Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex: 1987)
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Publications in this journal
Article: Response to authors' reply regarding "Implications of greater than average increases in nitrogen deposition on the western edge of the Szechwan Basin, China" by Xu et al. (2013).Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex: 1987) 06/2013; 177:204.
Article: Evaluation of AERMOD and CALPUFF for predicting ambient concentrations of total suspended particulate matter (TSP) emissions from a quarry in complex terrain.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Concentrations of particulate emissions from a quarry located in hilly terrain were calculated by two common atmospheric dispersion models, AERMOD and CALPUFF. Evaluation of these models for emissions from quarries/open pit mines that are located in complex topography is missing from the literature. Due to severe uncertainties in the input parameters, numerous scenarios were simulated and model sensitivity was studied. Model results were compared among themselves, and to measured total suspended particulate (TSP). For a wide range of meteorological and topographical conditions studied, AERMOD predictions were in a better agreement with the measurements than those obtained by CALPUFF. The use of AERMOD's "Open pit" tool seems unnecessary when accurate digital topographic data are available. Onsite meteorological data are shown to be crucial for reliable dispersion calculations in complex terrain.Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex: 1987) 05/2013; 179C:138-145.
Article: Heterogeneity of atmospheric ammonia at the landscape scale and consequences for environmental impact assessment.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We examined the consequences of the spatial heterogeneity of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) by measuring and modelling NH3 concentrations and deposition at 25 m grid resolution for a rural landscape containing intensive poultry farming, agricultural grassland, woodland and moorland. The emission pattern gave rise to a high spatial variability of modelled mean annual NH3 concentrations and dry deposition. Largest impacts were predicted for woodland patches located within the agricultural area, while larger moorland areas were at low risk, due to atmospheric dispersion, prevailing wind direction and low NH3 background. These high resolution spatial details are lost in national scale estimates at 1 km resolution due to less detailed emission input maps. The results demonstrate how the spatial arrangement of sources and sinks is critical to defining the NH3 risk to semi-natural ecosystems. These spatial relationships provide the foundation for local spatial planning approaches to reduce environmental impacts of atmospheric NH3.Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex: 1987) 05/2013; 179C:120-131.
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ABSTRACT: Rock varnish is a manganese-iron rich coating that forms on rocks, most often in arid climates. To assess its utility as an environmental monitor of mercury contamination, cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS) was used for analysis. Samples were collected in the fallout patterns of two coal-fired power plants in southern Nevada: the defunct Mohave Power Plant (MPP) and the operating Reid Gardner Power Plant (RGPP). The resultant Hg concentrations in rock varnishes were plotted as a function of the distance from each power plant. The highest concentrations of Hg occurred at locations that suggest the power plants are the main source of pollutants. In addition, past tracer plume studies carried out at MPP show that the highest tracer concentrations coincide with the highest rock varnish Hg concentrations. However, additional samples are required to further demonstrate that power plants are indeed the sources of mercury in varnishes.Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex: 1987) 05/2013; 179C:132-137.
Article: Diasteroisomer and enantiomer-specific profiles of hexabromocyclododecane and tetrabromobisphenol A in an aquatic environment in a highly industrialized area, South China: Vertical profile, phase partition, and bioaccumulation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) were determined in water, sediments, sediment cores, and three fish species from a river running through a highly industrialized area in South China. TBBPA concentrations exceeded those of HBCDs in the sediment and the dissolved phase of water and its levels in fish were at the high end of worldwide figures. 26% of HBCDs and 99% of TBBPA were found in dissolved phase of water. Plecostomus occupying high trophic level exhibited higher HBCD levels and higher abundance of α-HBCD than mud carp and nile tilapia which occupy low trophic level. An enrichment of (+)-α-HBCD in three fish species but (-)-α-HBCD in sediment was observed. As for γ-HBCD, most of sediment exhibited racemic while a species-dependence in fish sample was found. No clear trend was found for vertical distribution of enantiomeric profile for γ-HBCD, suggesting that the enantioselectivity of degradation of γ-HBCD is limited.Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex: 1987) 05/2013; 179C:105-110.
Article: Pre-exposure to nitric oxide modulates the effect of ozone on oxidative defenses and volatile emissions in lima bean.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The roles that ozone and nitric oxide (NO), the chief O3 precursor, play in the antioxidative balance and inducible volatile emissions of lima bean were assessed. Exposure to O3 inhibited APX, CAT, and GR, decreased GSH content and induced emissions of (E)-β-ocimene, limonene, 1,8-cineole, linalool, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (E)-DMNT, 2-butanone and nonanal. O3 did not induce emissions of (E)-β-caryophyllene and appeared to reduce the antioxidative capacity of plants to a greater extent than NO and NO followed by O3 (NO/O3) treatments. There were significant differences in emissions of (E)-β-ocimene and linalool between NO/O3 treated plants and controls, but no differences in antioxidant concentrations. A model to explain the relationships between the ascorbate-glutathione cycle and O3 and NO inducible volatiles was proposed. Our findings suggest that prior exposure to NO modulates the oxidative effect of ozone by the process of cross-tolerance, which might regulate the antioxidative system and induction of volatile organic compounds.Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex: 1987) 05/2013; 179C:111-119.
Article: Biodegradation of carbamate pesticides by natural river biofilms in different seasons and their effects on biofilm community structure.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study investigated the ability of natural river biofilms from different seasons to degrade the carbamate pesticides methomyl, carbaryl and carbofuran in single and multiple pesticide systems, and the effects of these pesticides on algal and bacterial communities within biofilms. Spring biofilms had the lowest biomass of algae and bacteria but showed the highest methomyl degradation (>99%) and dissipation rates, suggesting that they might contain microorganisms with high methomyl degradation abilities. Degradation of carbofuran (54.1-59.5%) by biofilms in four seasons was similar, but low degradation of carbaryl (0-27.5%) was observed. The coexistence of other pesticides was found to cause certain effects on pesticide degradation and primarily resulted in lower diversity of diatoms and bacteria than when using a single pesticide. The tolerant diatoms and bacteria potentially having the ability to degrade test pesticides were identified. River biofilms could be suitable biomaterials or used to isolate degraders for bioremediating pesticide-contaminated water.Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex: 1987) 05/2013; 179C:95-104.
Article: Canopy carbon budget of Siebold's beech (Fagus crenata) sapling under free air ozone exposure.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To determine the effects of ozone (O3) on the canopy carbon budget, we investigated photosynthesis and respiration of leaves of Siebold's beech saplings under free air O3 exposure (60 nmol mol(-1), during daytime) in relation to the within-canopy light gradient; we then calculated the canopy-level photosynthetic carbon gain (PCG) and respiratory carbon loss (RCL) using a canopy photosynthesis model. Susceptibilities of photosynthesis and respiration to O3 were greater in leaves of upper canopy than in the lower canopy. The canopy net carbon gain (NCG) was reduced by O3 by 12.4% during one growing season. The increased RCL was the main factor for the O3-induced reduction in NCG in late summer, while contributions of the reduced PCG and the increased RCL to the NCG were almost the same in autumn. These results indicate contributions of changes in PCG and RCL under O3 to NCG were different between seasons.Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex: 1987) 05/2013;
Article: Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) in placenta and umbilical cord blood and dietary intake for women in Beijing, China.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Placenta and umbilical cord blood are important media for investigating maternal-fetal exposure to environmental pollutants. Historically hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were once widely-used in China. In this study, residues of HCHs were measured in placenta and umbilical cord blood samples for 40 women from Beijing. The measured median values of HCHs were 62.0 and 68.8 ng/g fat in placenta and umbilical cord blood, respectively. Concentrations of HCHs in placenta and umbilical cord blood of urban cohort were higher than those of rural group due to enhanced consumption of fish, meat, and milk. Residues of HCHs in placenta were significantly correlated with total food consumption, dietary intake, and maternal age, and could be predicted using the parameters dependent upon ingestion of meat and milk. The transplacental exposure of fetuses to HCHs was revealed by a close association between the residual levels in the paired placenta and the paired umbilical cord blood samples.Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex: 1987) 05/2013; 179C:75-80.
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ABSTRACT: An original combined organic geochemistry and soil science approach was used to elucidate PAH availability controlling factors in a multi-contaminated industrial soil. Water granulodensimetric fractionation was applied to obtain five water-stable material fractions. These were characterized by elemental, molecular and mineral analysis, and microscopic observations. Among the different fractions, fine silts distinguished themselves by higher carbon and nitrogen contents, lower C/N ratio, an enrichment in total PAH and especially high molecular weight compounds, a coal tar signature and the lowest PAH availability. This fine silt fraction seemed to play a protective role for PAH that might be explained by its size and/or its specific reactivity. The mineral phases present in this fraction were proposed to explain the protection of organic matter. This led to a specific molecular signature of OM, having higher sorption properties both processes (sorption and mineral-bound protection) resulting in a lower PAH availability.Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex: 1987) 05/2013; 179C:81-87.
Article: Vertical eddy diffusion as a key mechanism for removing perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) from the global surface oceans.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Here we estimate the importance of vertical eddy diffusion in removing perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) from the surface Ocean and assess its importance as a global sink. Measured water column profiles of PFOA were reproduced by assuming that vertical eddy diffusion in a 3-layer ocean model is the sole cause for the transport of PFOA to depth. The global oceanic sink due to eddy diffusion for PFOA is high, with accumulated removal fluxes over the last 40 years of 660 t, with the Atlantic Ocean accounting for 70% of the global oceanic sink. The global oceans have removed 13% of all PFOA produced to a depth greater than 100 m via vertical eddy diffusion; an additional 4% has been removed via deep water formation. The top 100 m of the surface oceans store another 21% of all PFOA produced (∼1100 t).Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex: 1987) 05/2013; 179C:88-94.
Article: Age- and gender-related accumulation of perfluoroalkyl substances in captive Chinese alligators (Alligator sinensis).[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Fourteen perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were measured in serum of the highly endangered captive Chinese alligators, whole body homogenates of six kinds of fish (alligator prey species), and pond water (alligator habitat) in the Anhui Research Center for Chinese Alligator Reproduction. Six PFASs, including PFOS and five perfluorinated carboxylates, were detected in all alligator samples. The most dominant PFAS was PFUnDA, with a mean value of 31.4 ng/mL. Significant positive correlations were observed among the six PFASs, suggesting that they shared similar sources of contamination. Significantly higher PFOS and PFUnDA levels were observed in males, but the other four PFCAs did not differ between genders. An age related PFAS bioaccumulation analysis showed a significant negative correlation of the concentrations for five PFCAs to age, which means that higher concentrations were found in younger animals. Bioaccumulation factors (BAF) in fish for PFASs ranged from 21 to 28,000, with lower BAF for PFOA than that for longer carbon chain PFCAs, including PFUnDA, PFDA, and PFNA.Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex: 1987) 05/2013; 179C:61-67.
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ABSTRACT: The effects of different copper concentrations on percentage germination, increase in fresh weight and radicle growth of Vicia sativa L. seeds were studied. Physiological studies showed that the germination rate was not affected up to a concentration of 5 × 10(-3) M, but already at 10(-3) M the copper stopped root elongation. Structural and ultrastructural observations of embryo and cotyledon reserve mobilization showed that inhibition of radicle growth at 10(-3) M Cu concentration cannot be ascribed to nutrient shortage but probably to an effect of copper on radicle cell division and elongation. In seeds treated with 5 × 10(-3) M CuBr2, the copper completely inhibited cotyledon protein mobilization, so that embryo protein mobilization supported normal growth of the radicle up to 30 h after imbibition. The particular protein content of adjacent cotyledon cells is also discussed.Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex: 1987) 05/2013; 179C:68-74.
Article: Role of metal mixtures (Ca, Cu and Pb) on Cd bioaccumulation and phytochelatin production by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The goal of the study was to determine whether metal uptake and biological effects could be predicted by free ion concentrations when organisms were exposed to Cd and a second metal. Bioaccumulation and algal phytochelatin (PC) concentrations were determined for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii following a 6-h exposure. Bioaccumulation results, after six hours of exposure, showed that Cd uptake decreased in the presence of relatively high concentrations of Ca, Cu and Pb, however, Cd bioaccumulation increased in the presence of ca. equimolar concentrations of Cu. A good correlation was observed between the production of PCs and the amount of metals bioaccumulated for the binary mixtures of Cd-Pb and Cd-Cu, but not the Cd-Ca mixture. Overall, the results suggested that, in the case of mixtures, bioaccumulated metal rather than free ion concentrations would be a better predictor of biological effect.Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex: 1987) 05/2013; 179C:33-38.
Article: Bioaccumulation of perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs) by earthworms (Eisenia fetida) in soil.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Earthworms were exposed to artificially contaminated soils with ten perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). PFASs with longer perfluorinated carbon chain displayed higher uptake rate coefficients (ku), longer half-life (t1/2) and time to steady-state (tss) but lower elimination rate coefficients (ke) than the shorter ones. Similarly, perfluorosulfonates acids (PFSAs) displayed higher ku, longer t1/2 and tss but lower ke than perflurocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) with the same perfluorinated chain length. All the studied PFASs, including those with seven or less perfluorinated carbons, were bioaccumulated in the earthworms and the biota-to-soil accumulation factors (BSAFs) increased with perfluorinated carbon chain length and were greater for PFSAs than for PFCAs of equal perfluoroalkyl chain length. The BSAFs were found to be dependent on the concentrations of PFASs in soil and decreased as the level of PFASs in soil increased.Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex: 1987) 05/2013; 179C:45-52.
Article: Carbonate minerals in porous media decrease mobility of polyacrylic acid modified zero-valent iron nanoparticles used for groundwater remediation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The limited transport of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) in porous media is a major obstacle to its widespread application for in situ groundwater remediation. Previous studies on nZVI transport have mainly been carried out in quartz porous media. The effect of carbonate minerals, which often predominate in aquifers, has not been evaluated to date. This study assessed the influence of the carbonate minerals in porous media on the transport of polyacrylic acid modified nZVI (PAA-nZVI). Increasing the proportion of carbonate sand in the porous media resulted in less transport of PAA-nZVI. Predicted travel distances were reduced to a few centimeters in pure carbonate sand compared to approximately 1.6 m in quartz sand. Transport modeling showed that the attachment efficiency and deposition rate coefficient increased linearly with increasing proportion of carbonate sand.Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex: 1987) 05/2013; 179C:53-60.
Article: Metabolic and molecular methods to evaluate the organoclay effects on a bacterial community.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence exerted by two different commercial organoclays (DELLITE 43B and DELLITE 67G) on a model microbial consortium using microbial metabolic characterization with BIOLOG system and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) molecular approach. The information obtained from the molecular analyses, in their complex, account for the differences in species composition induced on the reference consortium by the contact with the organoclays under study. DELLITE 43B resulted to produce a marked selective effect, stimulating the quantitative increase especially of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes. A weaker effect was found for DELLITE 67G. On the other hand, Biolog analyses indicated a depressing action exerted by DELLITE 43B on the metabolic activity of the model microbial consortium as a whole. The presence of P. pseudoalcaligenes and B. borstelensis in the bacterial community after the treatments confirmed that a positive change in the microbial structure consortium occurred.Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex: 1987) 05/2013; 179C:39-44.
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ABSTRACT: This study examines exposure risks associated with lead smelter emissions at children's public playgrounds in Port Pirie, South Australia. Lead and other metal values were measured in air, soil, surface dust and on pre- and post-play hand wipes. Playgrounds closest to the smelter were significantly more lead contaminated compared to those further away (t(27.545) = 3.76; p = .001). Port Pirie post-play hand wipes contained significantly higher lead loadings (maximum hand lead value of 49,432 μg/m(2)) than pre-play hand wipes (t(27) = 3.57, p = .001). A 1% increase in air lead (μg/m(3)) was related to a 0.713% increase in lead dust on play surfaces (95% CI, 0.253-1.174), and a 0.612% increase in post-play wipe lead (95% CI, 0.257-0.970). Contaminated dust from smelter emissions is determined as the source and cause of childhood lead poisoning at a rate of approximately one child every third day.Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex: 1987) 04/2013; 178C:447-454.
Article: Perchlorate content of plant foliage reflects a wide range of species-dependent accumulation but not ozone-induced biosynthesis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Perchlorate (ClO4(-)) interferes with uptake of iodide in humans. Emission inventories do not explain observed distributions. Ozone (O3) is implicated in the natural origin of ClO4(-), and has increased since pre-industrial times. O3 produces ClO4(-)in vitro from Cl(-), and plant tissues contain Cl(-) and redox reactions. We hypothesize that O3 exposure may induce plant synthesis of ClO4(-). We exposed contrasting crop species to environmentally relevant O3 concentrations. In the absence of O3 exposure, species exhibited a large range of ClO4(-) accumulation but there was no relationship between leaf ClO4(-) and O3, whether expressed as exposure or cumulative flux (dose). Older, senescing leaves accumulated more ClO4(-) than younger leaves. O3 exposed vegetation is not a source of environmental ClO4(-). There was evidence of enhanced ClO4(-) content in the soil surface at the highest O3 exposure, which could be a significant contributor to environmental ClO4(-).Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex: 1987) 04/2013;
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ABSTRACT: Drug abuse assessment methods based on measuring illicit substances in waste waters are consolidated. The approach of ambient air monitoring looks questionable, nonetheless it can be explored if the variables determining the drug burdens are accounted for, or suitable co-contaminants are adopted to normalize concentrations to environmental and human contours. The general approach linking the airborne drug concentrations to consumption is presented and the case of cocaine is discussed according to measurements conducted in Italy. The cocaine/nicotine concentration ratio, identified as the most suitable tool, fitted well with anti-drug Police operations and people noticed for drug-related crimes, and with the abuse prevalence estimated in the cities investigated. According to that, the conversion factors of drug concentrations into prevalence estimates seem assessable, provided sufficient databases over space and time are collected. Further investigations are necessary to understand if airborne drugs cause adverse sanitary effects.Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex: 1987) 04/2013; 179C:27-32.
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