Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: Elsevier

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ISSN 1875-0834

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aortic tears and acute aortic dissection are rarely reported in dogs. This report describes a case of aortic dissection and probable sinus of Valsalva rupture in a young Great Dane with associated histopathologic findings suggestive of a connective tissue abnormality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jvc.2015.01.001
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    ABSTRACT: To estimate heart rate-normalized pulmonary transit times (nPTTs) in cardiomyopathic cats with or without congestive heart failure (CHF). To assess potential associations of echocardiographic variables and nPTT and to evaluate nPTT as a test for the presence of CHF. Forty-eight privately owned cats. nPTT was measured using echocardiography and the ultrasound contrast media SonoVue(®) in 3 groups of cats: healthy cats (group 1), cats with cardiomyopathy (CM) but without CHF (group 2), and cats with CM and CHF (group 3). Interrelations between pulmonary blood volume (PBV), nPTT, stroke volume (SV), and echocardiographic variables were investigated by means of linear univariate and multivariate analysis. Median nPTT values in group 1, group 2, and group 3 were 3.63 (interquartile range [IQR], 3.20-4.22), 6.09 (IQR, 5.0-7.02), and 8.49 (IQR, 7.58-11.04), respectively. Values were significantly different between all 3 groups. Median PBVs in group 1, group 2, and group 3 were 27.94 mL (IQR, 21.02-33.17 mL), 42.83 mL (IQR, 38.46-50.36 mL) and 49.48 mL (IQR, 38.84-64.39 mL). SV, PBV, and shortening fraction <30% were significant predictors of nPTT. nPTT and left atrial to aortic root (LA:AO) ratio, not SV, were the main predictors of PBV. nPTT may be useful as a test for the presence of CHF in cats with CM and as a measure of cardiac performance. nPTT and LA:AO ratios predict CHF with equal accuracy. Increased PBV is significantly associated with higher nPTT and LA:AO ratios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 03/2015; 17(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jvc.2014.09.005
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the long-term outcome associated with physiologic VDD and non-physiologic VVI or VVIR pacing in dogs with high-grade atrioventricular block. Forty-nine paced dogs with high-grade atrioventricular block were included. Retrospective review of medical records, thoracic radiographs and echocardiograms for all dogs. Patient owners and referring veterinarians were contacted for survival times and a satisfaction questionnaire was submitted to the owners. Survival times, complication rates, resolution of clinical signs, and owner satisfaction were compared between the pacing modalities. A single lead VDD pacemaker was implanted in 19 dogs (39%) whereas 30 dogs (61%) were treated with VVI pacing. The median survival time for all dogs post-pacemaker implantation was 24.5 months. Survival time was significantly decreased in dogs that were older at the time of presentation or that presented with ventricular tachycardia or reduced left ventricular fractional shortening. Median survival times after implantation were not significantly different between pacing modalities (P = 0.29). Major complication rates were 11% within the VDD group and 20% within the VVI group and were not significantly different (P = 0.46). Minor complications were significantly higher within the VDD group than within the VVI group (47% versus 7% respectively; P < 0.01) due to a higher number of dogs in the VDD group experiencing transient ventricular premature contractions in the immediate post-implantation time period. Resolution of clinical signs, owner satisfaction, and quality of life perception were considered excellent in both groups. No long-term clinical benefit of VDD over VVI pacing could be identified in the present study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 02/2015; 17(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jvc.2014.12.004
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    ABSTRACT: To describe a series of dogs with pulmonary artery dissection and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Eight dogs. Retrospective case series. Pulmonary artery dissection was diagnosed in 8 dogs, 3 were Weimaraners. Four dogs presented in left-sided congestive heart failure, 4 presented for murmur evaluation and without clinical signs, and 1 presented in right-sided congestive heart failure. In 7 dogs the dissection was first documented concurrent with a diagnosis of uncorrected PDA. In the other dog, with pulmonary valve stenosis and PDA, the dissection was observed on autopsy examination 17 months after balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty and ductal closure. Median age at presentation for the 7 dogs with antemortem diagnosis of pulmonary artery dissection was 3.5 years (range, 1.5-4 years). Three dogs had the PDA surgically ligated, 2 dogs did not undergo PDA closure, 1 dog failed transcatheter occlusion of the PDA with subsequent surgical ligation, 1 dog underwent successful transcatheter device occlusion of the PDA, and 1 dog had the PDA closed by transcatheter coil delivery 17 months prior to the diagnosis of pulmonary artery dissection. The 2 dogs that did not have the PDA closed died 1 and 3 years after diagnosis due to heart failure. Pulmonary artery dissection is a potential complication of PDA in dogs, the Weimaraner breed may be at increased risk, presentation is often in mature dogs, and closure of the PDA can be performed and appears to improve outcome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 01/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jvc.2014.12.001
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the feasibility, repeatability, intra- and interobserver variability, and reference intervals for 5 echocardiographic indices of right ventricular (RV) systolic function: tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), fractional area change (FAC), pulsed wave tissue Doppler imaging-derived systolic myocardial velocity of the lateral tricuspid annulus (S'), and speckle-tracking echocardiography-derived global longitudinal RV free wall strain and strain rate. To explore statistical relationships between RV systolic function and age, gender, heart rate, and bodyweight. 80 healthy adult dogs. Dogs underwent 2 echocardiographic examinations. Repeatability and intra-observer and inter-observer measurement variability were quantified by average coefficient of variation (CV). Relationships between RV function and age, heart rate and bodyweight were estimated by regression analysis. All indices were acquired with clinically acceptable repeatability and intra- and inter-observer variability (CVs < 10%). No differences were identified between male and female dogs. Allometric scaling by bodyweight demonstrated significant, clinically relevant correlations between RV function and bodyweight (all p ≤ 0.001) as follows: TAPSE - strong positive correlation (r(2) = 0.75); S' - moderate positive correlation (r(2) = 0.31); strain rate - moderate negative correlation (r(2) = 0.44); FAC and strain - weak negative correlations (r(2) = 0.22 and 0.14, respectively). Strain rate and FAC were positively correlated with heart rate (r(2) = 0.35 and 0.31, respectively). Allometric scaling generated bodyweight-based reference intervals for these RV systolic function indices. Echocardiographic indices of RV systolic function are feasible to obtain, repeatable, and affected by bodyweight. Studies of these indices in dogs with cardiovascular disease are needed. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jvc.2014.10.003
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    ABSTRACT: The study aims were to assess the temporal stability following storage at room temperature, the effect of up to 4 freeze-thaw cycles and the effect of simulated freezer failure on measurements of canine N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in serum and protease-inhibited (PI) plasma. Twenty-five blood samples were collected from 16 dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease. Aliquots of canine serum and PI plasma were stored at room temperature (17-26 °C) for 30 min, 6, 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Further aliquots were subjected to between 1 and 4 freeze-thaw cycles. A further aliquot was transferred to storage at 4 °C for 24 h while a paired aliquot remained at -80 °C. All samples were returned to storage at -80 °C until subsequent analysis. N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide was measured in serum and PI plasma samples using first- and second-generation versions of a commercially-available ELISA. Repeated measures models were used to assess change in NT-proBNP measurements. Wilcoxon signed ranks were used to compare paired measurements. N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations declined over time in all samples stored at room temperature. Of the four situations tested, the rate of decrease was lowest for PI plasma samples measured using the second-generation assay. N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide is stable in samples subjected to up to 4 freeze-thaw cycles and in previously-frozen samples stored at 4 °C for 24 h. Use of the second-generation assay, compared with the first-generation, resulted in significantly higher recovery of NT-proBNP measured in PI plasma stored at room temperature. Transport of serum at room temperature for NT-proBNP measurement is not recommended. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jvc.2014.10.002
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    ABSTRACT: To compare heart rate and arrhythmia frequency and complexity in a normal population of cats to a population of cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). 17 cats with HCM and 15 cats with normal echocardiograms. Results for echocardiography, electrocardiography, Doppler blood pressure, and 24-h Holter monitoring were compared between groups. There was no difference in heart rate between HCM cats and normal cats regardless of modality used. All (17/17) HCM cats had ventricular arrhythmias (geometric mean 124 complexes/24 h) with 82% (14/17) exhibiting complex arrhythmias (couplets, triplets, or ventricular tachycardia). Most (14/15) normal cats had ventricular arrhythmias (geometric mean 4 complexes/24 h), but only 20% (3/15) exhibited complexity. HCM cats had significantly more total ventricular complexes, ventricular premature complexes and accelerated idioventricular rhythm than normal cats (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001, and P = 0.01, respectively). Eighty eight percent (15/17) of HCM cats had supraventricular arrhythmias (geometric mean 9 complexes/24 h) with 23% (4/17) exhibiting complexity. Sixty percent (9/15) of normal cats had supraventricular arrhythmias (geometric mean 1 complex/24 h) with 13% (2/15) exhibiting complexity. Cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy had significantly more supraventricular complexes than normal cats (P = 0.0148). Cats with asymptomatic HCM have more frequent and complex ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias than normal cats but do not have different overall heart rates compared to normal cats. Further studies are needed to determine if these arrhythmias are associated with an increased risk of sudden cardiac death or influence long-term survival. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 10/2014; 16(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jvc.2014.10.001
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    ABSTRACT: To compare red cell distribution width (RDW) between dogs with different causes of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and a control dog population to determine whether RDW was correlated with severity of PH as measured by echocardiography. A further aim was to determine the prognostic significance of increased RDW for dogs with PH. Forty-four client-owned dogs with PH and 79 control dogs presented to a single tertiary referral institution. Signalment, clinical pathological and echocardiographic data were obtained retrospectively from the medical records of dogs with PH, and RDW measured on a Cell-Dyn 3500 was compared between dogs with pre- and post-capillary PH and a control population. Referring veterinary surgeons were contacted for follow-up information and Kaplan-Meier analysis was conducted to investigate differences in survival time between affected dogs with different RDW values. The RDW was significantly greater in dogs with pre-capillary PH compared to control dogs. There was no difference in median survival times between dogs with PH divided according to RDW values. The RDW was positively correlated with mean corpuscular volume and haematocrit in dogs with PH, but did not correlate with echocardiographic variables. An association was found between dogs with PH and increased RDW; however there was considerable overlap in values between control dogs and dogs with PH. The RDW was not associated with survival in this study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 10/2014; 16(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jvc.2014.08.003
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    ABSTRACT: Double-outlet right atrium (DORA) is a type of atrioventricular septal defect that is described as an extreme leftward deviation of the lower portion of the interatrial septum, resulting in insertion into the atrial wall left and posterior to the mitral orifice. This rare anomaly, which has been reported in humans and only just recently in cats, was identified by transthoracic echocardiography in a 9 year-old cat that was presented for further evaluation of a tachyarrhythmia and cardiomegaly. This case report describes the diagnostic findings in this cat and summarizes the anatomy, classification and clinical consequences of this rare congenital heart defect.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 06/2014; 16(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jvc.2013.12.005
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    ABSTRACT: Pericardial defects are rare in both people and dogs. They may be congenital or acquired in origin, and partial or total in extent. Commonly, pericardial defects are incidental findings at autopsy; however, diagnostic methods such as thoracic radiography and echocardiography can be useful in the ante mortem diagnosis of pericardial defects. This report describes the first case of a dog with syncope, supraventricular tachycardia, and a partial left pericardial defect with herniation of the left auricle for which extensive ante mortem diagnostic information was available. Partial absence of the pericardium should be considered in dogs with disproportionate enlargement of cardiac chambers for which other congenital and acquired heart diseases are ruled out.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 06/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jvc.2014.02.001
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: The objectives of this study were (1) to assess the potential effect of body weight (BW), age, and gender on the most commonly used echocardiographic and conventional Doppler variables in a large population of healthy Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCS), and (2) to establish the corresponding reference intervals (RI). Animals: 134 healthy adult CKCS. Methods: Ultrasound examinations were performed by trained observers in awake dogs. M-mode variables included left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic and end-systolic diameters, LV free wall and interventricular septal thicknesses at end-diastole and end-systole, and LV fractional shortening (FS%). The left atrium (LA) and aortic (Ao) diameters were measured using a 2D method, and the LA/Ao was calculated. Pulsed-wave Doppler variables included peak systolic aortic and pulmonary flow velocities, mitral E and A waves, and E/A ratio. Effects of BW, age, and gender on these 15 variables were tested using a general linear model, and RIs were determined by applying the statistical procedures recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results: A significant BW effect was observed for all variables, except LA/Ao, FS%, and mitral E/A ratio. A significant but negligible effect of gender and age was also observed for 5/15 and 4/15 of the tested variables, respectively. Only the BW effect on M-mode variables was considered as clinically relevant and the corresponding regression-based RIs were calculated. Conclusions: Body weight should be taken into account when interpreting echocardiographic values in CKCS, except for LA/Ao, FS%, and mitral E/A ratio.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 04/2014; 16(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jvc.2014.03.001
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    ABSTRACT: Double-chambered left ventricle is a rare congenital disorder in which the left ventricular cavity is subdivided into two cavities by an anomalous septum or muscle band. We describe a case of double-chambered left ventricle, most likely caused by the presence of excessive left ventricular bands, in an asymptomatic cat.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 04/2014; 16(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jvc.2014.02.002
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    ABSTRACT: Mediastinal lymphoma with neoplastic invasion into the heart was diagnosed in a 9-year-old castrated male domestic short hair cat. The neoplastic infiltrate was seen throughout the atria and atrial septum, surrounded the aortic root, and resulted in narrowing of the right ventricular outflow tract. Chemotherapy resulted in resolution of the echocardiographic abnormalities and the cat's clinical signs until the patient was euthanized 58 days later following development of neurologic signs. Mediastinal lymphoma with myocardial invasion and response to chemotherapy has not been documented previously in the veterinary literature.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 04/2014; 16(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jvc.2014.01.002
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To compare dimensions and shortening fraction (SF) of the left ventricle (LV) obtained from two-dimensional (2D) and M-mode imaging of short and long-axis views. Animals 40 healthy, adult German Shepherd dogs. Methods Left ventricular measurements were obtained using 4 echocardiographic methods: M-mode in short and long-axis and 2D imaging in short and long-axis. The methods were compared by studying the effects of imaging mode and axis on LV parameters, taking into account the influence of weight and gender. Results Mean LV end-diastolic diameter was greater in short-axis views. However, this difference was not considered clinically relevant. Mean SF was higher when derived from 2D measurements with poor agreement among methods. A combined influence of axis, gender, and weight was observed on interventricular septal thickness in end diastole with poor agreement among methods. Conclusions Some LV parameters were significantly affected by mode and axis, either in isolation or in combination with weight and gender, although the differences observed were not always clinically relevant. These findings show that using the different echocardiographic methods interchangeably to assess LV dimensions should be done with caution.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 03/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jvc.2013.12.003
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    ABSTRACT: A 1-year-old male German shorthaired pointer was referred for evaluation of tachypnea and hemoptysis. A grade VI/VI left basilar continuous murmur was ausculted. Multimodality imaging consisting of thoracic radiographs, transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography, fluoroscopy-guided selective angiography, computed tomography angiogram (CTA) and magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA), was performed on this patient. The defect included a left-to-right shunting anomalous vessel between the ascending aorta and main pulmonary artery, along with a dissecting aneurysm of the main and right pulmonary artery. An MRA post-processing technique (PC-VIPR) was used to allow for high resolution angiographic images and further assessment of the patient's hemodynamics prior to surgical correction. This case report describes the clinical course of a canine patient with a rare form of congenital cardiac disease, and the multiple imaging modalities that were used to aid in diagnosis and treatment.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 03/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jvc.2013.12.002
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    ABSTRACT: Contrast enhanced, multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) is a useful diagnostic imaging modality that has become increasingly available in veterinary medicine. Multi-planar and three-dimensional reconstructions allow accurate and comprehensive assessment of cardiac and vascular lesions with short image acquisition times. ECG-gated, contrast enhanced MDCT was used to assess the lesion extent and therapeutic options in a case of aortic dissection diagnosed in a hypertensive cat.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 03/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jvc.2013.11.002
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To determine if microdose contrast-enhanced multi-detector computed tomographic angiography (MDCTA) allows characterization of cardiac chambers in lightly sedated normal cats. Animals Seven healthy domestic cats. Methods Lightly sedated normal cats were imaged pre-contrast and with microdose (0.22 ml/kg of non-ionic iodinated contrast medium, 300 mg I/ml) triple-phase MDCTA in a motion restriction device. Results On pre-contrast images, the aorta (median: 52.43 Hounsfield units [HU], range 27.35–76.74 HU) was outlined by significantly (p = 0.015) lower attenuating periaortic fat (−66.16 HU, −42.62 to −92.77 HU). On post-contrast images, median peak contrast enhancement in the right ventricle (111.77 HU, 36.09–141.60 HU) was achieved in 3.1 s (range 2.9–7.3 s), in the aorta (149.30 HU, 99.43–319.60 HU) and left atrium (180.83 HU, 88.53–266.84 HU) in 6.4 s (range 5.6–7.7 s) and in the left ventricle (147.89 HU, 57.23–245.77 HU) in 7.10 s (range 6.2–11.2 s). Significantly higher attenuation was measured between all chambers and walls, the right ventricular lumen and interventricular septum (median ratio 53.78 HU, range 0.21–83.20 HU), left ventricular lumen and left ventricular free wall (89.32 HU, 38.81–185.95 HU) and aorta and periaortic fat (190.43 HU, 143.22–425.44 HU) on post-contrast images. Conclusions Sufficient biological contrast is available on survey CT to discriminate between the aorta and the left atrium, and microdose MDCTA provides sufficient contrast enhancement for adequate visualization of the heart chambers in normal cats.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 03/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jvc.2013.12.004
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Assess the relationship between work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) and performing echocardiograms (ECHOS) in veterinarians with a cardiology focus. Methods Prospective study. A survey was submitted to the ACVIM veterinary cardiology list-serve regarding pain associated with performing ECHOS (ECHOPain). Associations of demographic and work habit variables with ECHOPain and WRMSD were evaluated with logistic regression. Results Respondents included 198 of 487 (41%) members, evenly divided in gender. Most (69%) were 31 to 50 years old. Almost all (96%) currently perform ECHOS, usually 4-5 ECHOS/week (74%), every week except vacation (93%). ECHOPain was reported by 87 people (44%), which was classified as mild/occasional in 77%, frequent/moderate in 21%, and frequent/severe in 2%. Of those with ECHOPain, 52% reported ECHOS as the sole cause, 31% reported ECHOS aggravating pain from a pre-existing problem, and 17% reported unrelated pain. The most common areas of pain were neck (54%), shoulder (52%), wrist (42%), and back (35%) with 78% reporting pain at 2 or more sites. Pain impaired job performance in 36%, required sick leave or disability in 12%, required reduction in ECHOS/day in 36%, and affected lifestyle in 22%. Ten percent of people have been diagnosed with WRMSD, of which 21% have a permanent disability. Both gender and weeks/year predicted pain with ECHOS (χ2(3) = 11.38, P = 0.01). The odds ratio for females versus males with ECHOPain was 2.23. Conclusion ECHOPain is common (44%) in veterinary echocardiographers, is significantly associated with gender, and affects job performance for over one-third of pain sufferers.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 03/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jvc.2014.01.001