exaggerated or restricted MV leaflet motion); subjects with morphological criteria (MV leaflet thickening), but without dynamic criteria, were considered as borderline. There were 834 subjects from three socioeconomic groups, aged 18-22 years: 699 had normal echocardiography; 93 (11.5%) had physiological regurgitation; nine (0.9%) had borderline RHD; and five (0.59%) had RHD. The prevalence of RHD in New Caledonia was thus estimated at 5.9 per 1000 (95% confidence interval 2.6-12.2). The RHD cases were of Pacific ethnicity. Physiological regurgitation was more frequent in Pacific subjects (13.7%) than in non-Pacific subjects (6.9%; P<0.0001). RHD was more prevalent in the lowest socioeconomic group. No disagreement occurred between the three reviewers concerning analysis of dynamic criteria; all disagreements were related to morphological criteria. The prevalence of echocardiographically diagnosed RHD in adults in New Caledonia is estimated at 5.9 per 1000; it occurs most frequently in Pacific subjects and those with low incomes. Dynamic criteria were more accurate and reproducible than standard morphological criteria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
    Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases 12/2014; 108(1). DOI:10.1016/j.acvd.2014.07.053
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    ABSTRACT: Infarct size (IS) is a major determinant of patient outcome after acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Interventions aimed at reducing reperfusion injury, such as cardiac ischaemic postconditioning (IPost), may reduce IS and improve clinical outcomes. IPost has been shown to be feasible in patients with STEMI treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). To provide an updated summary of the efficacy of IPost, assessed by analysing accurate surrogate markers of IS. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials that evaluated the efficacy of IPost in STEMI patients undergoing PPCI. The main outcome was area under the curve of serum creatine kinase release (CK-AUC). Secondary outcomes were other surrogate biomarkers of IS, complete ST-segment resolution, direct measurement of IS by single-photon emission computed tomography and estimation of IS by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR-IS). Eleven studies were retrieved, including 1313 STEMI patients undergoing PPCI with or without IPost. Compared with controls, we observed a significant reduction in CK-AUC (standard mean difference [SMD] -2.84 IU/L, 95% CI -5.43 to -0.25 IU/L; P=0.03). Other surrogate markers, such as CMR-IS (SMD -0.36, 95% CI -0.88 to 0.15; P=0.16), showed a non-significant IS reduction in the IPost group. This meta-analysis, dealing with accurate surrogate markers of IS, suggests that IPost reduces IS. However, results should be interpreted cautiously because of limited sample sizes and significant heterogeneity. Whether this translates into improvements in cardiac function and patient prognosis still needs to be demonstrated in larger prospective randomized controlled studies that are powered sufficiently. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
    Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases 11/2014; 7(1). DOI:10.1016/j.acvd.2014.08.004
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    ABSTRACT: Evaluation of the right ventricle (RV) using transthoracic echocardiography is challenging in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF). To evaluate the accuracy of conventional echocardiographic variables and real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) in assessing right ventricular (RV) volumes and function compared with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in adult patients with rTOF and referred for pulmonary valve replacement (PVR). Complete echocardiography was performed on 26 consecutive patients referred for PVR, before and 1 year after surgery. All variables were compared with MRI. Correlations between conventional variables and MRI were absent or poor when assessing RV ejection fraction (RVEF), except for fractional area of change (FAC; r=0.70, P<0.01 before PVR; r=0.68, P<0.01 after PVR) and RT3DE (r=0.96, P<0.01 before PVR; r=0.98, P<0.01 after PVR). The RV volume correlation between RT3DE and MRI was excellent before and after surgery for RV end-diastolic volume (r=0.88, P<0.01 and r=0.91, P<0.01, respectively) and RV end-systolic volume (r=0.92, P<0.01 and r=0.95, P<0.01, respectively). The accuracy of these indices, as a diagnostic test for impaired RV (<45%), was good: Youden's indexes varied from 0.47 to 0.89; areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve before and after PVR were 0.86 and 0.81 for FAC and 0.98 and 0.97 for RT3DE, respectively. Commonly used echocardiography variables, such as tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion and tricuspid annular peak systolic velocity, did not sensitively evaluate global RVEF. A global approach, that includes the whole RV and integration of its different components, was more reliable in patients with rTOF. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
    Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases 11/2014; 108(1). DOI:10.1016/j.acvd.2014.07.054
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    ABSTRACT: Assessment of health-related quality of life is widely recommended by European health agencies in relevant research studies as well as in clinical care. To validate the French version of the MacNew heart disease health-related quality of life questionnaire. As part of the International HeartQoL Project, 323 French-speaking patients with ischaemic heart disease (angina, n=76; myocardial infarction [MI], n=155; heart failure, n=91; mean age 58.6±11.3 years) were recruited at seven cardiac rehabilitation centres. All patients completed the French versions of the MacNew questionnaire, the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, to evaluate the psychometric properties of the French version of the MacNew instrument. The mean MacNew global scale scores were 4.6±0.8, 5.0±1.0 and 4.8±0.9 in patients with angina, MI and heart failure, respectively (P<0.05, MI versus angina). We observed minimal missing items and ceiling effects and no floor effects. Factor analysis confirmed a three factorial structure explaining 55.9% of the observed variance. Internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's α) ranged from 0.86 to 0.94 and test-retest reliability ranged from 0.68 to 0.73 Convergent validity was confirmed in the total group and each diagnosis, although the correlations between the MacNew physical subscale and the SF-36 mental component summary were higher than expected. Discriminative validity was partially confirmed with the SF-36 health transition item and fully confirmed with anxiety and depression as predictor variables. The French version of MacNew questionnaire is recommended for assessing health-related quality of life in French-speaking patients with ischaemic heart disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
    Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.acvd.2014.09.006
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    ABSTRACT: Single-centre experience in transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect (ASD) using the Figulla(®) ASD Occluder (FSO; Occlutech GmbH, Jena, Germany) and the Amplatzer(®) Septal Occluder (ASO; Saint-Jude Medical, Zaventem, Belgium) has been reported. To perform a retrospective comparison of the two occluders. From September 2009 to December 2012, 131 consecutive patients underwent percutaneous ASD occlusion: One hundred with the ASO device; 31 with the FSO device. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding patient characteristics, stretched diameter, age and device size. In the ASO group, implantation succeeded in all but two patients because of deficient rim. Another patient had device embolization in the aorta retrieved percutaneously. During follow-up, 86 patients had no residual shunt and nine patients had a residual shunt (small in seven; moderate in two). Two other patients had persistent interatrial small shunt caused by an adjacent ASD close to the device. In the FSO group, implantation succeeded in all but two patients: one because of deficient posterior rim; and one because of complete atrioventricular block that resolved after device extraction. During follow-up, no shunt was observed in all but one patient. At late follow-up (up to 36months), full occlusion was observed in 88 (88.0%) patients in the ASO group and 28 (90.3%) patients in the FSO group (with no significant difference between groups). Transcatheter closure of ASD with the FSO is feasible and safe. FSO results compare favorably with ASO results. However, additional long-term studies that include more patients are mandatory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
    Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases 11/2014; 108(1). DOI:10.1016/j.acvd.2014.09.005
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    ABSTRACT: Very little is known about the costs of mitral regurgitation (MR) in Europe. To evaluate the cost of MR from a French National Payer perspective, based on annual costs of surgical and non-surgical patients. A 12-month retrospective population-based analysis of patient demographics, outcomes and acute hospital and post-discharge resource utilizations, extracted from the 2009 French Medical Information System. A total of 19,868 patients with MR were identified. Surgical group (n=4099): index hospitalization length of stay (LOS), 17±14.7 days; patients discharged to rehabilitation, 72% (LOS 23±16 days); 12-month rehospitalization rate, 25%; total cost per surgical patient, €24,871±13,940 (ranging from €21,970±11,787 for mitral valve repair [n=2567, 62.6%] to €29,732±15,796 for mitral valve replacement). Non-surgical group (n=15,769): number of hospitalizations over 12 months, 3.1±1.5 (LOS 23.5±20.4 days); admitted to rehabilitation, 24% (LOS 38.8±37.6 days); total cost per patient, €12,177±10,913 (varying between €9957±9080 and €13,538±11,692 for those without and with heart failure [HF], respectively). The total observed cost for 19,868 MR patients over 12 months was €292.8 million: surgical group, €100.8 million; medical group €192.0 million. Patients with MR and HF who were managed medically consumed 45% (€132.3 million) of the overall annual cost of MR. The costs of care associated with MR are highly heterogeneous. There are significant differences in costs and resources used between the surgical and medical MR subgroups, with further differences depending on type of surgery and presence of HF. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
    Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.acvd.2014.09.008