Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: Elsevier

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ISSN 1875-0834

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A 4-year-old castrated labrador retriever presented for cardiac evaluation to determine the etiology of cardiogenic pulmonary edema diagnosed 1 month prior. A large pedunculated mass involving the ventral aspect of the mural mitral valve leaflet and the endocardial surface of the left ventricular free wall, resulting in severe mitral regurgitation, was identified on echocardiogram. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry of this mass and other endocardial masses identified at necropsy for S-100 protein were consistent with a diagnosis of schwannoma. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of a benign intracardiac schwannoma described in the left heart of a dog. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 06/2015; 17(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jvc.2015.01.006
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) has been shown to be an accurate predictor of myocardial injury in cattle. The point-of-care i-STAT 1 immunoassay can be used to quantify blood cTnI in cattle. However, the cTnI reference interval in whole blood of healthy early lactating dairy cows remains unknown. To determine a blood cTnI reference interval in healthy early lactating Holstein dairy cows using the analyzer i-STAT 1. Forty healthy lactating dairy Holstein cows (0-60 days in milk) were conveniently selected from four commercial dairy farms. Each selected cow was examined by a veterinarian and transthoracic echocardiography was performed. A cow-side blood cTnI dosage was measured at the same time. A bootstrap statistical analysis method using unrestricted resampling was used to determine a reference interval for blood cTnI values. Forty healthy cows were recruited in the study. Median blood cTnI was 0.02 ng/mL (minimum: 0.00, maximum: 0.05). Based on the bootstrap analysis method with 40 cases, the 95th percentile of cTnI values in healthy cows was 0.036 ng/mL (90% CI: 0.02-0.05 ng/mL). A reference interval for blood cTnI values in healthy lactating cows was determined. Further research is needed to determine whether cTnI blood values could be used to diagnose and provide a prognosis for cardiac and noncardiac diseases in lactating dairy cows. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 06/2015; 17(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jvc.2015.02.003
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    ABSTRACT: The journal in which you publish your research can have a major influence on the perceived value of your work and on your ability to reach certain audiences. The impact factor, a widely used metric of journal quality and prestige, has evolved into a benchmark of quality for institutions and graduate programs and, inappropriately, as a proxy for the quality of individual authors and articles, affecting tenure, promotion, and funding decisions. As a result, despite its many limitations, publishing decisions by authors often are based solely on a journal's impact factor. This can disadvantage journals in small disciplines, such as veterinary medicine, and limit the ability of authors to reach key audiences. In this article, factors that can influence the impact factor of a journal and its applicability, including precision, citation practices, article type, editorial policies, and size of the research community will be reviewed. The value and importance of veterinary journals such as the Journal of Veterinary Cardiology for reaching relevant audiences and for helping shape disciplinary specialties and influence clinical practice will also be discussed. Lastly, the efforts underway to develop alternative measures to assess the scientific quality of individual authors and articles, such as article-level metrics, as well as institutional measures of the economic and social impact of biomedical research will be considered. Judicious use of the impact factor and the implementation of new metrics for assessing the quality and societal relevance of veterinary research articles will benefit both authors and journals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 05/2015; 17(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jvc.2015.01.002
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    ABSTRACT: To determine if pimobendan, a phosphodiesterase III inhibitor and calcium sensitizer with positive survival benefits, has an effect on incidence of arrhythmias compared to placebo in small breed dogs with congestive heart failure (CHF) due to myxomatous mitral valve degeneration (MMVD). Eight client-owned small breed dogs (<15 kg) with CHF due to MMVD. A prospective double-blind randomized placebo-controlled crossover study design was used. Data were recorded at baseline and 2 weeks post-administration of placebo or pimobendan. Average heart rate and incidence of arrhythmia were determined from 24 h Holter analysis. Owners completed a quality of life (QOL) questionnaire at each time point and recorded sleeping respiratory rates (SRR). Mixed effects analysis of variance, with dog as the random variable was used to compare values obtained between baseline, placebo, and pimobendan. Compared to baseline, QOL scores were significantly improved following administration of either placebo or pimobendan (p = 0.021 and p < 0.001, respectively). No significant differences in type or incidence of supraventricular or ventricular arrhythmia were identified. Average heart rate with pimobendan was significantly lower than baseline (p < 0.001). Compared to baseline, SRR was significantly lower with pimobendan (p = 0.004), and significantly different from placebo (p = 0.045). No significant difference between pimobendan and placebo was found on incidence of supraventricular or ventricular arrhythmia. The decrease in average heart rate and SRR may be reflective of superior heart failure control achieved with pimobendan therapy. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 05/2015; 17(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jvc.2015.01.005
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    ABSTRACT: Fungal disease is a rare cause of pericardial effusion in dogs. This report describes the first case of fungal pericardial effusion and myocarditis secondary to the fungal organism Inonotus tropicalis. A 9-year-old female spayed French bulldog with a multi-year history of treatment with glucocorticoids for management of atopy was presented for exercise intolerance, ascites and weight loss. Physical examination and thoracic imaging revealed enlarged peripheral and cranial mediastinal lymph nodes, left ventricular thickening and cardiac tamponade secondary to pericardial effusion. Fine needle aspiration of the cranial mediastinal lymph node showed pyogranulomatous inflammation with short, thin and poorly septated hyphae. Culture of the aspirate yielded a fungal isolate identified as Inonotus tropicalis based on morphologic features and rRNA gene sequencing. Postmortem examination showed myocardial thickening with multifocal to coalescing, firm, white, ill-defined nodules. Histology confirmed the presence of disseminated fungal infection with extensive myocardial involvement. Inonotus tropicalis is an opportunistic poroid wood-decaying basidiomycete. Infection in this dog was likely the result of chronic immunosuppressive therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 05/2015; 17(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jvc.2015.01.004
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    ABSTRACT: To further characterize the echocardiographic anatomy of the canine mitral valve apparatus in normal dogs and in dogs affected by myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD). Twenty-two normal dogs and 60 dogs with MMVD were prospectively studied. The length (AMVL), width (AMVW) and area (AMVA) of the anterior mitral valve leaflet were measured in the control group and the affected group, as were the diameters of the mitral valve annulus in diastole (MVAd) and systole (MVAs). The dogs with MMVD were staged based on American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM) guidelines and separated into groups B1 and B2/C. All measurements were indexed to body weight based on empirically defined allometric relationships. There was a statistically significant relationship between all log10 transformed mitral valve dimensions and body weight. The AMVL, AMVW, AMVA, MVAd and MVAs were all significantly greater in the B2/C group compared to the B1 and control groups. The AMVW was also significantly greater in the B1 group compared to the control group. Interobserver % coefficient of variation (% CV) was <10% for AMVL, AMVA, MVAd and MVAs, but was 29.6% for AMVW. Intraobserver % CV was <10.4% for all measurements. Measurements of the anterior mitral valve leaflet and the mitral valve annulus in the dog can be indexed to body weight based on allometric relationships. Preliminary reference intervals have been proposed over a range of body sizes. Relative to normal dogs, AMVL, AMVW, AMVA, MVAd and MVAs are greater in patients with advanced MMVD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 05/2015; 17(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jvc.2015.01.003
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    ABSTRACT: Aortic tears and acute aortic dissection are rarely reported in dogs. This report describes a case of aortic dissection and probable sinus of Valsalva rupture in a young Great Dane with associated histopathologic findings suggestive of a connective tissue abnormality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 04/2015; 17(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jvc.2015.01.001
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    ABSTRACT: To estimate heart rate-normalized pulmonary transit times (nPTTs) in cardiomyopathic cats with or without congestive heart failure (CHF). To assess potential associations of echocardiographic variables and nPTT and to evaluate nPTT as a test for the presence of CHF. Forty-eight privately owned cats. nPTT was measured using echocardiography and the ultrasound contrast media SonoVue(®) in 3 groups of cats: healthy cats (group 1), cats with cardiomyopathy (CM) but without CHF (group 2), and cats with CM and CHF (group 3). Interrelations between pulmonary blood volume (PBV), nPTT, stroke volume (SV), and echocardiographic variables were investigated by means of linear univariate and multivariate analysis. Median nPTT values in group 1, group 2, and group 3 were 3.63 (interquartile range [IQR], 3.20-4.22), 6.09 (IQR, 5.0-7.02), and 8.49 (IQR, 7.58-11.04), respectively. Values were significantly different between all 3 groups. Median PBVs in group 1, group 2, and group 3 were 27.94 mL (IQR, 21.02-33.17 mL), 42.83 mL (IQR, 38.46-50.36 mL) and 49.48 mL (IQR, 38.84-64.39 mL). SV, PBV, and shortening fraction <30% were significant predictors of nPTT. nPTT and left atrial to aortic root (LA:AO) ratio, not SV, were the main predictors of PBV. nPTT may be useful as a test for the presence of CHF in cats with CM and as a measure of cardiac performance. nPTT and LA:AO ratios predict CHF with equal accuracy. Increased PBV is significantly associated with higher nPTT and LA:AO ratios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 03/2015; 17(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jvc.2014.09.005
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the long-term outcome associated with physiologic VDD and non-physiologic VVI or VVIR pacing in dogs with high-grade atrioventricular block. Forty-nine paced dogs with high-grade atrioventricular block were included. Retrospective review of medical records, thoracic radiographs and echocardiograms for all dogs. Patient owners and referring veterinarians were contacted for survival times and a satisfaction questionnaire was submitted to the owners. Survival times, complication rates, resolution of clinical signs, and owner satisfaction were compared between the pacing modalities. A single lead VDD pacemaker was implanted in 19 dogs (39%) whereas 30 dogs (61%) were treated with VVI pacing. The median survival time for all dogs post-pacemaker implantation was 24.5 months. Survival time was significantly decreased in dogs that were older at the time of presentation or that presented with ventricular tachycardia or reduced left ventricular fractional shortening. Median survival times after implantation were not significantly different between pacing modalities (P = 0.29). Major complication rates were 11% within the VDD group and 20% within the VVI group and were not significantly different (P = 0.46). Minor complications were significantly higher within the VDD group than within the VVI group (47% versus 7% respectively; P < 0.01) due to a higher number of dogs in the VDD group experiencing transient ventricular premature contractions in the immediate post-implantation time period. Resolution of clinical signs, owner satisfaction, and quality of life perception were considered excellent in both groups. No long-term clinical benefit of VDD over VVI pacing could be identified in the present study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 02/2015; 17(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jvc.2014.12.004
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    ABSTRACT: To describe a series of dogs with pulmonary artery dissection and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Eight dogs. Retrospective case series. Pulmonary artery dissection was diagnosed in 8 dogs, 3 were Weimaraners. Four dogs presented in left-sided congestive heart failure, 4 presented for murmur evaluation and without clinical signs, and 1 presented in right-sided congestive heart failure. In 7 dogs the dissection was first documented concurrent with a diagnosis of uncorrected PDA. In the other dog, with pulmonary valve stenosis and PDA, the dissection was observed on autopsy examination 17 months after balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty and ductal closure. Median age at presentation for the 7 dogs with antemortem diagnosis of pulmonary artery dissection was 3.5 years (range, 1.5-4 years). Three dogs had the PDA surgically ligated, 2 dogs did not undergo PDA closure, 1 dog failed transcatheter occlusion of the PDA with subsequent surgical ligation, 1 dog underwent successful transcatheter device occlusion of the PDA, and 1 dog had the PDA closed by transcatheter coil delivery 17 months prior to the diagnosis of pulmonary artery dissection. The 2 dogs that did not have the PDA closed died 1 and 3 years after diagnosis due to heart failure. Pulmonary artery dissection is a potential complication of PDA in dogs, the Weimaraner breed may be at increased risk, presentation is often in mature dogs, and closure of the PDA can be performed and appears to improve outcome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 01/2015; 17(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jvc.2014.12.001
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the feasibility, repeatability, intra- and interobserver variability, and reference intervals for 5 echocardiographic indices of right ventricular (RV) systolic function: tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), fractional area change (FAC), pulsed wave tissue Doppler imaging-derived systolic myocardial velocity of the lateral tricuspid annulus (S'), and speckle-tracking echocardiography-derived global longitudinal RV free wall strain and strain rate. To explore statistical relationships between RV systolic function and age, gender, heart rate, and bodyweight. 80 healthy adult dogs. Dogs underwent 2 echocardiographic examinations. Repeatability and intra-observer and inter-observer measurement variability were quantified by average coefficient of variation (CV). Relationships between RV function and age, heart rate and bodyweight were estimated by regression analysis. All indices were acquired with clinically acceptable repeatability and intra- and inter-observer variability (CVs < 10%). No differences were identified between male and female dogs. Allometric scaling by bodyweight demonstrated significant, clinically relevant correlations between RV function and bodyweight (all p ≤ 0.001) as follows: TAPSE - strong positive correlation (r(2) = 0.75); S' - moderate positive correlation (r(2) = 0.31); strain rate - moderate negative correlation (r(2) = 0.44); FAC and strain - weak negative correlations (r(2) = 0.22 and 0.14, respectively). Strain rate and FAC were positively correlated with heart rate (r(2) = 0.35 and 0.31, respectively). Allometric scaling generated bodyweight-based reference intervals for these RV systolic function indices. Echocardiographic indices of RV systolic function are feasible to obtain, repeatable, and affected by bodyweight. Studies of these indices in dogs with cardiovascular disease are needed. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 12/2014; 17(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jvc.2014.10.003
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    ABSTRACT: The study aims were to assess the temporal stability following storage at room temperature, the effect of up to 4 freeze-thaw cycles and the effect of simulated freezer failure on measurements of canine N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in serum and protease-inhibited (PI) plasma. Twenty-five blood samples were collected from 16 dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease. Aliquots of canine serum and PI plasma were stored at room temperature (17-26 °C) for 30 min, 6, 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Further aliquots were subjected to between 1 and 4 freeze-thaw cycles. A further aliquot was transferred to storage at 4 °C for 24 h while a paired aliquot remained at -80 °C. All samples were returned to storage at -80 °C until subsequent analysis. N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide was measured in serum and PI plasma samples using first- and second-generation versions of a commercially-available ELISA. Repeated measures models were used to assess change in NT-proBNP measurements. Wilcoxon signed ranks were used to compare paired measurements. N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations declined over time in all samples stored at room temperature. Of the four situations tested, the rate of decrease was lowest for PI plasma samples measured using the second-generation assay. N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide is stable in samples subjected to up to 4 freeze-thaw cycles and in previously-frozen samples stored at 4 °C for 24 h. Use of the second-generation assay, compared with the first-generation, resulted in significantly higher recovery of NT-proBNP measured in PI plasma stored at room temperature. Transport of serum at room temperature for NT-proBNP measurement is not recommended. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jvc.2014.10.002
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    ABSTRACT: To compare heart rate and arrhythmia frequency and complexity in a normal population of cats to a population of cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). 17 cats with HCM and 15 cats with normal echocardiograms. Results for echocardiography, electrocardiography, Doppler blood pressure, and 24-h Holter monitoring were compared between groups. There was no difference in heart rate between HCM cats and normal cats regardless of modality used. All (17/17) HCM cats had ventricular arrhythmias (geometric mean 124 complexes/24 h) with 82% (14/17) exhibiting complex arrhythmias (couplets, triplets, or ventricular tachycardia). Most (14/15) normal cats had ventricular arrhythmias (geometric mean 4 complexes/24 h), but only 20% (3/15) exhibited complexity. HCM cats had significantly more total ventricular complexes, ventricular premature complexes and accelerated idioventricular rhythm than normal cats (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001, and P = 0.01, respectively). Eighty eight percent (15/17) of HCM cats had supraventricular arrhythmias (geometric mean 9 complexes/24 h) with 23% (4/17) exhibiting complexity. Sixty percent (9/15) of normal cats had supraventricular arrhythmias (geometric mean 1 complex/24 h) with 13% (2/15) exhibiting complexity. Cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy had significantly more supraventricular complexes than normal cats (P = 0.0148). Cats with asymptomatic HCM have more frequent and complex ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias than normal cats but do not have different overall heart rates compared to normal cats. Further studies are needed to determine if these arrhythmias are associated with an increased risk of sudden cardiac death or influence long-term survival. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 10/2014; 16(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jvc.2014.10.001
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    ABSTRACT: To compare red cell distribution width (RDW) between dogs with different causes of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and a control dog population to determine whether RDW was correlated with severity of PH as measured by echocardiography. A further aim was to determine the prognostic significance of increased RDW for dogs with PH. Forty-four client-owned dogs with PH and 79 control dogs presented to a single tertiary referral institution. Signalment, clinical pathological and echocardiographic data were obtained retrospectively from the medical records of dogs with PH, and RDW measured on a Cell-Dyn 3500 was compared between dogs with pre- and post-capillary PH and a control population. Referring veterinary surgeons were contacted for follow-up information and Kaplan-Meier analysis was conducted to investigate differences in survival time between affected dogs with different RDW values. The RDW was significantly greater in dogs with pre-capillary PH compared to control dogs. There was no difference in median survival times between dogs with PH divided according to RDW values. The RDW was positively correlated with mean corpuscular volume and haematocrit in dogs with PH, but did not correlate with echocardiographic variables. An association was found between dogs with PH and increased RDW; however there was considerable overlap in values between control dogs and dogs with PH. The RDW was not associated with survival in this study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 10/2014; 16(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jvc.2014.08.003
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    ABSTRACT: Double-outlet right atrium (DORA) is a type of atrioventricular septal defect that is described as an extreme leftward deviation of the lower portion of the interatrial septum, resulting in insertion into the atrial wall left and posterior to the mitral orifice. This rare anomaly, which has been reported in humans and only just recently in cats, was identified by transthoracic echocardiography in a 9 year-old cat that was presented for further evaluation of a tachyarrhythmia and cardiomegaly. This case report describes the diagnostic findings in this cat and summarizes the anatomy, classification and clinical consequences of this rare congenital heart defect.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 06/2014; 16(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jvc.2013.12.005
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    ABSTRACT: Pericardial defects are rare in both people and dogs. They may be congenital or acquired in origin, and partial or total in extent. Commonly, pericardial defects are incidental findings at autopsy; however, diagnostic methods such as thoracic radiography and echocardiography can be useful in the ante mortem diagnosis of pericardial defects. This report describes the first case of a dog with syncope, supraventricular tachycardia, and a partial left pericardial defect with herniation of the left auricle for which extensive ante mortem diagnostic information was available. Partial absence of the pericardium should be considered in dogs with disproportionate enlargement of cardiac chambers for which other congenital and acquired heart diseases are ruled out.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 06/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jvc.2014.02.001
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: The objectives of this study were (1) to assess the potential effect of body weight (BW), age, and gender on the most commonly used echocardiographic and conventional Doppler variables in a large population of healthy Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCS), and (2) to establish the corresponding reference intervals (RI). Animals: 134 healthy adult CKCS. Methods: Ultrasound examinations were performed by trained observers in awake dogs. M-mode variables included left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic and end-systolic diameters, LV free wall and interventricular septal thicknesses at end-diastole and end-systole, and LV fractional shortening (FS%). The left atrium (LA) and aortic (Ao) diameters were measured using a 2D method, and the LA/Ao was calculated. Pulsed-wave Doppler variables included peak systolic aortic and pulmonary flow velocities, mitral E and A waves, and E/A ratio. Effects of BW, age, and gender on these 15 variables were tested using a general linear model, and RIs were determined by applying the statistical procedures recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results: A significant BW effect was observed for all variables, except LA/Ao, FS%, and mitral E/A ratio. A significant but negligible effect of gender and age was also observed for 5/15 and 4/15 of the tested variables, respectively. Only the BW effect on M-mode variables was considered as clinically relevant and the corresponding regression-based RIs were calculated. Conclusions: Body weight should be taken into account when interpreting echocardiographic values in CKCS, except for LA/Ao, FS%, and mitral E/A ratio.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 04/2014; 16(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jvc.2014.03.001
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    ABSTRACT: Double-chambered left ventricle is a rare congenital disorder in which the left ventricular cavity is subdivided into two cavities by an anomalous septum or muscle band. We describe a case of double-chambered left ventricle, most likely caused by the presence of excessive left ventricular bands, in an asymptomatic cat.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 04/2014; 16(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jvc.2014.02.002