Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology

Publisher: Elsevier

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    1875-0834

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To compare heart rate and arrhythmia frequency and complexity in a normal population of cats to a population of cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). 17 cats with HCM and 15 cats with normal echocardiograms. Results for echocardiography, electrocardiography, Doppler blood pressure, and 24-h Holter monitoring were compared between groups. There was no difference in heart rate between HCM cats and normal cats regardless of modality used. All (17/17) HCM cats had ventricular arrhythmias (geometric mean 124 complexes/24 h) with 82% (14/17) exhibiting complex arrhythmias (couplets, triplets, or ventricular tachycardia). Most (14/15) normal cats had ventricular arrhythmias (geometric mean 4 complexes/24 h), but only 20% (3/15) exhibited complexity. HCM cats had significantly more total ventricular complexes, ventricular premature complexes and accelerated idioventricular rhythm than normal cats (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001, and P = 0.01, respectively). Eighty eight percent (15/17) of HCM cats had supraventricular arrhythmias (geometric mean 9 complexes/24 h) with 23% (4/17) exhibiting complexity. Sixty percent (9/15) of normal cats had supraventricular arrhythmias (geometric mean 1 complex/24 h) with 13% (2/15) exhibiting complexity. Cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy had significantly more supraventricular complexes than normal cats (P = 0.0148). Cats with asymptomatic HCM have more frequent and complex ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias than normal cats but do not have different overall heart rates compared to normal cats. Further studies are needed to determine if these arrhythmias are associated with an increased risk of sudden cardiac death or influence long-term survival. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To compare red cell distribution width (RDW) between dogs with different causes of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and a control dog population to determine whether RDW was correlated with severity of PH as measured by echocardiography. A further aim was to determine the prognostic significance of increased RDW for dogs with PH. Forty-four client-owned dogs with PH and 79 control dogs presented to a single tertiary referral institution. Signalment, clinical pathological and echocardiographic data were obtained retrospectively from the medical records of dogs with PH, and RDW measured on a Cell-Dyn 3500 was compared between dogs with pre- and post-capillary PH and a control population. Referring veterinary surgeons were contacted for follow-up information and Kaplan-Meier analysis was conducted to investigate differences in survival time between affected dogs with different RDW values. The RDW was significantly greater in dogs with pre-capillary PH compared to control dogs. There was no difference in median survival times between dogs with PH divided according to RDW values. The RDW was positively correlated with mean corpuscular volume and haematocrit in dogs with PH, but did not correlate with echocardiographic variables. An association was found between dogs with PH and increased RDW; however there was considerable overlap in values between control dogs and dogs with PH. The RDW was not associated with survival in this study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Double-outlet right atrium (DORA) is a type of atrioventricular septal defect that is described as an extreme leftward deviation of the lower portion of the interatrial septum, resulting in insertion into the atrial wall left and posterior to the mitral orifice. This rare anomaly, which has been reported in humans and only just recently in cats, was identified by transthoracic echocardiography in a 9 year-old cat that was presented for further evaluation of a tachyarrhythmia and cardiomegaly. This case report describes the diagnostic findings in this cat and summarizes the anatomy, classification and clinical consequences of this rare congenital heart defect.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Pericardial defects are rare in both people and dogs. They may be congenital or acquired in origin, and partial or total in extent. Commonly, pericardial defects are incidental findings at autopsy; however, diagnostic methods such as thoracic radiography and echocardiography can be useful in the ante mortem diagnosis of pericardial defects. This report describes the first case of a dog with syncope, supraventricular tachycardia, and a partial left pericardial defect with herniation of the left auricle for which extensive ante mortem diagnostic information was available. Partial absence of the pericardium should be considered in dogs with disproportionate enlargement of cardiac chambers for which other congenital and acquired heart diseases are ruled out.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were (1) to assess the potential effect of body weight (BW), age, and gender on the most commonly used echocardiographic and conventional Doppler variables in a large population of healthy Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCS), and (2) to establish the corresponding reference intervals (RI).
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Double-chambered left ventricle is a rare congenital disorder in which the left ventricular cavity is subdivided into two cavities by an anomalous septum or muscle band. We describe a case of double-chambered left ventricle, most likely caused by the presence of excessive left ventricular bands, in an asymptomatic cat.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Mediastinal lymphoma with neoplastic invasion into the heart was diagnosed in a 9-year-old castrated male domestic short hair cat. The neoplastic infiltrate was seen throughout the atria and atrial septum, surrounded the aortic root, and resulted in narrowing of the right ventricular outflow tract. Chemotherapy resulted in resolution of the echocardiographic abnormalities and the cat's clinical signs until the patient was euthanized 58 days later following development of neurologic signs. Mediastinal lymphoma with myocardial invasion and response to chemotherapy has not been documented previously in the veterinary literature.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A 1-year-old male German shorthaired pointer was referred for evaluation of tachypnea and hemoptysis. A grade VI/VI left basilar continuous murmur was ausculted. Multimodality imaging consisting of thoracic radiographs, transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography, fluoroscopy-guided selective angiography, computed tomography angiogram (CTA) and magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA), was performed on this patient. The defect included a left-to-right shunting anomalous vessel between the ascending aorta and main pulmonary artery, along with a dissecting aneurysm of the main and right pulmonary artery. An MRA post-processing technique (PC-VIPR) was used to allow for high resolution angiographic images and further assessment of the patient's hemodynamics prior to surgical correction. This case report describes the clinical course of a canine patient with a rare form of congenital cardiac disease, and the multiple imaging modalities that were used to aid in diagnosis and treatment.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A 6-year-old male castrated labrador retriever presented with endocardial pacemaker infection following migration and subsequent repositioning of the pulse generator. An epicardial lead and pulse generator were surgically implanted and the endocardial lead could not be removed with manual traction. The endocardial lead was severed, anchored, and abandoned at the thoracic inlet. The patient presented 4 months later with endocardial lead migration, bacteremia, and suspected glomerulonephritis. The endocardial pacemaker lead was transvenously extracted using a mechanical dilator sheath and locking stylet. This report of transvenous pacemaker lead extraction in a dog addresses the challenges and describes recent advances in extraction devices.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To compare dimensions and shortening fraction (SF) of the left ventricle (LV) obtained from two-dimensional (2D) and M-mode imaging of short and long-axis views. Animals 40 healthy, adult German Shepherd dogs. Methods Left ventricular measurements were obtained using 4 echocardiographic methods: M-mode in short and long-axis and 2D imaging in short and long-axis. The methods were compared by studying the effects of imaging mode and axis on LV parameters, taking into account the influence of weight and gender. Results Mean LV end-diastolic diameter was greater in short-axis views. However, this difference was not considered clinically relevant. Mean SF was higher when derived from 2D measurements with poor agreement among methods. A combined influence of axis, gender, and weight was observed on interventricular septal thickness in end diastole with poor agreement among methods. Conclusions Some LV parameters were significantly affected by mode and axis, either in isolation or in combination with weight and gender, although the differences observed were not always clinically relevant. These findings show that using the different echocardiographic methods interchangeably to assess LV dimensions should be done with caution.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Contrast enhanced, multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) is a useful diagnostic imaging modality that has become increasingly available in veterinary medicine. Multi-planar and three-dimensional reconstructions allow accurate and comprehensive assessment of cardiac and vascular lesions with short image acquisition times. ECG-gated, contrast enhanced MDCT was used to assess the lesion extent and therapeutic options in a case of aortic dissection diagnosed in a hypertensive cat.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To determine if microdose contrast-enhanced multi-detector computed tomographic angiography (MDCTA) allows characterization of cardiac chambers in lightly sedated normal cats. Animals Seven healthy domestic cats. Methods Lightly sedated normal cats were imaged pre-contrast and with microdose (0.22 ml/kg of non-ionic iodinated contrast medium, 300 mg I/ml) triple-phase MDCTA in a motion restriction device. Results On pre-contrast images, the aorta (median: 52.43 Hounsfield units [HU], range 27.35–76.74 HU) was outlined by significantly (p = 0.015) lower attenuating periaortic fat (−66.16 HU, −42.62 to −92.77 HU). On post-contrast images, median peak contrast enhancement in the right ventricle (111.77 HU, 36.09–141.60 HU) was achieved in 3.1 s (range 2.9–7.3 s), in the aorta (149.30 HU, 99.43–319.60 HU) and left atrium (180.83 HU, 88.53–266.84 HU) in 6.4 s (range 5.6–7.7 s) and in the left ventricle (147.89 HU, 57.23–245.77 HU) in 7.10 s (range 6.2–11.2 s). Significantly higher attenuation was measured between all chambers and walls, the right ventricular lumen and interventricular septum (median ratio 53.78 HU, range 0.21–83.20 HU), left ventricular lumen and left ventricular free wall (89.32 HU, 38.81–185.95 HU) and aorta and periaortic fat (190.43 HU, 143.22–425.44 HU) on post-contrast images. Conclusions Sufficient biological contrast is available on survey CT to discriminate between the aorta and the left atrium, and microdose MDCTA provides sufficient contrast enhancement for adequate visualization of the heart chambers in normal cats.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Assess the relationship between work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) and performing echocardiograms (ECHOS) in veterinarians with a cardiology focus. Methods Prospective study. A survey was submitted to the ACVIM veterinary cardiology list-serve regarding pain associated with performing ECHOS (ECHOPain). Associations of demographic and work habit variables with ECHOPain and WRMSD were evaluated with logistic regression. Results Respondents included 198 of 487 (41%) members, evenly divided in gender. Most (69%) were 31 to 50 years old. Almost all (96%) currently perform ECHOS, usually 4-5 ECHOS/week (74%), every week except vacation (93%). ECHOPain was reported by 87 people (44%), which was classified as mild/occasional in 77%, frequent/moderate in 21%, and frequent/severe in 2%. Of those with ECHOPain, 52% reported ECHOS as the sole cause, 31% reported ECHOS aggravating pain from a pre-existing problem, and 17% reported unrelated pain. The most common areas of pain were neck (54%), shoulder (52%), wrist (42%), and back (35%) with 78% reporting pain at 2 or more sites. Pain impaired job performance in 36%, required sick leave or disability in 12%, required reduction in ECHOS/day in 36%, and affected lifestyle in 22%. Ten percent of people have been diagnosed with WRMSD, of which 21% have a permanent disability. Both gender and weeks/year predicted pain with ECHOS (χ2(3) = 11.38, P = 0.01). The odds ratio for females versus males with ECHOPain was 2.23. Conclusion ECHOPain is common (44%) in veterinary echocardiographers, is significantly associated with gender, and affects job performance for over one-third of pain sufferers.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Coarctation of the aorta has been described previously as either a post-mortem or angiographic finding in three dogs with clinical signs related to the aortic coarctation. A 10-year-old dog was presented for evaluation of suspected laryngeal paralysis. On physical examination, femoral pulses were absent bilaterally, with an indirect systolic blood pressure difference of 60 mmHg between the ipsilateral thoracic and pelvic limbs. Coarctation of the aorta was detected on a thoracic computed tomographic angiography study. The coarctation was pre-ductal in position, with extensive dilation of the descending thoracic aorta. Characteristic rib changes that are seen in humans with coarctation were not apparent in this dog. 3D reconstructions of the thorax provided high vascular definition with exact localization of the aortic narrowing.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: A 5-year old, 5.8 kg, castrated male Pomeranian was diagnosed with a type IIa patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) with a minimal ductal diameter of 3.5 mm and ampulla width of 7.1 mm based on angiographic assessment. A 6 mm Amplatz(®) Canine Duct Occluder (ACDO) was deployed within the PDA. Once deployed, the device assumed it's native shape and back-and-forth maneuvering was performed with the delivery cable to assess device stability. Device position and complete occlusion were confirmed with both angiography and transesophageal echocardiography prior to and after release of the device. The device location was confirmed within the ductus arteriosus by echocardiography prior to discharge. The dog was discharged with instructions for strict activity restriction. Two days after discharge, the dog was left unsupervised in the backyard and shortly afterwards was found coughing with severe respiratory distress. The dog was evaluated at an emergency hospital and thoracic radiographs documented embolization of the ACDO to the main pulmonary artery along with a severe alveolar pattern throughout the right lung fields. Shortly after obtaining thoracic radiographs, the dog experienced cardiopulmonary arrest with unsuccessful resuscitation. This case describes a possible complication of transcatheter PDA occlusion with an ACDO, which has not been previously reported. An incident report, or catalog of adverse events with these devices, may prove useful in identifying additional fatal complications that others may have encountered, but are not reported in the literature. The report of this complication emphasizes the importance of strict activity restriction after device placement in dogs.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate signalment, echocardiographic, electrocardiographic, and radiographic findings as well as natural history in a group of cats with atrioventricular septal defects (AVSD). 26 client owned cats. Medical records were reviewed retrospectively for signalment, morphologic type of AVSD, presence of concurrent congenital heart disease (ConcCHD), diagnostic findings, and natural history. Seventeen cats had an isolated AVSD; 13/17 had a partial and 4/17 had a complete AVSD. Double outlet right atrium (DORA) was diagnosed in 4/17 cats. Of those with a partial AVSD, 7/13 had an atrial communication while 6/13 had a ventricular communication. Congestive heart failure (CHF) developed in 5/17 cats; all 3 cats diagnosed with a DORA not lost to follow-up developed pulmonary edema. Sudden death was documented in 4/17 (23.5%). The 5 year survival was 53.0% (9/17). Concurrent congenital heart disease was identified in 9/26 cats with 7/9 having a conotruncal abnormality. Electrocardiography was performed in 14 cats with 11/14 diagnosed with a conduction disturbance. Overall the echocardiographic and electrocardiographic findings with AVSD are similar to that seen in humans. Cats may have a higher prevalence than humans of partial AVSD with ventricular communication only as well as a higher prevalence of DORA. Cats with an AVSD have an overall guarded prognosis although some can live for a protracted time.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of 8 hemodynamic conditions on blood pressure measurements taken from the carotid, femoral and dorsal pedal arteries of dogs. Six healthy dogs. During isoflurane anesthesia, catheters were introduced into the carotid, femoral and dorsal pedal arteries of dogs to allow simultaneous monitoring of direct blood pressure in each artery. The dogs were submitted to 8 hemodynamic conditions induced by combining changes in heart rate (bradycardia, normocardia, tachycardia) with changes in blood pressure (hypotension, normotension, hypertension). Values obtained from each arterial catheter were compared and agreement between central (carotid) and peripheral (femoral and dorsal pedal) values were analyzed by the Bland-Altman method. During hypotensive conditions, systolic arterial pressure (SAP) was lower in the femoral and dorsal pedal arteries compared to the carotid artery whereas during normotensive and hypertensive conditions, SAP was higher in peripheral arteries. During hypotensive states, increases in heart rate resulted in greater bias between central and peripheral SAP whereas during normotensive states, the bias decreased as heart rate increased. Mean and diastolic arterial pressures were lower in the femoral and dorsal pedal arteries than in the carotid artery during most hemodynamic conditions. In healthy anesthetized dogs, invasive blood pressure measurements in peripheral arteries may differ significantly from measurements in a central artery. The greatest differences were observed in SAP and the magnitude of differences between central and peripheral blood pressure measurements varied according to the dog's hemodynamic condition.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 09/2013;