Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.) Journal Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: Elsevier Masson

Current impact factor: 2.01

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 2.006
2013 Impact Factor 2.038
2012 Impact Factor 2.255
2011 Impact Factor 2.468
2010 Impact Factor 2.423
2009 Impact Factor 2.407
2008 Impact Factor 2.363
2007 Impact Factor 2.14
2006 Impact Factor 2.02
2005 Impact Factor 1.743
2004 Impact Factor 1.874
2003 Impact Factor 1.585
2002 Impact Factor 1.693
2001 Impact Factor 1.31
2000 Impact Factor 1.495
1999 Impact Factor 1.433
1998 Impact Factor 1.32
1997 Impact Factor 1.264
1996 Impact Factor 1.324
1995 Impact Factor 1.753
1994 Impact Factor 1.373
1993 Impact Factor 1.523
1992 Impact Factor 1.5

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.32
Cited half-life 9.40
Immediacy index 0.29
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.59
ISSN 1873-6823

Publisher details

Elsevier Masson

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    • Publisher last reviewed on 01/05/2015
    • 'Elsevier Masson' is an imprint of 'Elsevier'
  • Classification

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Activated CD8+ T-cells correlate with viral load and may foretell antiretroviral therapy (ART) failure. HIV infection has been suggested to accelerate immunosenescence through chronic persistent inflammation. Alcohol-use disorders (AUD) are prevalent in persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). We tested the hypothesis that hazardous alcohol consumption accelerates immune activation and immunosenescence. Immune activation and immunosenescence were examined in CD8+ T lymphocytes (CD3+CD4-CD8+) isolated from intestinal biopsies, axillary lymph nodes, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of chronic binge alcohol (CBA)-consuming simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected male rhesus macaques with and without antiretroviral therapy (ART; CBA/ART+, CBA/ART-) and in PBMCs isolated from a cohort of PLWHA. Polychromatic flow cytometry was used to phenotype cells isolated from intestinal biopsies, lymph nodes, and peripheral blood from rhesus macaques and PLWHA. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) identified hazardous alcohol drinking in PLWHA. Viral load was determined by RT-qPCR and telomere length was measured using qPCR. PBMC CD8+ T-cell activation (CD38+HLA-DR+) and immunosenescence (CD28-) were increased over baseline levels (857% ± 334, p < 0.05; 398% ± 80, p < 0.05, respectively) only in CBA animals not receiving ART. Viral load correlated with CD8+ T-cell immunosenescence in macaque PBMCs (rs = 0.49, p = 0.02). Activated immunosenescent T-cell (CD8+CD38+CD28-) frequencies in PBMCs from PLWHA significantly correlated with AUDIT scores (rs = 0.75, p = 0.001), while no correlation was observed with CD4+ T-cell and AUDIT scores (rs = -0.24, p = 0.38). Activated immunosenescent T-cells had shorter telomeres than CD8+ T-cells (CD8+CD28+) from PLWHA. Our results suggest that CBA and AUD augment immune activation and immunosenescence in SIV-infected macaques and PLWHA.
    Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.) 10/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.alcohol.2015.09.003
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    ABSTRACT: Long-term alcohol use leads to persistent cognitive deficits that may be associated with maladaptive changes in the neurocircuitry that mediates executive functions. Impairments caused by these changes can persist well into abstinence and have a negative impact on quality of life and job performance, and can increase the probability of relapse. Many of the changes that affect cognitive function appear to involve dysregulation of the mesocortical dopamine system. This includes changes in dopamine release and alterations in dopamine receptor expression and function in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC). This review summarizes the cellular effects of acute and chronic ethanol exposure on dopamine release and dopamine receptor function in the PFC with the goal of providing greater understanding of the effects of alcohol-use disorders on the dopamine system and how this relates to deficits in the executive function of the PFC.
    Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.) 10/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.alcohol.2015.09.001
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    ABSTRACT: Larval zebrafish present unique opportunities to study the behavioral responses of a model organism to environmental challenges during early developmental stages. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the locomotor activities of AB strain zebrafish larvae at 5 and 7 days post-fertilization (dpf) in response to light changes under the influence of ethanol, and to explore potential neurological mechanisms that are involved in ethanol intoxication. AB strain zebrafish larvae at both 5 and 7 dpf were treated with ethanol at 0% (control), 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2% (v/v%). The locomotor activities of the larvae during alternating light-dark challenges, as well as the locomotor responses immediately following the light transitions, were investigated. The levels of various neurotransmitters were also measured in selected ethanol-treated groups. The larvae at 5 and 7 dpf demonstrated similar patterns of locomotor responses to ethanol treatment. Ethanol treatment at 1% increased the swimming distances of the zebrafish larvae in the dark periods, but had no effect on the swimming distances in the light periods. In contrast, ethanol treatment at 2% increased the swimming distances in the light periods, but did not potentiate the swimming activity in the dark periods, compared to controls. Differences in the levels of neurotransmitters that are involved in norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin pathways were also observed in groups with different ethanol treatments. These results indicated the behavioral studies concerning the ethanol effects on locomotor activities of zebrafish larvae could be carried out as early as 5 dpf. The 1% and 2% ethanol-treated zebrafish larvae modeled ethanol effects at different intoxication states, and the differences in neurotransmitter levels suggested the involvement of various neurotransmitter pathways in different ethanol intoxication states.
    Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.) 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.alcohol.2015.08.003
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical data indicate that cutaneous burn injuries covering greater than 10% of the total body surface area are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, in which pulmonary complications, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), contribute to nearly half of all patient deaths. Approximately 50% of burn patients are intoxicated at the time of hospital admission, which increases days on ventilators by 3-fold, and doubles the length of hospitalization, compared to non-intoxicated burn patients. The most common drinking pattern in the United States is binge drinking, where an individual rapidly consumes alcoholic beverages (4 for women, 5 for men) in 2 h. An estimated 38 million Americans binge drink, often several times per month. Experimental data demonstrate that a single binge-ethanol exposure, prior to scald injury, impairs innate and adaptive immune responses, thereby enhancing infection susceptibility and amplifying pulmonary inflammation, neutrophil infiltration, and edema, and is associated with increased mortality. Since these characteristics are similar to those observed in ARDS burn patients, our study objective was to determine whether ethanol intoxication and burn injury and the subsequent pulmonary congestion affect physiological parameters of lung function, using non-invasive and unrestrained plethysmography in a murine model system. Furthermore, to mirror young adult binge-drinking patterns, and to determine the effect of multiple ethanol exposures on pulmonary inflammation, we utilized an episodic binge-ethanol exposure regimen, where mice were exposed to ethanol for a total of 6 days (3 days ethanol, 4 days rest, 3 days ethanol) prior to burn injury. Our analyses demonstrate mice exposed to episodic binge ethanol and burn injury have higher mortality, increased pulmonary congestion and neutrophil infiltration, elevated neutrophil chemoattractants, and respiratory dysfunction, compared to burn or ethanol intoxication alone. Overall, our study identifies plethysmography as a useful tool for characterizing respiratory function in a murine burn model and for future identification of therapeutic compounds capable of restoring pulmonary functionality.
    Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.) 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.alcohol.2015.06.006
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    ABSTRACT: The onset of puberty is the result of the increased secretion of hypothalamic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH). The pubertal process can be altered by substances that can affect the prepubertal secretion of this peptide. Alcohol is one such substance known to diminish LHRH secretion and delay the initiation of puberty. The increased secretion of LHRH that normally occurs at the time of puberty is due to a decrease of inhibitory tone that prevails prior to the onset of puberty, as well as an enhanced development of excitatory inputs to the LHRH secretory system. Additionally, it has become increasingly clear that glial-neuronal communications are important for pubertal development because they play an integral role in facilitating the pubertal rise in LHRH secretion. Thus, in recent years attempts have been made to identify specific glial-derived components that contribute to the development of coordinated communication networks between glia and LHRH cell bodies, as well as their nerve terminals. Transforming growth factor-α and transforming growth factor-β1 are two such glial substances that have received attention in this regard. This review summarizes the use of multiple neuroendocrine research techniques employed to assess these glial-neuronal communication pathways involved in regulating prepubertal LHRH secretion and the effects that alcohol can have on their respective functions.
    Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.) 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.alcohol.2015.08.001
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    ABSTRACT: Identification of facial dysmorphology is essential for the diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS); however, most children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) do not meet the dysmorphology criterion. Additional objective indicators are needed to help identify the broader spectrum of children affected by prenatal alcohol exposure. Computed tomography (CT) was used in a sheep model of prenatal binge alcohol exposure to test the hypothesis that quantitative measures of craniofacial bone volumes and linear distances could identify alcohol-exposed lambs. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to four groups: heavy binge alcohol, 2.5 g/kg/day (HBA); binge alcohol, 1.75 g/kg/day (BA); saline control (SC); and normal control (NC). Intravenous alcohol (BA; HBA) or saline (SC) infusions were given three consecutive days per week from gestation day 4-41, and a CT scan was performed on postnatal day 182. The volumes of eight skull bones, cranial circumference, and 19 linear measures of the face and skull were compared among treatment groups. Lambs from both alcohol groups showed significant reduction in seven of the eight skull bones and total skull bone volume, as well as cranial circumference. Alcohol exposure also decreased four of the 19 craniofacial measures. Discriminant analysis showed that alcohol-exposed and control lambs could be classified with high accuracy based on total skull bone volume, frontal, parietal, or mandibular bone volumes, cranial circumference, or interorbital distance. Total skull volume was significantly more sensitive than cranial circumference in identifying the alcohol-exposed lambs when alcohol-exposed lambs were classified using the typical FAS diagnostic cutoff of ≤10th percentile. This first demonstration of the usefulness of CT-derived craniofacial measures in a sheep model of FASD following binge-like alcohol exposure during the first trimester suggests that volumetric measurement of cranial bones may be a novel biomarker for binge alcohol exposure during the first trimester to help identify non-dysmorphic children with FASD.
    Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.) 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.alcohol.2015.08.007
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study is to clarify the effect of 7 days of ethanol administration upon brain histaminergic neurons in rats. Male Wistar rats were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 20% ethanol/saline (0.85% NaCl) daily, over 7 days, whereas control rats were given saline. The animals were decapitated 24 h after the 7th injection and samples of hypothalamus were prepared for light and electron microscopy, accompanied by morphometry to examine the histaminergic neurons. It was found that ethanol administration gradually decreased the duration of alcohol-induced sleep and decreased the total amount of histaminergic neurons and the amount of histologically normal neurons, but increased the amount of hypochromic neurons and shadow cells. The histaminergic neuron bodies and nuclei decreased in size. The ultrastructural changes in histaminergic neurons demonstrated activation of their nuclear apparatus, both destruction or hypertrophy and hyperplasia of organelles, especially lysosomes. The histochemical examination revealed the activation of lactate dehydrogenase and acid phosphatase, and inhibition of NADH-, NADPhH, and succinate dehydrogenases. Following 7 days of ethanol administration, histaminergic neurons exhibit the structural signs of hyperactivity, which can be related to neuronal adaptation to the actions of ethanol, and increased behavioral tolerance to ethanol. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.) 09/2015; 49(6):589-595. DOI:10.1016/j.alcohol.2015.06.003
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    ABSTRACT: Sprague-Dawley rats selectively-bred for susceptibility to stress in our laboratory (Susceptible, or SUS rats) voluntarily consume large amounts of alcohol, and amounts that have, as shown here, pharmacological effects, which normal rats will not do. In this paper, we explore neural events in the brain that underlie this propensity to readily consume alcohol. Activity of locus coeruleus neurons (LC), the major noradrenergic cell body concentration in the brain, influences firing of ventral tegmentum dopaminergic cell bodies of the mesocorticolimbic system (VTA-DA neurons), which mediate rewarding aspects of alcohol. We tested the hypothesis that in SUS rats alcohol potently suppresses LC activity to markedly diminish LC-mediated inhibition of VTA-DA neurons, which permits alcohol to greatly increase VTA-DA activity and rewarding aspects of alcohol. Electrophysiological single-unit recording of LC and VTA-DA activity showed that in SUS rats alcohol decreased LC burst firing much more than in normal rats and as a result markedly increased VTA-DA activity in SUS rats while having no such effect in normal rats. Consistent with this, in a behavioral test for reward using conditioned place preference (CPP), SUS rats showed alcohol, given by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, to be rewarding. Next, manipulation of LC activity by microinfusion of drugs into the LC region of SUS rats showed that (a) decreasing LC activity increased alcohol intake and increasing LC activity decreased alcohol intake in accord with the formulation described above, and (b) increasing LC activity blocked both the rewarding effect of alcohol in the CPP test and the usual alcohol-induced increase in VTA-DA single-unit activity seen in SUS rats. An important ancillary finding in the CPP test was that an increase in LC activity was rewarding by itself, while a decrease in LC activity was aversive; consequently, effects of LC manipulations on alcohol-related reward in the CPP test were perhaps even larger than evident in the test. Finally, when increased LC activity was associated with (i.e., conditioned to) i.p. alcohol, subsequent alcohol consumption by SUS rats was markedly reduced, indicating that SUS rats consume large amounts of alcohol because of rewarding physiological consequences requiring increased VTA-DA activity. The findings reported here are consistent with the view that the influence of alcohol on LC activity leading to changes in VTA-DA activity strongly affects alcohol-mediated reward, and may well be the basis of the proclivity of SUS rats to avidly consume alcohol.
    Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.) 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.alcohol.2015.08.008
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    ABSTRACT: Ethanol exposure to offspring during pregnancy and lactation leads to developmental disorders, including central nervous system dysfunction. In the present work, we have studied the effect of chronic ethanol exposure during pregnancy and lactation on the phosphorylating system associated with the astrocytic and neuronal intermediate filament (IF) proteins: glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and neurofilament (NF) subunits of low, medium, and high molecular weight (NFL, NFM, and NFH, respectively) in 9- and 21-day-old pups. Female rats were fed with 20% ethanol in their drinking water during pregnancy and lactation. The homeostasis of the IF phosphorylation was not altered in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, or hippocampus of 9-day-old pups. However, GFAP, NFL, and NFM were hyperphosphorylated in the hippocampus of 21-day-old pups. PKA had been activated in the hippocampus, and Ser55 in the N-terminal region of NFL was hyperphosphorylated. In addition, JNK/MAPK was activated and KSP repeats in the C-terminal region of NFM were hyperphosphorylated in the hippocampus of 21-day-old pups. Decreased NFH immunocontent but an unaltered total NFH/phosphoNFH ratio suggested altered stoichiometry of NFs in the hippocampus of ethanol-exposed 21-day-old pups. In contrast to the high susceptibility of hippocampal cytoskeleton in developing rats, the homeostasis of the cytoskeleton of ethanol-fed adult females was not altered. Disruption of the cytoskeletal homeostasis in neural cells supports the view that regions of the brain are differentially vulnerable to alcohol insult during pregnancy and lactation, suggesting that modulation of JNK/MAPK and PKA signaling cascades target the hippocampal cytoskeleton in a window of vulnerability in 21-day-old pups. Our findings are relevant, since disruption of the cytoskeleton in immature hippocampus could contribute to later hippocampal damage associated with ethanol toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.) 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.alcohol.2015.06.005
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    ABSTRACT: Zebrafish is becoming a species of choice in neurobiological and behavioral studies of alcohol-related disorders. In these efforts, the activity of adult zebrafish is typically quantified using indirect activity measures that are either scored manually or identified automatically from the fish trajectory. The analysis of such activity measures has produced important insight into the effect of acute ethanol exposure on individual and social behavior of this vertebrate species. Here, we leverage a recently developed tracking algorithm that reconstructs fish body shape to investigate the effect of acute ethanol administration on zebrafish tail-beat motion in terms of amplitude and frequency. Our results demonstrate a significant effect of ethanol on the tail-beat amplitude as well as the tail-beat frequency, both of which were found to robustly decrease for high ethanol concentrations. Such a direct measurement of zebrafish motor functions is in agreement with evidence based on indirect activity measures, offering a complementary perspective in behavioral screening. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.) 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.alcohol.2015.06.004
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    ABSTRACT: This study aims to analyze the association between alcohol consumption and the risk of developing the most common types of cancer in the Brazilian population. It is a case-control study in which the most common types of cancer were considered as cases and non-melanoma skin cancers as controls. Data were routinely obtained by hospital-based cancer registrars. Individuals between 18 and 100 years old, diagnosed between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2009, with information regarding alcohol consumption, were included. The odds ratio (OR) for each type of cancer was calculated, adjusting for confounding variables. The etiologic fraction (EF) was calculated in cases with statistically significant results. The study included 203,506 individuals (110,550 women and 92,956 men), with an average age of 59 years. A statistically significant association was found between alcohol consumption and increased risk of cancers of the respiratory and digestive systems, prostate, and female breast. The association between alcohol consumption and cancers of the urinary tract, male genital organs, and other neoplasias was not statistically significant. Consumption of alcoholic beverages increased the risk of developing cancer of the nasal cavity, pyriform sinus, oral cavity, oropharynx, nasopharynx, larynx, hypopharynx, lung, esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, breast, prostate, colon and rectum, and anus and anal canal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.) 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.alcohol.2015.07.001
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    ABSTRACT: Losing a job or significant other are examples of incentive loss that result in negative emotional reactions. The occurrence of negative life events is associated with increased drinking (Keyes, Hatzenbuehler, & Hasin, 2011). Further, certain genotypes are more likely to drink alcohol in response to stressful negative life events (Blomeyer et al., 2008; Covault et al., 2007). Shared genetic factors may contribute to alcohol drinking and emotional reactivity, but this relationship is not currently well understood. We used an incentive downshift paradigm to address whether emotional reactivity is elevated in mice predisposed to drink alcohol. We also investigated if ethanol drinking is influenced in High Alcohol Preferring mice that had been exposed to an incentive downshift. Incentive downshift procedures have been widely utilized to model emotional reactivity, and involve shifting a high reward group to a low reward and comparing the shifted group to a consistently rewarded control group. Here, we show that replicate lines of selectively bred High Alcohol Preferring mice exhibited larger successive negative contrast effects than their corresponding replicate Low Alcohol Preferring lines, providing strong evidence for a genetic association between alcohol drinking and susceptibility to the emotional effects of negative contrast. These mice can be used to study the shared neurological and genetic underpinnings of emotional reactivity and alcohol preference. Unexpectedly, an incentive downshift suppressed ethanol drinking immediately following an incentive downshift. This could be due to a specific effect of negative contrast on ethanol consumption or a suppressive effect on consummatory behavior in general. These data suggest that either alcohol intake does not provide the anticipated negative reinforcement, or that a single test was insufficient for animals to learn to drink following incentive downshift. However, the emotional intensity following incentive downshift provides initial evidence that this type of emotional reactivity may be a predisposing factor in alcoholism.
    Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.) 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.alcohol.2015.08.002
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    ABSTRACT: While direct ethanol metabolites, including ethylglucuronide (EtG), play an important role for the confirmation of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), their utility is often limited by their short half-lives in blood and urine. Maternal hair allows for a retrospective measure of PAE for up to several months. This study examined the validity of hair EtG (hEtG) relative to self-reporting and five other biomarkers in 85 pregnant women. Patients were recruited from a UNM prenatal clinic, which provides care to women with substance abuse and addiction disorders. The composite index, which was based on self-reported measures of alcohol use and allowed us to classify subjects into PAE (n = 42) and control (n = 43) groups, was the criterion measure used to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of hEtG. Proximal segments of hair were collected at enrollment (average 22.0 gestational weeks) and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. At the same visit, maternal blood and urine specimens were collected for analysis of GGT, %dCDT, PEth, uEtG, and uEtS. The study population included mostly opioid-dependent (80%) patients, a large proportion of ethnic minorities (75.3% Hispanic/Latina, 8.2% American Indian, 4.7% African-American), and patients with low education (48.2% < high school). The mean maternal age at enrollment was 26.7 ± 4.8 years. Hair EtG demonstrated 19% sensitivity and 86% specificity. The sensitivities of other biomarkers were comparable (5-20%) to hEtG but specificities were higher (98-100%). Hair EtG sensitivity improved when combined with other biomarkers, especially with GGT (32.5%) and PEth (27.5%). In addition, validity of hEtG improved in patients with less frequent shampooing and those who did not use hair dyes/chemical treatments. These data suggest that hEtG alone is not a sufficiently sensitive or specific biomarker to be used separately for the identification of PAE, but might be useful in a battery along with other maternal biomarkers.
    Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.) 07/2015; 49(6). DOI:10.1016/j.alcohol.2015.06.002
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic prenatal ethanol exposure (CPEE) can impair long-term potentiation (LTP) in the male hippocampus. Sexually specific alterations were frequently reported in female animals that had been prenatally exposed to ethanol. This study aimed to examine the effects of CPEE on spatial learning and memory, as well as on hippocampal synaptic plasticity in female adolescent rats. Female offspring were selected from dams that had been exposed to 4 g/kg/day of ethanol throughout the gestational period. Subsequently, performance in the Morris water maze (MWM) was determined, while LTP and depotentiation were measured in the hippocampal CA3-CA1 pathway. In the behavioral test, the escape latencies in both initial and reversal training stages were significantly prolonged. Interestingly, LTP was considerably enhanced while depotentiation was significantly depressed. Our results suggest a critical role of synaptic plasticity balance, which may prominently contribute to the cognitive deficits present in CPEE offspring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.) 07/2015; 49(6). DOI:10.1016/j.alcohol.2015.05.004
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    ABSTRACT: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are associated with cognitive and behavioral deficits, and decreased volume of the whole brain and cerebral cortex. Rodent models have shown that early postnatal treatments, which mimic ethanol toxicity in the third trimester of human pregnancy, acutely induce widespread apoptotic neuronal degeneration and permanent behavioral deficits. However, the lasting cellular and anatomical effects of early ethanol treatments are still incompletely understood. This study examined changes in neocortex volume, thickness, and cellular organization that persist in adult mice after postnatal day 7 (P7) ethanol treatment. Post mortem brain volumes, measured by both MRI within the skull and by fluid displacement of isolated brains, were reduced 10-13% by ethanol treatment. The cerebral cortex showed a similar reduction (12%) caused mainly by lower surface area (9%). In spite of these large changes, several features of cortical organization showed little evidence of change, including cortical thickness, overall neuron size, and laminar organization. Estimates of total neuron number showed a trend level reduction of about 8%, due mainly to reduced cortical volume but unchanged neuron density. However, counts of calretinin (CR) and parvalbumin (PV) subtypes of GABAergic neurons showed a striking >30% reduction of neuron number. Similar ethanol effects were found in male and female mice, and in C57BL/6By and BALB/cJ mouse strains. Our findings indicate that the cortex has substantial capacity to develop normal cytoarchitectonic organization after early postnatal ethanol toxicity, but there is a selective and persistent reduction of GABA cells that may contribute to the lasting cognitive and behavioral deficits in FASD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.) 07/2015; 49(6). DOI:10.1016/j.alcohol.2015.04.008
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    ABSTRACT: Recent research found that exposure of selectively bred, Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats to multiple alcohol concentrations (10%, 20%, and 30%, v/v), under the 4-bottle "alcohol vs. water" choice regimen, in daily 1-h drinking sessions with an unpredictable time schedule, promoted high intakes of alcohol (≥2 g/kg) when the drinking session occurred over the final hours of the dark phase of the light/dark cycle. The present study investigated whether these high intakes of alcohol (a) were associated with alterations in rats' emotional state (Experiment 1) and (b) were pharmacologically manipulable (Experiment 2). In both experiments, over a period of 12 days, sP rats were initially exposed daily to a 1-h drinking session during the dark phase; time of alcohol exposure was changed each day and was unpredictable to rats. The day after this 12-day drinking phase, rats were (a) exposed to the Social Interaction (SI) test at the 1st or 12th hour of the dark phase with no alcohol available (Experiment 1) or (b) treated with the positive allosteric modulator of the GABAB receptor, GS39783 (0, 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg, intragastrically [i.g.]), and exposed to a drinking session at the 12th hour of the dark phase (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, rats exposed to the SI test during the 12th hour spent approximately 35% less time in "social" behaviors than rats exposed to the SI test during the 1st hour. No difference in "social" behaviors was observed between alcohol-naive sP rats exposed to the SI test at the 1st and 12th hour. In Experiment 2, all doses of GS39783 selectively reduced alcohol intake. These results suggest that (a) expectation of alcohol availability likely exacerbated the anxiety-like state of sP rats and (b) the GABAB receptor is part of the neural substrate underlying these exceptionally high intakes of alcohol in sP rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.) 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.alcohol.2015.04.010